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Bio Skeletal System GLOSSARY OF TERMS SKELETAL Powered By Docstoc
					Bio 348: Skeletal System


Term:         Definition (with one example):

condyle       a rounded process that articulates with another bone
              eg. occipital condyle

crest         a narrow, ridge-like projection; eg. iliac crest

epicondyle    a projection situated above a condyle
              eg. medial epicondyle of humerus

facet         a small smooth surface
              eg. rib facet of a thoracic vertebra

foramen       an opening for the passage of b.v. &/or nerves
              eg. foramen magnum

fossa         a relatively deep pit or depression; eg. olecranon fossa

fovea         a tiny pit or depression; eg. fovea capitis

head          an enlargement at the end of a bone; eg. femoral head

linea         a narrow line-like ridge; eg. linea aspera of femur

meatus        a tube-like passageway within a bone
              eg. external auditory meatus

process       a prominent projection of a bone
              eg. mastoid process of temporal bone

ramus         a branch-like process; eg. ramus of mandible

sinus         a cavity within a bone; eg. frontal sinus

spine         a sharp projection; eg. spine of scapula

styloid a     pen-like projection; eg. styloid process of ulna

suture        interlocking junction between cranial bones; eg. coronal suture

trochanter    a relatively large process; eg. greater trochanter of femur

tubercle      a small knob-like process; eg. tubercle of rib

tuberosity    a knob-like process larger than a tubercle; eg. tibial tuberosity
Bio 348: Skeletal System
Bio 348: Skeletal System

                             Skeletal System Study Guide

This handout is organized in outline format, such that:

A. Skeletal region
      1. Principle component or individual bone, and
              features of that component or bone are listed here

Using your textbook and laboratory atlas, start by learning the whole bones first, and
then learn the special features of each bone. Be able to recognize whole bones and
landmarks in A.D.A.M., and on both the articulated and disarticulated skeletons. Be
able to identify bones from the left or right side, anterior and posterior surfaces, etc.

Parenthetical information (P, A, L or M) refer to the view of the ADAM anatomical figure
in which the bone or bony landmark is visible (posterior, anterior, lateral or medial).

Study the x-rays of various bones (in PPT file) and the limited number within ADAM to
become familiar not only with the bones, but also joints, fractures, young and old
bones, sutures, sinuses, etc.


A. Pectoral Girdle

       1. Clavicle (A)
              Acromial extremity (A)
              Sternal extremity (A)
              Conoid tuberosity

       2. Scapula (P, Select scapula & clavicle when in Lateral view)
             Acromion process (P)
             Coracoid process (P)
             Glenoid cavity (L)
             Spine (P)
             Supraspinous fossa (P)
             Infraspinous fossa (P)
             Medial border (P)
             Lateral border (P)
             Subscapular fossa
Bio 348: Skeletal System

B. Upper Appendages (arms)

       1. Humerus (funny bone!)
             Greater tubercle (A)
             Lesser tubercle (A)
             Intertubercular groove (A)
             Medial epicondyle (A)
             Lateral epicondyle (A)
             Olecranon fossa
             Head (A)
             Anatomical neck (A)
             Surgical neck (Which of these two necks are more likely
             to break? Why?)
             Trochlea (A) (articulates with...?)
             Capitulum (A) (articulates with...?)
             Coronoid fossa (A)
             Deltoid tuberosity (Why this name?)

       2. Ulna
              Olecranon process (P)
              Trochlear notch
              Coronoid process (A)
              Radial notch
              Styloid process (A,P)

       3. Radius
             Radial head (A)
             Radial neck (A)
             Radial tuberosity (A)
             Styloid process (A)
             Ulnar notch (A) (at distal end)

       4. Carpals (8, = wrist)

       5. Metacarpals (1-5, = hand)

       6. Phalanges (1-5, = fingers)
             Proximal phalanx
             Middle phalanx
             Distal phalanx
Bio 348: Skeletal System

C. Pelvic Girdle

       1. Innominate (Os Coxa)
              Ilium (A)
                     Iliac fossa (A)
                     Iliac crest (A)
                     Anterior inferior iliac spine (A)
                     Anterior superior iliac spine (A)
                     Posterior inferior iliac spine (P)
                     Posterior superior iliac spine (P)

                    Ischial tuberosity (P) (on which you sit!)
                    Ischial spine (P)

                      Pubic crest (A)
                      Pubic symphysis (A)
                      Superior pubic ramus (ascending) (A)
                      Ischiopubic ramus (inferior or descending) (P)

              Acetabulum (A)

              Obturator foramen (with membrane) (A)

       2. Sacrum (A,P)
             Median sacral crest (P)
             Sacral foramina (A,P)

       3. Coccyx (A,P)

D. Lower Appendages (legs)

       1. Femur
             Femoral head (A)
             Greater trochanter (A,P)
             Lesser trochanter (P)
             Intertrochanteric crest (P)
             Femoral neck
             Linea aspera (P)
             Medial condyle (A)
             Lateral condyle (A)
             Medial epicondyle (A)
             Lateral epicondyle (A)
             Fovea capitis

