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					Quick Reference Administering AIX V5.2 version 1.0
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System installation and maintenance management
oslevel          Reports the latest installed maintenance level of the system.
                 oslevel -r : determines the highest recommended maintenance level reached for the current
                 version of AIX.
                 oslevel -lr 5100-04: lists which fileset updates are missing if after installing ML 04 on 5100-03 the
                 command oslevel -r still shows 5100-03.
alog             Creates and maintains fixed-size log files.
                 alog -o -t boot : view the boot log (the log that holds boot information).
                 alog -L : lists the logs defined in the alog database.
errpt            Generates a report of logged errors in the system error log.
                 errpt -a : displays a complete detailed report.
                 errpt -c > /dev/console : formats and displays each of the errors at logtime (concurrent error
                 logging) on /dev/console.
errdemon         Starts the error logging daemon errdemon that reads error records from the /dev/error file and
                 creates error log entries in the default system error log /var/adm/ras/errlog.
                 /usr/lib/errdemon : starts the error logging daemon.
                 /usr/lib/errdemon -l : displays the path to the system error log file and error log size.
                 /usr/lib/errdemon -s 2000000 : changes the maximum size of the error log file to 2 MB.
syslogd          The syslogd daemon logs messages from kernel, daemons and system applications using
                 *.debug       errlog (add this line to to syslog.conf to redirect all syslog messages to the system
                 error log).
                 stopsrc -s syslogd : stops the syslogd daemon.
                 startsrc -s syslogd : starts the syslogd daemon.
                 refresh -s syslogd : refreshes the syslogd daemon.
errlogger        Logs an operator message.
                 errlogger new disk added on scsi1 adapter : logs "new disk added on scsi1 adapter" in the
                 system error log.
errclear         Deletes entries from the system error log. Software and operator errors (older than 30 days) and
                 hardware errors (older than 90 days) are removed using crontab.
errinstall       Installs or replaces messages in the error logging message sets of the error log message catalog.
errupdate        Updates the Error Record Template Repository (default file /var/adm/ras/errtmplt).
diag             Menu driven program to run a wide choice of tasks and service aids (diagnostics, hardware error
                 report, format, microcode and bootlist management, ...).
                 Diagnostics modes:
                 Concurrent mode: diag is used during normal operation (only devices not in use can be tested).
                 Single-user mode: run diag after shutdown -m.
                 Stand-alone mode: boot from Diagnostics CD (press F5 when acoustic beep is heard)
                 or boot and press F6 when acoustic beep is heard to load diag from hard disk.
                 if diag returns "diag is not supported on this model" use:
                 SMS mode: boot and press F1 when acoustic beep is heard, select "test the computer". Some
                 older models use a SMS diskette.
alt_disk_install Installs an alternate disk with a mksysb install image or clones the currently running system to an
                 alternate disk.
                 Note: install bos.alt_disk_install fileset to use alt_disk_install.
                 alt_disk_install -C hdisk2 : Clones the current rootvg to hdisk2.
                 alt_disk_install -C -b update_all -l /dev/cd0 hdisk4 : Creates clone of the current rootvg on
                 hdisk4, installs a ML on the clone and changes the bootlist to hdisk4.
                 alt_disk_install -X old_rootvg : Removes the original rootvg from the ODM, after booting from
                 the new alternate disk (you can still reboot from old_rootvg).
nimadm           Performs Alternate Disk Migration (to a new version or release) of AIX using NIM resources.
                 nimadm -c aix1 -s spot2 -l lpp2 -d "hdisk1 hdisk2" -Y : migrates totarget NIM client aix1, using
                 NIM SPOT resource spot2, the NIM lpp_source lpp2, and hdisk1 and hdisk2 target disks, and
                 agreeing to all required software license agreements for the software being installed (-Y).
                 nim -o alt_disk_install -a source=rootvg -a disk='hdisk2' -a phase=12 holland : clones a
                 rootvg on client holland to hdisk1, but only run phase1 and phase2 (leaving the /alt_inst file
                 systems mounted).

Problem determination
sysdumpdev       Changes the primary or secondary dump device designation in a running system. The default
                 primary dump device is LV /dev/hd6 and the default secondary dump device is /dev/sysdumpnull.
                 A dedicated primary dump device LV /dev/lg_dumplv is created (if sufficient disk space is
                 available) in systems with at least 4 Gigabytes of real memory.
                 sysdumpdev -l : displays current dump device settings.
                 sysdumpdev -P -p /dev/hd7 : changes the primary dump device permanently from the default to
                 LV /dev/hd7.
                 sysdumpdev -e : estimates the dump size (in bytes) for the current running system.
                 sysdumpdev -L : displays statistical information about the last dump.
                 chdev -l sys0 -a autostart=true : automatically reboot after a crash (default is false).
dumpcheck        Checks the disk resources used by the system dump and logs in the system error log. Run default
                 by cron at 3:00 pm local time each day.
                 /usr/lib/ras/dumpcheck -p : requests a dumpcheck. The result is printed to stdout (-p).
                 /usr/lib/ras/dumpcheck -r : discontinues running dumpcheck (removes the crontab entry).
kdb              Displays system images for examining a dump.
                 kdb /var/adm/ras/vmcore.0 /unix : starts kdb using the uncompressed dump file
                 /var/adm/ras/vmcore.0 and kernel file /unix.
snap             Gathers system configuration information and compresses the information into a pax file.
                 snap -a -o /dev/rmt0 : gathers all system configuration information (needs approximately 8 MB
                 space in directory /tmp/ibmsupt) and creates a compressed pax image (snap.pax.Z) of directory
snapcore         Gathers the core file, program, and libraries used by a program to directory /tmp/snapcore
                 (default) and compresses the information into a pax image. The collected information allows
                 debugging and resolving problems within an application.
                 snapcore -d /tmp/snapcore2 core.xx : gathers all needed information for core dump file core.xx
                 and writes it to directory /tmp/snapcore2/snapcore_32811.pax.Z, where 32811 is the process id
                 ($pid) of the snapcore command.
                 uncompress -c snapcore_32811.pax.Z | pax : displays the contents of the pax archive.
check_core       Used by snapcore to gather all information about a core dump. The bos.rte.serv_aid fileset must
                 be installed.
                 /usr/lib/ras/check_core core.xx : displays a list containing the program that caused core dump
                 core.xx and the used libraries.
shconf           Manages the system hang detection parameters for the system hang daemon shdaemon.
                 shconf -d : displays if priority problem detection and lost I/O detection are enabled or not.
                  shconf -E -l prio -H : displays the current shdaemon settings.

System initialization and boot management
The numeric 1 key (F1 on graphical display), when pressed during POST (double beep), starts the SMS interface.
The numeric 5 key (F5 on graphical display), when pressed during POST, initiates a system boot in service mode
using the default service mode boot list. Sequence: 1. diskette (if installed), 2. CD-ROM (if installed), 3. hard disk,
4. tape drive (if installed), 5. network (a. Token ring, b. Ethernet).
The numeric 6 key (F6 on graphical display) works like the numeric 5 key, but uses the customized service mode
bootlist. This is the preferred method of loading AIX diagnostics from the boot hard disk.
ipl_varyon *      Used to vary on the root volume group during system boot processing.
                  ipl_varyon -i : Inquiry mode - skips ipl device processing. Checks which disks are already
bosboot           Creates boot image. It does not update the bootlist in the NVRAM.
                  bosboot -a -d /dev/hdisk0 : Re-create boot image on hdisk0.
                  bosboot -a -d /dev/ipldevice -D : creates a boot image with the KDB debugger enabled.
mklv              Creates a logical volume.
                  mklv -y hd5 -t boot rootvg 1 : re-create boot LV (BLV) hd5.
lslv              Displays information about a logical volume.
                  lslv -l hd5 : determines the boot disk.
mkboot            Creates the boot image, the boot record, and the service record.
                  mkboot -c -d /dev/hdisk0 : clears the boot record of PV hdisk0.
chpv              Changes the characteristics of a physical volume in a volume group.
                  chpv -c hdisk1 : clears the boot record of PV hdisk1.
bootinfo          Determines and displays various boot information, including boot device type and boot device
                  name (NOT supported in AIX 4.2 or later).
                  bootinfo -b : returns the last boot device.
                  bootinfo -B hdisk0 : returns 1 if disk is bootable, 0 if not.
bootlist          Displays or alters the list or ordering of boot devices available to the system.
                  Normal boot list: possible boot devices for normal mode.
                  Service boot list: possible boot devices for service mode.
                  Previous boot device: last device from which the system booted.
                  Support of these boot lists is model dependent.
                  bootlist -m normal -o : displays the normal boot list.
                  bootlist -m service -o : displays the service boot list (if available).
                  bootlist -m normal cd0 hdisk0 hdisk1 : makes changes to the normal boot list.
                  bootlist -m prevboot : invalidates the last device from which the system booted.
halt or fasthalt Writes data to disk (sync) and then stops the system. The system does not restart. Do not use this
                 command if other users are logged into the system.
reboot or         Restarts the system. Can be used if no other users are logged into the system.
shutdown          Halts the operating system. Checks the existence of the executable /etc/rc.shutdown file (added
                  by the administrator) that specifies all the applications and other user processes to close down.
                  By default the shutdown command powers down the system (if supported and issued).
                  shutdown -Fr : fast system shutdown and restart.
                  shutdown -m +1 : brings the system down to maintenance (single user) mode after waiting one
                  shutdown -l : logs the output during the shutdown to /etc/shutdown.log.
last              Displays information about previous logins using the /var/adm/wtmp file.
                  last reboot : displays the time between reboots.
                  last shutdown : lists last shutdowns of the system.
uptime         Shows how long the system has been up.
               uptime : displays the current time, the length of time the system has been up, the number of
               users online, and the load average.
sync           Updates the i-node table and writes buffered files to the hard disk.
               sync;sync;sync;reboot : writes everything from the buffer to the hard disk and reboots the
lsfont         Lists the fonts available for use by the display.
chfont         Changes the default font selected at boot time.
mkfont         Adds the font code associated with a display to the system.
mkfontdir      Creates a fonts.dir file from a directory of font files.
chlang         Sets LANG environment variable in the /etc/environment file for next login.
chtz           Changes the system time zone information in the /etc/environment file.
chhwkbd        Changes the low-function terminal (LFT) keyboard attributes stored in the Object Data Manager
               (ODM) database.
lskbd          Lists the keyboard maps currently available to the low-function terminal (LFT) subsystem.
chkbd          Changes the default keyboard map used by the low-function terminal (LFT) at system startup.
chkey          Changes your encryption key.
lslicense      Displays the number of fixed licenses and the status of floating licensing. There are two types of
               user licensing, fixed and floating. Fixed licensing is always enabled. Floating licensing can be
               enabled or disabled.
               lslicense -A : displays the number of available fixed licences on the system.
chlicense      Changes the number of fixed licenses and the status of the floating licensing (updates login.cfg).
               chlicense -I -u 50I -u 50 : changes the fixed license number immediately to 50 (without
               chlicense -f on : enables the floating licensing.
lsitab         Lists records in the /etc/inittab file.
chitab         Changes records in the /etc/inittab file.
mkitab         Adds records to the /etc/inittab file.
rmitab         Removes records from the /etc/inittab file.
telinit        Initializes and controls processes.
or             0-9 Tells the init process to put the system in one of the run levels 0-9. S,s,M,m Tells the init
init           process to enter the maintenance mode. a,b,c Tells the init process to examine only those records
               in the /etc/inittab file with a, b, or c in the run-level field. Q,q Tells the init process to re-examine
               the entire /etc/inittab file. N Sends a signal that stops processes from being respawned.
               telinit q : requests the init command to re-examine the /etc/inittab file.
who            Identifies the users currently logged in.
               who -r : displays the runlevel.
               who /var/adm/wtmp : displays a history of logins, logouts, system startups, and system
restbase       Restores customized information from the boot image. Attention: The command is executed only
               during system boot phase 1. Do not execute it in a run-time environment.
savebase       Saves base customized device data in the ODM onto the boot device.
               savebase -d /dev/hdisk0 : save the ODM to the boot logical volume.

