HEAD AND NECK

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					HEAD AND NECK

 DR VINIT K ASHOK
 ADJUNCT FACULTY
                 ORAL CAVITY
•  ALSO CALLED THE MOUTH.
   MUCOSA LINED.ENTRY INTO
   THE ALIMENTARY CANAL
• BOUNDARIES-
 ANTERIORLY-LIPS
 LATERALLY-CHEEKS
 SUPERIORLY-PALATE
 INFERIORLY-TONGUE
ORAL CAVITY PROPER---LIES
   INTERNAL TO THE TEETH
EPITHELIUM ---THICK STRATIFIED
   SQUAMOUS----PROTECTIVE
SOME AREAS SHOW KERATIN
               ORAL CAVITY
• LIPS-( LABIA) + CHEEKS KEEP THE FOOD INSIDE THE MOUTH
  DURING MASTICATION( CHEWING)
• BOTH HAVE SKELETAL MUSCLES
• LIPS----ORBUCULARIS ORIS
• CHEEKS---MAINLY THE BUCCINATOR MUSCLE

PALATE—FORMS THE ROOF OF THE MOUTH/SEPERATES THE
   ORAL AND NASAL CAVITIES
2 PARTS-----HARD/ SOFT
HARD—LIES ANTERIORLY MADE OF BONE. FOOD IS PUSHED BY
   THE TONGUE AGAINST IT
SOFT---LIES POSTERIORLY, MADE OF MUSCLE. CLOSES THE
   NASOPHARYNX DURING SWALLOWING
               ORAL CAVITY
•    TONGUE-
•    OCCUPIES FLOOR OF THE MOUTH
•    MADE UP OF SKELETAL MUSCLE
    FUNCTIONS
1.   REPOSITIONS FOOD BETWEEN THE TEETH
2.   MIXES FOOD WITH THE SALIAVA, FORMS BOLUS
3.   PUSHES THE BOLUS INTO THE PHARYNX DURING
     SWALLOWING
4.   SPEECH
5.   CONTAINS TASTE BUDS
6.   POSTERIOR PART CONTAINS LINGUAL TONSILS
             SWALLOWING
• FOOD IS TAKEN INTO THE
  MOUTH( INGESTION)
• IT IS PUSHED INTO THE
  PHARYNX BY THE TONGUE(
  VOLUNTARY PHASE ) OF
  DIGESTION.
• PROPULSION IS THE
  INVOLUNTARY MOVEMENT
  OF FOOD THROUGH THE
  ALIMENTARY CANAL DUE
  TO ― PERISTALSIS‖
                          TEETH
•   LIE IN SOCKETS( ALVEOLI)
•   UPPER ROW---LIE IN THE
    MAXILLA
•   LOWER ROW---LIE IN THE
    MANDIBLE
•   HELP IN MECHANICAL
    DIGESTION OF FOOD
•   TWO SETS DEVELOP IN
    HUMANS---
•   1) DECIDOUS( MILK) TEETH)

    2) PERMENANT TEETH
       MILK TEETH

               6 MONTHS
         LOWER CENTRAL INCISOR




          TOTAL OF 20 TEETH
         DEVELOP AT INTERVALS
                      DENTAL FORMULA
TEETH START FALLING
                         2102 2102
  BETWEEN 6-12 YRS
                         2102 2102
           PERMENANT TEETH
•   TOTAL OF 32
•   ALL EXCEPT THE   TOTAL 32
    WISDOM TEETH (
    LAST MOLAR)
    APPEAR BY THE                          SOMETIMES
    END OF                         LAST MOLAR DOES NOT APPEAR
    ADOLESCENCE
•   WISDOM TEETH                        2I, 1C, 2P, 3M
                                        2I, 1C, 2P, 3M   X2= 32
    APPEAR BETWEEN
    17-25 YRS
                                INCISORS, CANINE, PREMOLARS,MOLARS
        TOOTH STRUCTURE
• 2 REGIONS-CROWN /ROOT
• BOTH MEET AT THE NECK
• ENAMEL COVERS THE
  CROWN
• BULK FORMED ---DENTINE
• PULP CAVITY-CENTER
• ROOT CANAL- PART OF THE
  PULP CAVITY IN THE ROOT
• ROOT –COVERED BY
  CEMENTUM
• PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT
  HOLDS THE TOOTH IN
  PLACE
    TOOTH STRUCTURE/ DISEASE
• INCISORS- CHISEL SHAPED- NIPS PIECES OF FOOD
• CANINE-CONE SHAPED-TEAR AND PIERCE
• PREMOLARS( BICUSPIDS)-GRINDING
• MOLARS-GRINDING
• DENTAL CARIES- LOSS OF ENAMEL AND DENTIN DUE TO
  BACTERIA
• DENTAL PLAQUE-SUGAR , BACTERIA AND OTHER DEBRIS
  ADHERING TO TEETH
• GINGIVITIS- INFLAMMATION OF THE GUMS
SALIAVARY GLANDS

PRODUCE SALIAVA


         MOISTENS, DISSOLVES AND PROVIDES TASTE


              CONTAINS LYSOZYME,ANTIBODIES
           ANTIVIRAL AND CYANIDE LIKE COMPOUND


                   CONTAINS PROTEINS
       SALIAVARY GLANDS

                       GLANDS


   INTRINSIC( SMALL)              EXTRINSIC( LARGE)
KEEP THE MOUTH MOIST            POUR SECRETIONS -DUCT


   PAIRED GLANDS
 PAROTID, SUBLINGUAL
   SUBMANDIBULAR
   SALIAVARY GLANDS

                                    LARGEST PAROTID
                                        MUMPS

            DUCT OF PAROTID
            OPENS AT UPPER
            2ND MOLAR TOOTH


             SUBMANDIBULAR
LIES ALONG THE MEDIAL SURFACE OF MANDIBLE



 SUBLINGUAL LIES INFERIOR TO THE TONGUE
    IN THE FLOOR OF THE ORAL CAVITY

				
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posted:10/7/2011
language:English
pages:14