       2. Patella (A)
              Patellar ligament (A)
Bio 348: Skeletal System

       3. Fibula (A,L)
              Head of fibula (A)
              Lateral malleolus (L)

       4. Tibia (A)
              Medial condyle (A)
              Lateral condyle (A)
              Intercondylar eminence (or spine) (A)
              Tibial tuberosity (A)
              Medial malleolus (A)
              Anterior border (or crest) (A)

       5. Tarsals (7, = ankle)

       6. Metatarsals (1-5, = foot)

       7. Phalanges (1-5, = toes)
             Proximal phalanx
             Middle phalanx
             Distal phalanx


A. Cranium (Using A.D.A.M., Select Skull in the structure list)

 Unpaired bones of the Cranium
    1. Occipital (P,L)
           External occipital protuberance (P)
           Foramen magnum (What structure passes through here?)
           Occipital condyles (These articulate with...?)
           Superior nuchal line (P)
           Inferior nuchal line (P)

       2. Frontal (A)
              Frontal sinus (M)
              Supraorbital margin (A)
              Supraorbital foramen (A)

       3. Sphenoid (A)
             Greater wings (A)
             Lesser wings
             Sella turcica (Which gland rests here?)
             Medial pterygoid processes
             Lateral pterygoid processes
       4. Ethmoid
             Cribriform plate (Significance?)
             Perpendicular plate of the Ethmoid (A)
             Crista galli
Bio 348: Skeletal System

              Ethmoid sinuses (cells)
              Middle nasal conchae (A, coronal section, M)
              Superior nasal conchae (A, coronal section)

       5. Vomer (A)

       6. Mandible (A, L, select mandible from structure list)
             Mandibular head (condyle) (L) (articulates with...?)
             Coronoid process (L)
             Mandibular notch (b/w coronoid process and condyle)
             Ramus (A,L)
             Angle (A,L)
             Alveolar process (margin of mandible which holds teeth)
             Mental foramen (A)

       7. Hyoid (A,M, use Find)

 Paired bones of the Cranium

       8. Parietal (A,L)

       9. Zygomatic (A)
             Infraorbital margin (A)

       10. Nasal (A)

       11. Temporal (A,L)
             Squamous portion (A,L)
             Zygomatic process (L)
             Mastoid process (L)
             External acoustic (auditory) meatus (L)
             Styloid process
             Mandibular fossa

       12. Lacrimal (L)
             Lacrimal groove (L)

       13. Inferior Nasal Conchae (A coronal section, M)

       14. Palatine
             Horizontal plate

       15. Maxilla (A,L,M)
             Palatine process (M)
             Alveolar process (L)
             Infraorbital foramen (A)
             Anterior nasal spine (A)
Bio 348: Skeletal System

       16. Other features of the Skull:
                     Coronal (frontal)

              Find the optic foramena & list the bones that make up the orbit.

              Fontanels: (in fetus & neonate)
              Sphenoid (anterolateral)            Mastoid (posterolateral)

In ADAM, open 3D Anatomy and select the Skull. Zoom in and identify some of the
more difficult to see structures by using the structures list.

B. Vertebral Column
      1. Types of vertebrae
             Cervical (C1-C7)
             Thoracic (T1-T12)
             Lumbar (L1-L5)
             Sacral (5, fused to form sacrum)
             Coccygeal (4, fused to form coccyx)

       2. Parts of a typical vertebrae
              Vertebral foramen
              Transverse processes
              Spinous process
              Superior and Inferior articulating facets
              Intervertebral foramina (b/w vertebrae; significance?)

       3. Be able to identify by name the first two cervical vertebrae
              Atlas (A)
              Axis (A)
              Dens (odontoid process) (A)

       4. Be able to distinguish between the types of vertebrae
              Cervical - by the presence of transverse foramina (for?)
              Thoracic - by the presence of facets that articulate with
              the rib head and rib tubercle
              Lumbar - by the absence of the above characteristics, and
              by the thickness of the body and processes
Bio 348: Skeletal System

       5. Vertebral Curves
              Primary (present at birth)
              Secondary (when do these develop? at different times?)

       6. Sacrum (A,P)
             Median sacral crest (P)
             Sacral foramina (A,P)

       7. Coccyx (A,P)

C. Thoracic (Rib) Cage

       1. Sternum (A)
              Body (Gladiolus)
              Xiphoid process
              Clavicular notch
              Jugular notch

       2. Ribs (A)
              Vertebrosternal (7)
              Vertebrochondral (3)
              Vertebral (2)
              costal cartilage
              head of rib
              tubercle of rib (P)

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