Hardware installation and configuration management
Available hardware platforms: MCA-based uni-processor models (rs6k), MCA-based symmetric multiprocessor
models (rs6ksmp), ISA-bus models (rspc), PCI-bus models (CHRP). AIX V5.2 is not supported on MCA and PReP
architecture hardware. The "AIX Statement of Direction" gives a complete list of unsupported models.
lscfg          Displays configuration, diagnostic and VPD information about the system.
               lscfg -vp : Displays the system model, machine serial, processor type, number of processors,
               processor clock speed, cpu type, total memory size, network information, filesystem information,
               paging space information, and devices information.
               lscfg | grep proc | wc -l : lists the # of processors.
prtconf or     Displays system configuration information.
lsconf         prtconf -s : displays the processor clock speed.
               prtconf -k : displays the kernel type in use.
               prtconf -m : displays memory.
snap           Gathers system configuration information.
               snap -a : gathers system configuration information. The output is written to the /tmp/ibmsupt
uname          Displays the name of the current operating system.
               uname -a : displays the machine ID and version banner.
               uname -x : displays the operating system in use, the host name, the machine ID number of the
               hardware, the release number of the operating system, the operating system version and the
               system model name.
mach           Displays the processor architecture of the machine.
getconf        Displays system configuration variable values.
               getconf HARDWARE_BITMODE : displays hardware bit mode (64 or 32 bit).
               getconf KERNEL_BITMODE : displays kernel bit mode (64 or 32 bit).
               getconf DISK_SIZE /dev/hdisk2 : displays disk size in MB.
               getconf REAL_MEMORY : displays real memory size in MB.
cfg2html       A system configuration to HTML converter (Open Source)
file           Determines the file type.
               file prog : displays user process bit mode of program prog. Returns:
               executable (RISC System/6000) or object module not stripped (32 bit program),
               or 64-bit XCOFF executable or object module not stripped (64 bit program).
               file /unix : the returned link shows which kernel is running: unix_up = 32-bit uniprocessor kernel,
               unix_mp = 32-bit multiprocesssor kernel, unix_64 = 64-bit multiprocessor kernel.
cfgmgr         Configures devices by running the programs in /etc/methods directory and optionally installs
               device software.
               cfgmgr : runs the Phase 2 configuration rules (second boot phase for normal boot) (same as
               using the -s flag).
               cfgmgr -v : makes devices available that where not powered on when the system started.
               cfgmgr -l scsi1 : configures detected devices attached to the scsi1 adapter.
               cfgmgr -i /usr/sys/inst.images : installs device software (using the directory /usr/sys/inst.images)
               automatically during configuration.
chcons         Redirects the system console to device or file, effective next startup.
               chcons -a login=enable /dev/tty0 : changes the system console to device /dev/tty0. Use /dev/lft0
               for the default LFT display.
               chcons /tmp/console.out : redirects the system console to file /tmp/console.out.
lsdisp         Lists the displays and the default display currently available on the system.
chdisp         Changes the display used by the LFT subsystem.
               chdisp -p gda1 : changes the default display permanently to gda1.
lsattr         Displays attribute characteristics and possible values of attributes for devices in the system.
               lsattr -EHl sys0l sys0 : displays system attributes (realmem ...)
               lsattr -EHl proc0 : displays the state, type and frequency of processor proc0.
                lsattr -El rmt0 : lists the current attribute values for the tape device rmt0.
                lsattr -El tty0 -a speed : lists the current value of the speed attribute for serial port tty0.
lsdev           Displays devices in the system and their characteristics.
                lsdev -P -H : lists the Predefined (supported) Devices (in the PdDv object class).
                lsdev -C -H : lists the Customized (configured/defined) Devices (in the CuDv object class).
                lsdev -C -c disk : lists all the PVs (class disk) in the system along with the status and location
listdgrp        Displays devices in a device class.
                listdgrp disk : list the devices in the disk class.
getdev          Lists devices that match the specified criteria.
                getdev type=proc_rspc : lists all devices of type proc_rspc.
getdgrp         Lists device classes that match the specified criteria.
                getdgrp : display all device classes.
chdev           Changes a device's characteristics.
                chdev -l hdisk2 -a pv=yes : assigns a PVID to hdisk2.
mkdev           Adds a device to the system.
                mkdev -l hdisk2 : make the already defined disk device hdisk2 available to use.
                mkdev -l hdisk1 -a pv=yes : makes an available disk a PV (assigning a PVID), if it does not
                already have one.
                mkdev -c tty -t tty -s rs232 -p sa0 -w s1 -a login=enable -a term=ibm3151 : adds an ibm3151
                terminal using adapter sa0 port s1 with login enabled.
rmdev           Removes a device from the system.
                rmdev -l tty0 -d : removes the tty0 device definition from the CuDv object class (ODM).
                rmdev -l hdisk1 : unconfigures PV hdisk1 and changes its state from available to defined
                (definition is not removed from the CuDv object class (ODM).

Physical Volume Management
See also lsdev, chdev, mkdev and rmdev.
lspv            Displays information about a physical volume (PV) within a volume group.
                lspv : lists the name, PVID and VG for each configured PV.
                lspv hdisk2 : lists the characteristics of PV hdisk2.
                lspv -M hdisk3 : lists the mapping and stale PPs for hdisk3.
                lspv -l hdisk0 : lists LV allocation within PV hdisk0.
                lspv -p hdisk1 : lists PP intra-allocation by PV region and PP state (free, used, stale, vgda) on
lquerypv *      Queries the attributes of a physical volume.
chpv            Changes the characteristics of a physical volume in a volume group.
                chpv -a n hdisk1 : turn off the allocation permission of free PPs for PV hdisk1.
                chpv -a y hdisk1 : turn the allocation permission for hdisk1 back on.
                chpv -v r hdisk3 : set the state of PV hdisk3 to unavailable (use when PV is to be removed from
                the system or is lost due to failure).
                chpv -v a hdisk4 : make PV hdisk4 available to the system (from state removed to active).
                chpv -h y hdisk2 : marks hdisk2 (with no allocated LPs) as a hot spare disk in a VG with mirrored
migratepv       Moves allocated PP's from one PV to one or more other PP's in the same VG.
                The command is not allowed if the VG is varied on in concurrent mode.
                migratepv hdisk1 hdisk3 hdisk5 : moves all PPs from hdisk1 to hdisk3 and hdisk5.
                migratepv -l lv02 hdisk2 hdisk4 : moves all PPs in LV lv02 from hdisk2 to hdisk4.
File System Management
AIX supported file system types:
standard Journaled File max. file size 2 GB, max. file system size 1 TB
System (JFS)
large file enabled JFS      max. file size 64 GB, max. file system size 1 TB
Enhanced Journaled File max. file size tested 1 TB (AIX currently supports up to 16 TB using the 64-bit kernel, 1
System (JFS2)               TB using the 32-bit kernel), max. file system size tested 1 TB, architectural max. file
                            system size 4 PB.
                            The JFS2 outline log can be up to 1 GB (32-bit kernel) and up to 64 GB (64-bit
                            kernel).The JFS2 inline log size can be from 256 KB up to 16 GB.
General Parallel File       Provides a cluster-wide file system allowing users shared access to files spanning
System (GPFS)               multiple disk drives.
RAM File System             Up to 8 RAM disks can be created (2 GB size limitation is removed in AIX V5.2). Size
                            cannot be changed afterwards.
Network File System         NFS allows programs on one system to access files on another system transparently by
(NFS)                       mounting the remote directory.
CD-ROM File System          A read-only local file system implementation under the logical file system (LFS) layer.
(CDRFS)                     Supported are ISO 9660:1988(E) standard, the High Sierra Group Specification, the Rock
                            Ridge Group Protocol, the CD-ROM eXtended Architecture File Format (in Mode 2 Form
                            1 sector format only). CDs are automatically mounted by default.
DVD-ROM File System A read-only file system stored on DVD-ROM media. UDFS format versions 1.50, 2.00,
(UDFS)                      and 2.01 are supported.
                            DVDs are automatically mounted by default.
Cache File System           CacheFS is used to enhance read performance of remote file systems (NFS) or slow
(CacheFS)                   devices such as CD-ROM. CacheFS handles files larger than 2 GB.
Default AIX file systems:
fs        lv      description
/         hd4     The / (root) file system contains files and directories critical for system operation.
/usr      hd2     Files that can be shared by machines of the same hardware architecture are located in the /usr
                  file system.
                  Architecture-independent, shareable text files, such as manual pages, are located in the
                  /usr/share directory.
/var      hd9var Variable per-client files, such as spool and mail files, are located in the /var file system.
/home hd1         The /home file system is the mount point for user home directories.
/tmp      hd3     The /tmp file system contains system-generated temporary files.
/opt      hd10opt The /opt file system is reserved for the installation of add-on application software packages.
/proc -           The /proc pseudo file system provides access to the state of each active process and thread in
                  the system by mappping processes and kernel data structures to corresponding files.
df               Reports information about space on file systems.
                 df -m /usr : displays information about file system /usr in MB (-m) blocks (use -g for GB).
quot             Summarizes file system ownership.
                 quot -f /home : displays the number of files and bytes owned by each user in the /home file
du               Summarizes disk usage.
                 du -sg /home : displays the total disk usage in GB (-g) for all files in directory tree /home.
find             Recursively searches the directory tree with a matching expression.
                 find . -type f -exec grep "unix" {} \; -print : looks for string "unix" and prints the names of the
                 files in which it is found.
fileplace        Displays the placement of file blocks within logical or physical volumes.
                 fileplace -v data3 : displays the placement of a file in its LV, including statistics on how widely the
            file is spread across the volume and the degree of fragmentation in the volume (-v).
lsfs        Displays the characteristics of file systems. Uses /etc/filesystems (system file with stanzas of the
            known file systems and their characteristics).
            lsfs : shows all file systems in the /etc/filesystems file.
            lsfs -q /usr : shows the LV size, file system size, the fragment size, the compression algorithm
            and the number of bytes per i-node (nbpi) of the /usr file system.
            lsfs -v jfs2 : shows all file systems of vfs type jfs2.
crfs        Adds a file system. The smallest file system is equal to one PP.
            crfs -v jfs -g datavg -a size=32M -m /user : creates a JFS of 32 MB with /user as the mount
            point in VG datavg.
            crfs -v jfs2 -g rootvg -a size=128M -m /data -A yes -p rw -a agblksize=2048 : creates a JFS2
            of 128 MB with /data as the mount point, automatically mounted at system restart (-A), with 4K as
            the smallest file system block size that can be allocated to a file.
mkfs        Makes a new file system on a specified existing device (LV).
            mkfs -s 64M /data /dev/lvdata : creates an empty 64 MB file system on LV lvdata.
            mkfs -o name=/user /dev/lvuser : creates an empty file system on the /dev/lvuser device, with
            mount point /user. The new file system occupies the entire device and has the default fragment
            size (4096 bytes) and the default nbpi ratio (4096).
chfs        Changes attributes of a file system.
            chfs -a size=+16M /data : increases the size of the /data file system by 16 MB.
            chfs -a size=64M /data : changes the size of the /data file system to 64 MB (provided it was
            previously no larger than this).
            chfs -A yes /data : sets the mount=true attribute in /etc/filesystems for file system with mount
            point /data.
rmfs        Removes a file system.
            rmfs -r /data : removes file system /data, it's mount point (-r) and it's LV.
reduce fs   Official procedure 1:
            1. Make a backup of the file system.
            2. Remove the file system.
            3. Create a new file system using the same name and reduced size.
            4. Restore the backup of the file system into the new file system.
            Official procedure 2:
            1. Make a mksysb (VG rootvg) or savevg (other VGs).
            2. Restore the VG using the shrink file systems option.
mount       Makes a file system available for use.
            mount : lists the mounted file systems.
            mount all or mount -a : mounts all file systems in /etc/filesystems marked by the mount=true
            attribute (file systems marked by the mount=automatic attribute are not mounted - they are
            mounted by the boot process).
            mount /dev/lvdata : mounts the file system (in LV lvdata) using the default mount point from
            mount -v cdrfs -o ro /dev/cd0 /mnt : mounts the CDROM on /mnt.
umount      Unmounts a previously mounted file system, directory, or file.
or          umount all : unmounts all file systems in /etc/filesystems marked by the mount=true attribute (file
unmount     systems marked by the mount=automatic attribute are not unmounted).
            umount -f /mnt : forces the unmount of the /mnt NFS file system.
cdmount     Makes a file system available for use on a device managed by the cdromd daemon (automatically
            mounts a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM when it is inserted in a device, and provides the server function
            for all cd/dvd related commands).
            cdmount cd0 : mounts a file system on cd0.
            startsrc -s cdromd : starts the cdromd daemon which reads the /etc/cdromd.conf configuration
cdcheck    Asks cdromd daemon information about a device.
           cdcheck -m cd0 : asks cdromd if a CD is mounted on cd0.
cdeject    Ejects a media from a CD drive managed by cdromd.
           cdeject cd0 : ejects a CD from cd0.
cdumount   Unmounts a previously mounted file system on a device managed by cdromd.
           cdumount cd0 : unmount a file system on cd0.
fuser      Identifies processes using a file or file structure.
           fuser -u /data : lists the process numbers and user login names of processes using the /data file
defragfs   Increases a file system's contiguous free space by reorganizing scattered allocations.
           defragfs /home : defragments the /home file system.
           defragfs -s /data : generates a report on the fragmentation in the /data file system.
lmktemp    lmktemp largefile 1073741824 : Create a 1GB file named largefile.
fsck       Checks file system consistency and interactively repairs the file system.
           By default, the /, /usr, /var, and /tmp file systems have a check=false attribute in their
           /etc/filesystem stanzas.
           fsck -p /dev/lv00 : fixes minor problems with the /dev/lv00 file system automatically and if the
           primary superblock is corrupt, the secondary superblock is verified and copied to the primary
           dd count=1 bs=4k skip=31 seek=1 if=/dev/lvdata of=/dev/lvdata : copies the backup
           superblock of the /dev/lvdata file system over the primary superblock.
           fsck -V jfs2 /data : checks JFS2 with mount point /data for consistency and repairs problems
dd         Converts and copies a file.
           dd count=1 bs=4k skip=31 seek=1 if=/dev/lvdata of=/dev/lvdata : restores the backup of the
           superblock over the primary superblock (use when the superblock of the JFS on /dev/lvdata is
           corrupted (or dirty).
logform    Rebuild the JFS log.
           logform /dev/hd8 : rebuilds the jfslog of rootvg, after booting the machine into maintenance mode
           (attention: The logform command should only be run on closed LVs).
           logform -V jfs2 /dev/jfs2log : rebuilds the jfs2log /dev/jfs2log.
snapshot   Modifies, creates or queries properties a JFS2 snapshot (a consistent block level image of a file
           system). The bos.rte.file fileset must be installed.
           snapshot -o snapfrom=/data /dev/snapsb : creates a snapshot for the /data file system on the
           exisiting /dev/snapsb LV.
           snapshot -d /dev/snapsb : deletes the snapshot and the LV containing the snapshot.
backsnap   Creates and backs up a JFS2 snapshot.
           backsnap -m /tmp/snapshot/data -s size=16M -i -f /dev/rmt0 /data : creates a 16 MB LV,
           creates a snapshot for the /data file system on the created LV, mounts the snapshot on
           /tmp/snapshot/data and backups the files and directories in that file system by name to /dev/rmt0.
fsdb       Examines and modifies snapshot superblock, snapshot map, block xtree copy, and segment
           headers. Mounted file systems cannot be modified.
           fsdb /data : debugs file system /data.
dumpfs     Dumps file system information (superblock, i-node map, and disk map) for debugging.
           dumpfs /dev/hd2 : prints the information for /dev/hd2.
lsvfs      Lists entries in the /etc/vfs file.
crvfs      Creates entries in the /etc/vfs file.
chvfs      Changes entries in the /etc/vfs file.
rmvfs      Removes entries in the /etc/vfs file.
mkramdisk        Creates a RAM disk using a portion of RAM (pinned by default). Use only for data that can be lost.
                 Setup procedure creating a 8 MB RAM disk:
                 mkramdisk 8m
                 ls -l /dev | grep ram
                 mkfs -V jfs /dev/ramdiskx
                 mkdir /ramdiskx
                 mount -V jfs -o nointegrity /dev/ramdiskx /ramdiskx
                 where x is the logical RAM disk number.
                 To remove the RAM filesystem:
                 unmount /ramdiskx
                 rmramdisk /dev/ramdiskx
cfsadmin         Administers disk space used for CacheFS.
                 cfsadmin -c /cache1 : creates a cache directory named cache1.
                 mount -V cachefs -o backfstype=nfs,cachedir=/cache1 server2:/data /ldata : CacheFS-
                 mounts the file system /data from remote host server2 on mount point /ldata of the client using
                 cachedir /cache1.
                 cfsadmin -l /cache1 : lists file systems and statistics for cache1.
                 cfsadmin -d all /cache1 : removes all cached file systems from the /cache1 directory.
mkcfsmnt         Mounts a CacheFS directory.
                 mkcfsmnt -d /mnt -t nfs -h server2 -p /home -c /cache1 -N : mounts the /home file system of
                 server2 locally on the /mnt directory using /cache1 as CacheFS.
cachefslog       Controls the logging of a cache file system.
                 cachefslog -f /cache1/cachelog /mnt : sets up the file /cache1/cachelog to log CacheFS
cachefswssize Displays the work space size for a cache file system.
              cachefswssize /cache1/cachelog : displays the work space size of the cache filesystems being
              logged in the file /cache1/cachelog..
fsck_cachefs     Checks the integrity of data cached with CacheFS.
                 fsck_cachefs -o noclean /cache1 : forces a check on the cache directory.

File Management
procfiles        procfiles -n `ls /proc` : lists all the process and files they have open.
find             find / -xdev -type f -mtime -1 -ls | sort +6nr | head -n 20 : lists the top-20 largest files in / that
                 where used within the last 24 hours.

Logical Volume Management
LVs automatically created at system installation are:
hd5          boot LV (boot image). Available only at startup.
hd6          Default paging space.
hd8          Default logging space (jfslog) for the journaled file systems.
hd4          / (root) file system.
hd2          /usr file system.
hd9var       /var file system.
hd10opt      /opt file system.
hd3          /tmp file system.
hd1          /home file system. Users' home directories.
Note: hd7 was used in earlier AIX versions as dump device.
Maximum LV size is 1 TB (32-bit kernel) or 128 TB (64-bit kernel).
A dedicated dump device lg_dumplv is created in systems with at least 4 Gigabytes of real memory.
lslv            Displays information about a logical volume (LV).
                Total LVsize=PPsize * LPs assigned to LV * Number of LV copies.
                lslv lvdata : lists all the attributes related to LV lvdata.
                lslv -m lvdata : lists the LP to PP/PV mapping of LV lvdata.
mklv            Creates a logical volume. The smallest LV is equal to one PP.
                mklv -y lvdata -c 3 datavg 10 : creates LV lvdata in VG datavg with ten LPs and a total of three
                copies of the data.
                mklv -y lvdb datavg 50M : creates LV lvdb with a minimum size of 50MB (b/B=512B, k/K=KB,
                m/M=MB, g/G=GB). Rounded to whole LVs to make up 50 MB.
                mklv -a c datavg 2 : creates LV lv00 with a size of two LPs and intra-physical volume allocation
                policy center (e=[outer] edge, m=[outer] middle, c=center, im=inner middle, ie=inner edge).
chlv            Changes the characteristics of a logical volume.
                chlv -w p lvdata : turns on passive MWC for LV lvdata (big VG only).
rmlv            Removes logical volumes from a volume group.
                rmlv -f lvdata : remove LV lvdata without requiring user confirmation (attention: all data on this LV
                is destroyed).
extendlv        Increases the size of a logical volume by adding unallocated physical partitions.
                extendlv lvdata 12 : adds twelve more LPs to LV lvdata.
                extendlv lvraw 64M : adds 64 MB to LV lvraw. Rounded to whole LVs needed to make up 64 MB.
lquerylv *      Queries the attributes of a logical volume.
lreducelv *!    Reduces the number of allocated logical partitions of a logical volume (attention: if not used with
                care, data is lost). Official procedure to reduce a LV:
                1. Back up all data in the logical volume.
                2. Remove the logical volume.
                3. Recreate the logical volume with the reduced logical partition allocation.
                4. Restore the data.
cplv            Copies the contents of a logical volume to a new logical volume.
                cplv -v datavg -y lvnew lvold : copies the contents of lvold to new LV lvnew in VG datavg.
                cplv -e lvtest -f lvdata : copies the contents of LV lvdata to a smaller, existing LV lvtest within the
                same VG, without requiring user confirmation (attention: if lvtest is smaller than lvdata, then data
                will be lost, probably resulting in corruption).
mklvcopy        Adds copies to a logical volume.
                mklvcopy lvdata 3 : increases the number of copies in each LP in LV lvdata to three.
rmlvcopy        Removes copies from a logical volume.
                rmlvcopy lvuser 2 : decreases the number of copies in each LP in LV lvuser to two.
migratelp       Moves an allocated LP from one PP to another PP on a different PV in the same VG.
                migratelp datalv/23 hdisk3/105 : moves the 23th LP of LV datalv to the 105th PP of PV hdisk3.
                See lspv -p to display the free PPs of PV hdisk3.
splitlvcopy     Splits copies from one logical volume and creates a new logical volume from them.
                splitlvcopy -y newlv oldlv 2 : splits one copy of each LP belonging to the LV oldlv which
                currently has 3 copies of each LP, and creates the LV newlv.
getlvcb *       Displays a formatted output of the data in the LVCB of a LV.
                getlvcb -TA hd3 : displays the information held in the LVCB of LV hd3.
putlvcb *!      Writes the control block information (only the specified fields) into block 0 of a logical volume
                putlvcb -t jfs lvdata : writes the LV type jfs to the LVCB of LV lvdata.
Volume Group Management
Each disk (PV) belongs to a Volume group (VG). A standard VG is a collection of 1 to 32 PVs (1 to 128 for a big
VG). A PV can belong to only one VG. A maximum of 255 VGs can be defined per system.
When a VG is created, the PVs within the VG are partitioned into contiguous, equal-sized PPs (units of disk
space). PPs are the smallest unit of allocatable storage space in a VG. The PP size is determined at VG creation
(can't be changed dynamically afterwards), and all PVs that are placed in the VG inherit this size. The PP size can
range from 1 MB to 1024 MB, but must be a power of two. If not specified at creation time, the default PP size for a
VG is 4 MB for disks up to 4 GB (the minimum PP size needed is determined by the OS), but it must be larger for
PVs greater than 4 GB due to the fact that the LVM, by default, will only track up to 1016 PPs/PV. The number of
PPs/PV (1016) can be increased with a factor 1-16 (or 1-64 for a big VG) at creation time or later (which will reduce
the number of PVs in the VG) and/or the number of PVs/VG can be increased from 32 to 128 at creation time or
later (big or gigantic VG).
Importing a VG involves copying the VGDA data for the imported volume group into the ODM. When a volume
group is exported, the data held in the ODM about that volume group is removed from the ODM database.
lsvg             Displays information about VGs.
                 lsvg : lists all VGs.
                 lsvg rootvg : lists the characteristics of VG rootvg.
                 lsvg -o : lists only the active VGs (those that are varied on).
                 lsvg -p rootvg : lists the PVs in VG rootvg (state, size, distribution).
                 lsvg -l rootvg : lists the LVs in VG rootvg (type, size, state).
                 lsvg -M rootvg : displays a map of all LVs.
lqueryvg !       Queries the attributes of a VG using VG id, or PV name of a PV that is part of a VG.
                 lqueryvg -At -p hdisk0 : returns all attributes for the VG (static attributes, LV details and PV
mkvg             Creates a VG.
                 mkvg -y datavg -s 32 hdisk2 hdisk4 : creates the VG datavg that contains PVs hdisk2 and
                 hdisk4, with PP size set to 32 MB.
                 mkvg -B -y uservg : create a big VG uservg (supports 128 PVs and 512 LVs).
chvg             Sets the characteristics of a VG.
                 chvg -a{y|n} datavg : VG datavg is automatically activated (y=varyonvg) or not (n=varyoffvg)
                 during system startup.
                 chvg -u datavg : unlock the VG datavg.
                 chvg -B datavg : changes the VG to big VG format (supports 128 PVs and 512 LVs). Mapping
                 size is 4*original size.
                 chvg -t 2 datavg : changes the limit of the number of PPs/PV by factor=2 (1016*2=2032 PPs/PV).
                 Which decreases the number of disks (#PVs/factor=16 PVs/VG).
                 chvg -sy datavg : attempts to automatically synchronize (AUTO SYNC) stale partitions in VG
                 datavg (default this not done for a VG).
                 chvg -L256 uservg : changes the LTG size to 256KB of VG uservg for better disk I/O
                 performance. LTG size should be less than or equal to the maximum transfer size of all disks in
                 the VG. Check each disk in the VG with:
                 lquerypv -M hdiskx : checks the maximum supported LTG size of hdiskx.
                 chvg -b n datavg : turns off the bad block relocation policy of VG datavg (default is yes for a VG).
                 chvg -h y -s y uservg : sets policy in VG uservg to automatically (-h y) migrate PPs from one
                 failing disk to one spare disk with automatic synchronization of stale PPs (-s y).
syncvg           Synchronizes LV copies that are not current (stale).
                 syncvg -v datavg : synchronizes the copies on VG datavg.
                 syncvg -p hdisk3 : synchronizes the copies on physical volumes hdisk3.
synclvodm        Resynchronize the ODM. The VG must be active.
                 synclvodm rootvg : synchronizes the device configuration database with the LVM information for
                 rootvg (use when the device configuration database is not consistent with the LVM information in
                 the LVCBs and the VGDAs).
rvgrecover   Repairs the ODM.
mirrorvg     Mirrors all the LVs that exist on a given VG.
             mirrorvg -S -c 3 rootvg : triply mirrors VG rootvg, returns the mirrorvg command immediately and
             starts a background syncvg (-S).
             mirrorvg -m datavg hdisk3 : creates an exact mapped mirror of the LVs in VG datavg.
unmirrorvg   Removes the mirrors that exist on VGs or specified disks.
             unmirrorvg rootvg : default unmirroring of rootvg (rootvg now has only 1 copy).
importvg     Imports a new VG definition from a set of PVs.
             It is highly recommended that you run the fsck command before you mount the file systems.
             importvg -y datavg hdisk9 : imports VG datavg from PV hdisk9.
             importvg -y uservg 0009898xy2727d4f : imports VG uservg from PV with PVID
             importvg -L datavg : imports VG datavg and learns about possible changes. Use if the VG was
             not exported and used on another machine.
exportvg     Exports the definition of a VG from a set of PVs.
             exportvg datavg : removes VG datavg from the system.
redefinevg   Redefines the set of PVs of the given VG in the device configuration database.
extendvg     Adds PVs to a VG.
             extendvg datavg hdisk2 : adds PV hdisk2 to VG datavg.
reducevg     Removes PVs from a VG. When all PVs are removed from the VG, the VG is deleted.
             reducevg datavg hdisk3 : removes PV hdisk3 from VG datavg.
             reducevg datavg 000005265ac63976 : removes PV using it's PVID 000005265ac63976 from VG
             datavg (use when a disk was removed without first running reducevg).
reorgvg      Reorganizes the PP allocation for a VG. Using the reorgvg command with the VG name and no
             other arguments reorganizes only the first LV in the VG.
             reorgvg datavg lvdata1 lvdata3 : reorganizes LVs lvdata1 and lvdata3 on VG datavg.
recreatevg   Recreates a VG (with unique IDs, names, and mount points) on a set of disks that are mirrored
             from another set of disks. Imports and varies on the VG. Procedure after the real duplication of the
             PV (like mirroring):
             chdev -l hdisk5 -a pv=clear : to avoid potential collisions of LVM component names (PVID,
             VGname, ...) of hdisk5.
             recreatevg -y newvg -L /newfs -Y newlv hdisk5 : newvg is the newly assigned VG name, /newfs
             and newlv are used for prefixes of the newly assigned file systems and LVs, and hdisk5 is the
             duplicated target PV name.
splitvg      Splits a single mirror copy of a fully mirrored VG.
             splitvg -y snapvg -c 2 datavg : splits second mirror copy of the VG datavg and creates snapshot
             VG snapvg.
joinvg       joinvg datavg : joins the the original VG datavg with the snapshot VG snapvg.
varyoffvg    Deactivates a VG.
             varyoffvg uservg : deactivates the VG uservg.
varyonvg     Activates a VG.
             varyonvg -f datavg : used to force a varyon on VG datavg even when inconsistencies are
             detected (between the configuration data for each VG held in the ODM database and VGDA.
             varyonvg -r uservg : varies on VG uservg in read-only mode.

System Paging Space Management
lsps         Lists paging space and attributes. Configuration file: /etc/swapspaces (contains a list of swap
             lsps :
chps             Changes attributes of a paging space.
                 chps -a {y|n} paging00 : specifies that the paging space paging00 is active (y) or inactive (n) at
                 subsequent system restarts.
                 chps -s 10 paging02 : adds ten LPs to paging02 without rebooting.
                 chps -d 5 paging01 : removes five LPs from paging01 without rebooting.
                 chps -d 50 hd6 : removes fifty LPs from hd6 without rebooting.
mkps             Adds an additional paging space to the system.
                 mkps -a -n -s20 datavg : creates a permanent paging space pagingxx in VG datavg of 20 LPs
                 and activates it immediately.
rmps             Removes a paging space from the system (exept hd6).
                 rmps paging00 : removes deactivated paging space paging00.
swapoff          Deactivates one or more paging space.
                 swapoff paging01 : deactivates paging space paging01.
swapon           Activates a paging space.
                 swapon paging01 : activate paging space paging01.
                 swapon -a : activates all paging spaces defined in /etc/swapspaces.
swap             Displays paging characteristics and enables the allocation and deallocation of paging devices.
                 swap -l : displays device, major and minor numbers, and total and free space.
                 swap -a /dev/paging01 : activates paging space paging01 (like swapon).
                 swap -d /dev/paging01 : deactivates paging space paging01 (like swapoff).
migratepv        migratepv -l hd6 hdisk0 hdisk2 : moves hd6 from hdisk0 to PV hdisk2 within the same VG
                 (always use VG rootvg for hd6 performance).

Communications Management
rc.tcpip         Script that initializes selected TCP/IP daemons using SRC at each system restart: inetd, lpd,
                 portmap, sendmail, syslogd (started by default) and gated or routed, named, timed, xntpd,
                 rwhod, snmpd, dhcpcd, mrouted, autoconf6 (not started by default unless they are
                 stopsrc -g tcpip : stops all running TCP/IP daemons.
                 stopsrc -s named : stops the named daemon.
                 /etc/rc.tcpip : starts all selected TCP/IP daemons. Don't use startsrc -g tcpip (would start all
                 subsystems in the tcpip group).
                 startsrc -s named : starts the named daemon.
                 refresh -s inetd : refresh the inetd subsystem (re-reads /etc/inetd.conf).
/etc/tcp.clean   sh /etc/tcp.clean : stops all running TCP/IP daemons (not portmap and nfsd) and removes all
                 /etc/locks/lpd TCP/IP lock files.
inetd daemon     Provides Internet service management for a network. Starts by default using the /etc/inetd.conf
                 configuration file. Daemons controlled by the inetd daemon: ftpd, rlogind, rexecd, rshd, talkd,
                 telnetd, and uucpd (started by default) and tftpd, fingerd, and comsat (not started by default
                 unless they are uncommented).
                 resfresh -s inetd : informs the inetd daemon of the changes to its configuration file. The ports
                 inetd listens on are in /etc/services (unless they are commented).
lsdev            Displays devices in the system and their characteristics.
                 lsdev -Cc if : lists IP interfaces.
lscfg            Displays configuration, diagnostic, and VPD.
                 lscfg -l ent0 -v : displays the VPD for ent0.
lsattr           Displays attribute characteristics and possible attribute values for devices.
                 lsattr -HEl en0 : displays effective values for interface en0.
netstat          Shows network status.
                 netstat -in : shows status of IP interfaces with numeric addresses.
             netstat -rn : shows status of TCP/IP routes with numeric addresses.
             netstat -C : shows routing table, user-configured and current costs of each route.
             netstat -v : shows device driver statistics.
arp          Displays and modifies address resolution.
             arp -a : displays local ARP cache (ip to mac address table).
no           Manages network tuning parameters. Changes are valid until the next reboot.
             no -a : displays kernel variable values.
             no -o ipforwarding : displays if ipforwarding is on (=1) or off (=0).
             no -o ipforwarding=1 : specifies the kernel should forward packets (acting as an IP router).
ifconfig     Configures or displays network interface parameters for TCP/IP.
             ifconfig -a : displays information about all interfaces in the system.
             ifconfig en0 : displays network interface parameters for en0.
             ifconfig en0 inet netmask up : assigns IP-address
             with network mask to interface en0 of address family inet and turns on the network
             ifconfig en0 down : turns off network card en0.
route        Makes manual entries into the network routing tables until next reboot.
             route -rn : displays route table.
             route add -inet -net : adds a network route to the routing table for
             destination host through gateway
lsattr       Displays attribute characteristics and possible values of attributes for devices.
             lsattr -El en0 : lists the current attribute values for en0.
nslookup     Queries Internet domain name servers.
             nslookup : enters interactive mode.
             nslookup nserver1 : returns the domain name and Internet address of nserver1.
traceroute   Displays the route that IP packets take to a network host.
             traceroute server2 : displays all the hops from local host to server2.
iptrace      Provides interface-level packet tracing for Internet protocols.
ipreport     Generates a trace report from the specified trace file created by the iptrace command.
ping         Sends an echo request to a network host.
             ping -c 6 server1 : checks the network connection to host server1 by sending 6 echo requests.
             ping -f server2 : invokes the flood-ping option to host server2.
             ping -R : displays the full round trip route of a packet.
spray        Sends a one-way stream of packets to a host and reports performance statistics using the RPC
             (default) or ICMP protocol (two-way stream).
             spray server1 -c 1000 -d 4 : sends 1000 packets at intervals of 4 microseconds to server1.
host         Resolves a host name into an Internet address or an Internet address into a host name. System
             files: /etc/hosts (local hosts table).
             host server1 : displays the Internet address and name aliases of host server1.
             host : displays the host whose address is
hostid       Sets or displays the identifier of the current local host.
hostname     Sets or displays the name of the current host system.
             hostname tulip : changes the hostname to tulip until the next reboot.
             chdev -l inet0 -a hostname=server1 : changes the hostname permanently to server1.
mktcpip      Sets the required values for starting TCP/IP on a host.
rwho         Displays which users are logged in to hosts (that run rwhod) on the local network.
             rwho -a : lists all users currently logged in to hosts on the local network.
ruptime      Displays the status of each host (that runs rwhod) that is on the local network.
             ruptime -al : lists a status report of each host on the local network sorted by load average.
lsnamsv      Shows name service information stored in the database /etc/resolv.conf (name resolver).
chnamsv      Changes TCP/IP-based name service configuration on a host.
mknamsv      Configures TCP/IP-based name service on a host for a client.
rmnamsv      Unconfigures TCP/IP-based name service on a host.

User/Group Management
dispuid      Displays all valid user IDs on the system.
logins       Displays user and system login information.
             logins -p : lists all the logins with no passwords.
lsuser       Displays attributes of user accounts.
             lsuser ALL : displays all the attributes of all the users.
mkuser       Creates a new user account. System files: /etc/passwd (contains basic user attributes) and
             /etc/group (contains basic group attributes). The default attributes are in the
             /usr/lib/security/mkuser.default file.
             mkuser erik : creates the erik user account.
passwd       Changes a user's password. System files: /etc/security/passwd (contains password information).
             passwd hans : changes the password of user hans.
pwdadm       Administers users' passwords (by root or a member of the security group).
chsec        Changes the attributes in the security stanza files.
             chsec -f /etc/security/login.cfg -s default -a pwdprompt="Password:" : changes the system-
             wide password (echo's user name) prompt to Password (doesn't echo user name.
             chsec -f /etc/security/login.cfg -s default -a usernameecho=false : hides the user name from
             login and system messages.
mkuser.sys   Customizes a new user account.
chuser       Changes attributes for the specified user.
rmuser       Removes a user account.
             rmuser -p erik : removes user erik.
             rm -r /home/erik : removes erik's home directory.
dispgid      Displays all valid groups on the system.
lsgroup      Displays the attributes of groups.
             lsgroup ALL : lists all groups.
chgroup      Changes attributes for groups (don't use in combination with NIS).
chgrpmem     Changes the administrators or members of a group.
mkgroup      Creates a new group.
rmgroup      Removes a group.
usrck        Verifies the correctness of a user definition.
grpck        Verifies the correctness of a group definition.
pwdck        Verifies the correctness of local authentication information.
last         Displays information about previous logins using the /var/adm/wtmp file.
             last root : display all logins and logoffs by user root.
             last -t 31081125 : displays all users still logged in at 11.25 am on August 31th.
who          Identifies the users currently logged in.
             who /var/adm/wtmp : displays a history of logins and logouts, system startups and shutdowns.
wall            Writes a message to all users or users of a specific group that are logged in.
                wall -g staff : broadcasts to group staff.
repquota        Summarizes quotas for a file system.
                repquota -u /home : prints a summary of user quotas in the /home file system.
                repquota -a : prints quotas for all file systems enabled with quotas in the /etc/filesystems file
edquota         Edits user and group quotas.
quota           Displays disk usage and quotas.
                quota : displays the quotas of the current user.
                quota -u erik : displays quotas as the root user for user erik.
quotacheck      Checks file system quota consistency.
                quotacheck /home : checks the user and group quotas in the /home file system.
quotaon or      Turns on and off file system quotas.
quotaoff        quotaon -u /home : turns on user quotas for the /home file system.
                quotaoff -v -a : turns off user and group quotas for all file systems (-a) in the /etc/filesystems file.

Print Management
The AIX print subsystem (default), a combination of the System V and Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD)
printing standard, and the System V R4 print subsystem are available. Both print subsystems cannot be set to the
active state at the same time using the normal procedures.
System file /etc/qconfig (stanzas that describe the printqueues and devices). Spooling uses the
/var/spool/qdaemon directory. Daemon: qdaemon.
switch.prt     Displays the current active print subsystem, or switch between the active and inactive print
               subsystem. Read also AIX System V Printing.
               switch.prt -d : displays the current print subsystem that is active.
AIX print subsystem
qprt           Starts a print job.
lpr            Enqueues print jobs.
lp             Sends requests to a line printer.
enq            Enqueues a file.
chprtsv        Changes a print service configuration on a client or server machine.
lsque          Displays the queue stanza name.
               lsque -q ps : displays the name of queue stanza ps.
mkque          Adds a printer queue to the system.
mkquedev       Adds a printer queue device to the system.
rmque          Removes a printer queue from the system.
rmquedev       Removes a printer or plotter queue device from the system.
chque          Changes the queue name.
chvirprt       Changes the attribute values of a virtual printer.
lsallq         Lists the names of all configured queues.
lsallqdev      Lists all configured printer and plotter queue device names within a specified queue.
lsprtsv        Shows print service information stored in the database.
lsquedev       Displays the device stanza name.
chquedev       Changes the printer or plotter queue device names.
mkvirprt       Makes a virtual printer.
rmvirprt         Removes a virtual printer.
mkprtsv          Configures TCP/IP-based print service on a host.
rmprtsv          Unconfigures a print service on a client or server machine.
System V R4 print subsystem
lp               Sends print requests.
cancel           Cancels print requests previously sent with the lp command.
lpstat           Displays the status of all print requests made by the user.
accept           Allows the queuing of print requests.
reject           Prevents queuing of print requests.
enable           Activates the named printers, enabling them to print requests.
disable          Deactivates the named printers, disabling them to print requests.
lpadmin          Configures the lp print service by defining printers and devices.
lpfilter         Administers filters used.
lpforms          Administers the use of preprinted forms.
lpmove           Moves print requests between destinations.
lpsched          Starts the print service.
lpshut           Stuts down the print service.
lpsystem         Registers remote systems with the print service.
lpusers          Set printing queue priorities.

Software Management
A fileset is the smallest installable base unit for the AIX operating system (example: bos.perf.pefstat). A package is
a group of separately installable filesets that provide a set of related functions (example: bos.perf). A Licensed
Program Product (LPP) is a complete software product including all packages associated with that licensed
program (example: bos). A bundle is a list of software that can contain filesets, packages, and LPPs that are suited
for a particular use (examples: CDE, KDE, GNOME).
Each fileset in a product can be divided into three parts: usr, root, and share. Parceling of a software product is
used for diskless and dataless clients. Thus it can be installed on one machine (the server) and then be used
remotely by other machines on a network (the clients).
The usr part of a software product can be shared by machines with the same hardware architecture (stored in /usr).
The root part (optional) of a software product cannot be shared by machines. In a client/server environment, these
are the files for which there must be a unique copy for each client of a server. Most of the root software is
associated with the configuration of the machine or product (stored in the root (/) file tree. The /etc/objrepos
directory contains the root part of an installable software product's VPD).
The share part (optional) can be shared among machines, even if they have different hardware architectures.The
share part of a product is always packaged in a separately installable package (stored in /usr/share).
The format for a software product level in AIX 5.2 is as follows:
configassist       Displays the Configuration Assistant wizard (graphics display).
install_assist     Starts the Installation Assistant application (ASCII display).
geninstall         A generic software product installer for installp, InstallShield Multi-Platform (ISMP), the Red Hat
                   Package Manager (RPM) installer and Uniform Device Interface (UDI).
                   geninstall –Ld /dev/cd0 : lists the contents of the CD media.
                   geninstall -d /tmp/RPM * : installs all RPM packages in the /tmp/RPM directory.
                   geninstall -d /dev/cd0 R:cdrecord : installs the cdrecord RPM package.
install_wizard     Invokes the Web-based System Manager Install Wizard or the SMIT install menu.
             install_wizard -d /dev/cd0 : invokes the Web-based System Manager Install Wizard using an
             install CD in /dev/cd0.
gencopy      Allows software products of various packaging formats (installp, RPM, ISMP, UDI) to be copied.
             Wraps to the bffcreate command.
             gencopy –Ld /dev/cd0 : lists the contents of the CD media.
             gencopy –d /dev/cd0 I:bos.perf R:cdrecord : copies bos.perf and cdrecord images from CD
             media to the default directory (/usr/sys/inst.images).
installp     Install, update, and perform maintenance tasks on software.
             installp -aXYd /dev/cd0 bos.perf : installs (automatically committed) all filesets within bos.perf
             from /dev/cd0, expands file systems if necessary (-X), and accepts software licenses (-Y).
             installp -pad /dev/cd0 X11.Dt : previews installation of X11.Dt from /dev/cd0.
             installp -u -V2 X11.Dt : removes fileset X11.Dt with a verbose display of successes, warnings
             and failures.
             installp -ld /dev/cd0 : lists all software products and their separately installable options on
             installp -cgX all : commits all applied updates and removes the filesets for the previous version.
             installp -C : cleans up after a failed installation.
mkinstallp   Creates software packages in installp format.
rpm          Installs, upgrades, queries, and deletes Linux RPM packages and maintains the RPM package
             database (located in /var/opt/freeware/lib/rpm).
             rpm -qa : queries installed RPM packages.
             rpm -Uvh * : installs the RPM packages in the current directory.
lslpp        Displays information about installed filesets/fileset updates.
             lslpp -l : displays the maintenance level and state.
             lslpp -L all : lists all installed software.
             lslpp -L bos.dosutils : check if software installed.
             lslpp -f bos.perf : displays the names of all the files of fileset bos.perf.
             lslpp -ha : lists installation history of filesets.
             lslpp -w /usr/sbin/nfsd : lists the fileset that the file belongs to.
             lslpp -E bos.rte : displays the license agreements of the installed filesets.
             lslpp -v :shows only the filesets that do not have the required prerequisites or are not completely
inulag       Manages license agreements (front end).
             inulag -l : lists all available software license agreements.
epkg         Creates emergency fix (efix) packages that can be installed by the efix manager, emgr.
             epkg perf : runs the epkg command in interactive mode and creates efix package perf.
emgr         Starts the emergency fix (efix) manager, which installs, removes, lists, and checks system efixes.
             The efix manager installs packages created with the epkg command and maintains a database
             containing efix information. Databases are in the /usr/emgrdata/DBS directory.
             emgr -l : lists all efixes on the system.
             emgr -X -e perf.040503.epkg.Z : installs efix package perf.040603.epkg.Z and automatically
             expand file systems if needed.
lppmgr       Manages an existing installp image source.
             lppmgr -d /images -u : lists all duplicate and conflicting updates in image source directory
             lppmgr -d /images -u -r : removes all duplicate and conflicting updates in image source directory
lppchk       Verifies that files of an installable software product (fileset) match the SWVPD database
             information for file sizes, checksum values, or symbolic links.
             lppchk -v : verifies that all filesets have all required requisites and are completely installed.
             lppchk -c X11.Dt : checks that file checksums and sizes of X11.Dt are consistent with SWVPD.
             lppchk -l 'bos*' : verifies the symbolic links of all 'bos*' software products.
compare_report Compares fileset levels to those available and generates a report of filesets needed.
               compare_report -s -r /tmp/LatestFixData52 -l : compares the software installed on a system (-
               s) to the report of available updates (-r) LatestFixData52, available from the support Web site
               at IBM.
oslevel           Reports the latest installed maintenance level of the system.
                  oslevel -r : determines the highest recommended maintenance level reached for the current
                  version of AIX.
                  oslevel -lr 5100-04: lists which fileset updates are missing if after installing ML 04 on 5100-03
                  the command oslevel -r still shows 5100-03 (so, preferrably no output!).
instfix           Installs filesets associated with keywords or fixes.
                  instfix -i | grep ML : displays all ML's installed.
                  instfix -ik "IY39231 IY38794" : checks if fixes IY39231 and IY38794 are installed.
                  instfix -k IY42424 -d /dev/fd0 : installs fix IY42424 from diskette.
install_all_    Updates installed system software to the latest level that is on the media and verifies the current
        updates recommended maintenance level.
                install_all_updates -d /dev/cd0 : installs all installp updates on /dev/cd0 and verifies the current
                recommended maintenance level.
                install_all_updates -d /images -rc : commit installs all installp updates and installs any
                installable rpm updates in directory /images.
whence            Displays the absolute path name.
                  whence nfsd : displays the full path of the nfsd program.
what              Displays identifying information in files.
which_fileset     Displays which fileset owns a command.
                  The bos.content_list fileset must be installed.
                  which_fileset topas : displays which fileset owns the topas command.
inutoc            Creates a .toc file.
                  inutoc : creates the .toc file for the /usr/sys/inst.images directory.

Backup and Restore Management
lsmksysb         Lists or restores the contents of a system backup.
                 lsmksysb : lists the contents of a system backup located on default device /dev/rmt0.
                 lsmksysb -f /dev/cd0 -s : lists the contents of a non-rootvg VG backup (-s).
                 lsmksysb -B : displays the volume group backup log.
                 lsmksysb -f /dev/cd0 : lists the contents of the system backup located on device /dev/cd0.
                 lsmksysb -f /dev/cd0 -r ./etc/inittab : restores /etc/inittab from the system backup on device
                 lsmksysb -r -d /tmp/etc ./etc : restores all files in the /etc directory of the rootvg backup on
                 /dev/rmt0 and write the restored files to /tmp/etc.
mksysb           Creates a bootable system backup of the rootvg volume group. Uses / (contains
                 information on VGs, LVs, file systems, paging space, and PVs for an mksysb backup) and
                 / (specifies requirements at the target system for an mksysb backup
                 mksysb -i -e /dev/rmt0 2>/tmp/mksysb.err : creates a system backup (-i generates the
                 / file) while excluding from the mksysb backup the user specified files and directories in
                 Procedure to restore /etc/inittab:
                 Find out the blocksize of the fourth image if not default:
                 cd /tmp
                 tctl -f /dev/rmt0 rewind
                 chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=512
                 restore -s2 -xqdvf /dev/rmt0.1 ./tapeblksz
                 cat ./tapeblksz
                 chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=[number in the ./tapeblksz file]
                 Restore /etc/inittab:
                 cd /
                 tctl -f /dev/rmt0 rewind
                 restore -s4 -xqdvf /dev/rmt0.1 ./etc/inittab
mkszfile         Saves the system state for reinstallation on the current system or on another system in the
                 / file.
                 mkszfile : creates or overwrites /
mkcd             Creates a multi-volume CD (or CDs) or DVD from a mksysb or savevg backup image. Supported
                 are: bootable and non-bootable CDs in Rock Ridge (ISO9660) or UDF (Universal Disk Format)
                 format. Only CHRP platform supports booting from DVD.
                 mkcd -d /dev/cd0 : creates a bootable system backup on CD-R /dev/cd0.
                 mkcd -U -d /dev/cd1 -V rootvg : creates a mksysb image (UDF format) on DVD-RAM.
savevg           Finds and backs up all files belonging to a specified volume group.
                 savevg -i uservg : backs up VG uservg to the default tape drive (dev/rmt0) and creates a new
                 /tmp/vgdata/uservg/ file (-i).
mkvgdata         Creates a /tmp/vgdata/vgname/ file containing information about a volume group for
                 use by savevg and restvg.
                 mkvgdata uservg : creates a new /tmp/vgdata/uservg/ file.
restvg           Restores the user volume group and all its containers and files.
                 restvg -l -f /dev/rmt0 : displays VG information about the VG backed up on the tape in /dev/rmt0.
                 restvg -s -f /dev/rmt0 hdisk1: restores the VG image from /dev/rmt0 onto PV hdisk1 with the LVs
                 created at the minimum size possible to accommodate the file systems (-s: shrink file systems).
listvgbackup     Lists or restores the contents of a volume group backup. listvgbackup -r and restorevgfiles are
                 interchangeable (perform identical operations).
                 listvgbackup -f /dev/cd0 : lists the contents of the system backup on device /dev/cd0.
                 listvgbackup -r -s ./data/mydata : restores the /data/mydata file from a non-rootvg backup on
                 device /dev/rmt0.
restorevgfiles   Restores files from a backup source.
                 restorevgfiles -f /dev/cd0 -s -d /tmp ./data/mydata : restores the /data/mydata file from a non-
                 rootvg backup on /dev/cd0 to the /tmp directory.
backup           Backs up files and file systems including extended permissions (ACLs).
                 find . -print | backup -i -q -f /dev/rmt0 : backs up all the files and subdirectories in the current
                 directory to /dev/rmt0 using relative path names, without prompting to prepare the backup medium
                 backup -0 -u -f /dev/rmt0 /home : backs up all the files (level 0) in the /home file system to
                 /dev/rmt0 and updates /etc/dumpdates (-u).
restore          Extracts files from archives created with the backup command.
                 restore -Pa -vf /dev/rmt0 : restores only the permissions of the files on the tape archive.
                 restore -s4 -Tdvqf /dev/rmt0.1 : lists contents of a mksysb tape.
                 restore -s4 -xdvqf /dev/rmt0.1 ./etc/inittab : restores the inittab file from tape.
pax              Extracts, writes, and lists members of archive files; copies files and directory hierarchies.
tar              Manipulates archives. Use /opt/freeware/bin/tar for the Linux tar.
                 tar -cvf /dev/rmt0 * : backs up the current directory to /dev/rmt0.
                 tar -xvf /dev/rmt0 /etc/passwd : extracts the file /etc/passwd form tape.
tcopy            Copies a magnetic tape.
                 tcopy /dev/rmt0 /dev/rmt1 : duplicates tape from tape device /dev/rmt0 to /dev/rmt1.
                 tcopy /dev/rmt0 : shows the block size in bytes for each tape file.
cpio             Copies files into and out of archive storage and directories.
                 find /home -print | cpio -ocvB > /dev/rmt0 : backs up /home to /dev/rmt0 using absolute path
                 cpio -idmv </dev/rmt0 : restores all files from /dev/rmt0 while retaining previous file modification
                 time (-m).
                 cpio -i "ma*" "myfile" </dev/rfd0 : restores all files that match ma* and the file myfile from
dd               Converts and copies a file.
                 dd if=/dev/rmt0 bs=128k count=1 | wc -c : reads a single block from /dev/rmt0 and finds out
                 used block size.
                 chdev -l rmt0 -a block_size=512 : changes the block size of /dev/rmt0 to 512 bytes.
                 dd if=/dev/fd0 of=/tmp/fdcopy : copies the contents of the diskette into /tmp/fdcopy.
tctl             Gives subcommands to a streaming tape device. Default device is /dev/rmt0.
                 tctl fsf 3 : moves forward three file marks.
                 tctl -f /dev/rmt1 rewind : rewinds the rmt1 tape device.
                 tctl rewoffl : rewinds the tape and takes the tape drive offline.

ODM Management
ODM information is stored in the directories /etc/objrepos (default ODM directory, $ODMDIR env variable),
/usr/lib/objrepos and /usr/share/lib/objrepos.
odmadd           Adds objects to created object classes.
odmchange        Changes the contents of a selected object in the specified object class.
odmcreate        Produces the .c (source) and .h (include) files necessary for ODM application development and
                 creates empty object classes.
odmdelete        Deletes selected objects from a specified object class.
odmdrop          Removes an object class.
odmget           Retrieves objects from the specified object classes and places them into an odmadd input file.
odmshow          Displays an object class definition.
                 odmshow CuDv : displays the object class definition for the Customized Device Database.

System Resource Controller (SRC)
lssrc            Gets the status of a subsystem, a group of subsystems, or a subserver.
                 lssrc -a : displays the status of all subsystems.
                 lssrc -g tcpip : display the status of the tcpip subsystem group.
startsrc         Starts a subsystem, a group of subsystems, or a subserver.
stopsrc          Stops a subsystem, a group of subsystems, or a subserver.
refresh          Requests a refresh of a subsystem or group of subsystems.
                 refresh -g tcpip : refresh the group tcpip.
                 refresh -s inetd : refresh the inetd subsystem (re-reads /etc/inetd.conf).
chssys           Changes a subsystem definition in the subsystem object class.
mkssys           Adds a subsystem definition to the subsystem object class.
rmssys           Removes a subsystem definition from the subsystem object class.
mkserver         Adds a subserver definition to the subserver object class.
rmserver         Removes a subserver definition from the subserver object class.

Process Management
utmpd            The utmpd daemon monitors /etc/utmp for validity of the user process entries every 300 seconds
                 (default). Default there is no entry in /etc/inittab for utmpd.
                 utmpd 500 : runs utmpd every 500 seconds.
whodo            Reports the list of processes and their child processes belonging to users.
                 who -l : summarises the current activity on the system.
procwdx          Prints the current working directory of a process.
                 procwdx 21318 : displays the current working directory of process 21318.
truss            Traces system calls executed by a process as, records the received signals and the occurrence
                 of machine faults. The output of truss can become very large.
                 truss -e -o truss.out whoo : runs the who command under truss including the environment
                 content (-e) and redirects the output to truss.out.

crontab          Submits, edits, lists, or removes cron jobs for the cron daemon. The cron daemon logs its
                 activities in /var/adm/cron/log.
                 Each crontab file entry contains six fields: minute hour day_of_month month weekday command
                 crontab -l : lists the user's crontab file.
                 crontab -e : edit the crontab file using an intermediate copy.
at               Runs commands at a later time.
                 at -l : reports the current user's scheduled jobs.
batch            Runs jobs when the system load level permits.
skulker          Cleans up file systems by removing unwanted files. Remove the comment from the skulker entry
                 of the root crontab to enable operation.

Performance Management
The base priority of a thread is 40. The nice value defaults to 20 for foreground processes and 24 for background
The CPUs on a system are shared among all of the threads by giving each thread a time slice of one clock tick (10
Install the (base tools), bos.sysmgt.trace, bos.perf.perfstat and filesets.
Commands no longer supported: bf (bigfoot), bfrpt, lockstat, stem, and syscalls.
topas            Reports selected local system statistics.
schedo           Manages CPU scheduler tunable parameters.
                 schedo -o 15 : changes the time slice of one clock tick to 15 ms.
bindprocessor Binds or unbinds the kernel threads of a process to a processor.
              bindprocessor 22358 2 : binds the threads in process 22358 to processor 2.
perfpmr          A set of tools and instructions for collecting the data needed to analyze a AIX performance
fdpr             A performance tuning utility for improving execution time and real memory utilization of user-level
                 application programs.
iostat           Reports CPU statistics and input/output statistics for the entire system, adapters, tty devices, disks
                 and CD-ROMs.
                 iostat -s 2 4 : displays four reports at two second intervals starting with the sum of all activities (-
                 iostat -a : generates an adapter throughput report for all of the disk adapters.
                 lsattr -E -l sys0 -a iostat : displays the current iostat settings.
                 chdev -l sys0 -a iostat=false : disable the collection of iostat data.
lvmstat          Reports input/output statistics for LPs, LVs and VGs for hot-spot management.
                 lvmstat -v rootvg -e : enables statistics collection for all the LVs in VG rootvg.
                 lvmstat -v rootvg : reports statistics for all the LVs in VG rootvg.
                 lvmstat -v rootvg -C : clears the counter for VG rootvg.
                 lvmstat -l hd6 : reports statistics for LV hd6 (paging).
                 See migratelp to move LPs from one PP to another on a different PV.

DOS files Management
Install the bos.dosutils fileset for the DOS-commands or install mtools (AIX Toolbox for Linux Applications).
dosdir               Lists the directory for DOS files (default device is /dev/fd0).
dosread              Copies DOS files to AIX files.
                     dosread -a yourfile.txt yourfile : copies a text file from a DOS diskette and replaces each
                     carriage return, line-feed sequence with a new-line character and interprets a Ctrl-Z as the
                     end-of-line character.
                     dosdir | awk '!/There are/ {print $1}'|xargs -t -i dosread {} {} : copies every DOS file from a
                     DOS diskette.
doswrite             Copies AIX files to DOS files.
                     doswrite -a myfile myfile.txt : copies file myfile to a DOS diskette and replaces new-line
                     characters with carriage return, line-feed sequences (-a). Ctrl-Z is added at the end of file.
                     for i in *;do;doswrite $i $i;done : copies every file in the current directory to a DOS diskette.
dosdel               Deletes DOS files.
dosformat            Formats a DOS diskette.
Mtools is a public domain collection of tools to allow Unix systems to manipulate MS-DOS files
Documentation: Mtools (HTML) or Mtools (PDF).
floppyd              floppy daemon to run on your X server box
floppyd_installtest small utility to check for the presence of floppyd
mattrib              change MS-DOS file attribute flags
mbadblocks           tests a floppy disk, and marks the bad blocks in the FAT
mcat                 same as cat. Only usefull with floppyd.
mcd                  change MS-DOS directory
mcopy                copy MS-DOS files to/from Unix
mdel                 delete an MS-DOS file
mdeltree             recursively delete an MS-DOS directory
mdir                 display an MS-DOS directory
mdu                  list space occupied by directory and its contents
mformat              add an MS-DOS filesystem to a low-level formatted floppy disk
minfo                get information about an MS-DOS filesystem.
mlabel               make an MS-DOS volume label
mkmanifest           makes a list of short name equivalents
mmd                  make an MS-DOS subdirectory
mmount               mount an MS-DOS disk
mpartition           create an MS-DOS as a partition
mrd                  remove an MS-DOS subdirectory
mmove                move or rename an MS-DOS file or subdirectory
mren                 rename an existing MS-DOS file
mshowfat          shows the FAT map of a file
mtoolstest        tests and displays the configuration
mtype             display contents of an MS-DOS file
mzip              zip disk specific commands

dtconfig       /usr/dt/bin/dtconfig -d : disables desktop logins (-e enables desktop logins).
dtlogin        /usr/dt/bin/dtlogin -daemon : starts the desktop login manager manually.
xinit          Initializes the X Window System.
               xinit /etc/dt/Xsession : starts the CDE desktop from command line interface (customized version,
               if present).
               xinit /usr/dt/bin/Xsession : starts the CDE desktop from command line interface (default


Abbreviations and Acronyms
APAR           Authorized Program Analysis Report
CDE            Common Desktop Environment
CHRP           Common Hardware Reference Platform
CuDv           Customized Devices object class (ODM)
DHCP           Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
ICMP           Internet Control Message Protocol
ISA            Instrumentation Systems and Automation Society
ISMP           InstallShield Multi-Platform
JFS            Journaled File System
JFS2           Enhanced Journaled File System
LFT            Low Function Terminal
LTG            Logical Track Group
LPP            Licensed Program Product
LV             Logical Volume
LVCB           Logical Volume Control Block
MCA            Micro Channel Bus Architecture
ML             Maintenance Level
MWC            Mirror Write Consistency
NIS            Network Information Service
NVRAM          NonVolatile Random Access Memory
ODM            Object Data Manager Database
PB             PetaBytes (1 PB is equal to 1024 TB)
PCI            Peripheral Component Interconnect
PCMCIA   Personal Computer Memory Card International Association
PdDv     Predefined Devices object class (ODM)
PV       Physical Volume
PVID     Physical Volume IDentifier
PP       Physical Partition
PTF      Program Temporary Fix
RPC      Remote Procedure Call
PReP     POWERPC Reference Platform
RPM      Red Hat Package Manager
SRC      System Resource Controler
SWVPD    Software Vital Product Data
TB       TeraBytes (1 TB is equal to 1024 GB)
UDI      Uniform Device Interface
VG       Volume Group
VGDA     Volume Group Description Area
VGSA     Volume Group Status Area
VPD      Vital Product Data

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