Chemistry by qingyunliuliu

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									Cambridge IGCSE Combined Science
Syllabus code 0653
For examination in June and November 2011

0653 Syllabus statement
CHEMISTRY TOPIC 1: ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND BONDING
Atomic structure
Core


• know the three fundamental particles, protons, neutrons and electrons, and their
relative charges and masses (the electron mass may be quoted as a fraction of the
proton mass)



• understand and be able to define proton number and nucleon number




• know that the former identifies an element and locates its position in the Periodic
Table
• know that elements can be represented by a symbol which is shown in the Periodic
Table
• use the notation a bX for an atom




• appreciate that electrons move around the nucleus and know how to draw the
electrons in shells model




• be able to work out the arrangement of electrons for the first twenty elements of the
Periodic Table




• know that the noble gas electronic structure is associated with the inert nature of
these elements
• be able to write down proton number, nucleon number and electron configuration by
interpreting information from the Periodic Table (limited to elements 1 to 20 inclusive)
Atomic structure
Supplement
• understand that shells correspond to electron energy levels


• know that atoms of the same element with different nucleon numbers are called
isotopes
• know the difference between relative atomic mass (Ar ) of an element and nucleon
number of a particular isotope
• appreciate that the former is an average, and understand why an accurate value of
Ar is not a whole number
Elements, mixtures and compounds
Core




• be able to describe the differences between elements, mixtures and compounds
• know that elements are made of atoms having the same proton number, and that
they cannot be separated into simpler substances



• know that compounds are formed when elements join together
• appreciate that the properties of compounds are usually very different from the
elements from which they have formed



• be able to describe mixtures as two or more substances which are present together,
but which retain their individual properties
• know that mixing does not involve a significant energy change, and that it is often
easy to separate mixtures by physical methods
• be able to describe suitable methods for the physical separation of mixtures




• be able to suggest a method of separation given: a mixture of an insoluble solid and
liquid (filtration, simple distillation); a solution (evaporation, crystallisation); a liquid
mixture (fractional distillation); coloured solutes in a water solution (chromatography)
• know that when compounds form there is usually a significant energy change, and
that most compounds are difficult to split up
Elements, mixtures and compounds
Supplement
• appreciate that solvents other than water can be used in chromatography, if water
insoluble substances are involved
Bonding
Core




• appreciate that compounds can be classified into two broad types, ionic and
covalent, according to the particular way that the atoms have bonded


• know that ionic and covalent compounds tend to have certain characteristic physical
properties, but the most reliable distinction is in their ability to behave as electrolytes
(see also Topic 5)
• be able to use the word molecule to describe the units produced when covalent
bonds form

• appreciate that ionic compounds usually form when a metal joins with a non-metal


• know that ions are particles which are electrically charged, either positively or
negatively




• know that metals form positive ions and that non-metals form negative ions




• know that when atoms of non-metallic elements join they form covalent bonds



• be able to write and recognise displayed (graphical) representations of the
molecules H2, Cl2, H2O, CH4, NH3 and HCl
• appreciate that multiple bonds can exist between atoms, and be able to draw
displayed representations of molecules of N2, CO2 and ethene
Bonding
Supplement



• be able to describe how atoms from Groups I, II, VI and VII form ions by losing or
gaining electrons to achieve a noble gas configuration


• be able to explain the nature of the charge on the resulting ions, and to understand
that the ionic bond is the result of electrical attraction between ions

• be able to draw dot and cross representations of simple binary ionic compounds



• be able to describe the formation of single covalent bonds by the sharing of
electrons in pairs to achieve noble gas configurations



• be familiar with the molecules of H2, Cl2, H2O, CH4, NH3 and HCl, and be able to
draw dot and cross diagrams to represent them



• be able to describe multiple bond formation in terms of electron pair sharing in N2,
CO2 and ethane
• be able to draw dot and cross diagrams for these molecules
CHEMISTRY TOPIC 2: PERIODIC TABLE, FORMULAE, EQUATIONS
Formulae and equations
Core



• know that a formula shows the number ratio and type of atoms which have joined




• be able to write a formula given the number ratio, and be able to state the names
and numbers of combined atoms given a formula


• know the purpose of a word equation, and what it shows
• appreciate that symbolic equations must be balanced, and be able to recognise
whether a given equation is balanced
• be able to complete the balancing of a given simple equation
Formulae and equations
Supplement

• know that all compounds are electrically neutral, and be able to construct the
formula of an ionic compound given the charges on ions (recall of the formulae of
radicals such as SO42–, CO32–, NO3– and NH4+ is not expected)



• be able to construct simple balanced equations from information supplied



• know the meaning of relative molecular mass, Mr , and calculate it as the sum of the
relative atomic masses, Ar (the term relative formula mass or Mr will be used for ionic
compounds)



• appreciate that a balanced equation enables the calculation of the masses of
reactants or products (stoichiometric calculations involving the mole concept will not
be required)
Further uses of the Periodic Table
Core


• know that the Periodic Table is a method of organising the Elements, and that it can
be used to predict their properties
• know the meaning of the words group and period, and understand that elements
within a group have similar properties

• be able to describe the key differences between metallic and non-metallic elements


• know that metallic elements are found towards the left and nonmetallic elements
towards the right of the table




• be able to describe Group I (limited to Li, Na and K) to show their similarities in
appearance and reaction with water




• be able to describe Group VII (limited to Cl2 Br2 and I2) as diatomic molecules
• be able to describe their colours and their trend in physical state



• know that the elements between Sc and Zn are called transition elements, and that
they are similar in that they have high densities, have high melting points, tend to form
coloured compounds and that they (or their compounds) are often useful as catalysts




• show an awareness that noble gases are still useful, despite their unreactivity



• know that the noble gases increase in density down the Group, and that because
helium is much less dense than air it is used in airships and weather balloons
Further uses of the Periodic Table
Supplement


• appreciate that the reactivity of Group I metals with water increases down the group,
and that this reflects a general reactivity trend for Groups I and II
• appreciate that the reactivity of the halogens decreases down the group



• be able to predict the main properties of an element given information about its
position in the Periodic Table
CHEMISTRY TOPIC 3: METALS AND NON-METALS
Oxides of metals and non-metals
Core



• know that the oxides of metals tend to give alkaline solutions in water, and that non-
metal oxides give acidic solutions
Oxides of metals and non-metals
Supplement



• appreciate that insoluble oxides do not affect the pH of water
Metals
Core
• be able to describe the reactions of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Zn and Cu with water or steam,
and appreciate that the vigour of reaction is an indication of the reactivity of the metal




• be able to describe the reactions of Mg, Zn and Cu with dilute mineral acids, and
know that the vigour of the reaction gives an indication of the reactivity of the metals
• know that the reaction between alkali metals and acid is dangerously explosive
• know the flame test for identifying potassium, sodium, calcium and copper

Metals
Supplement




• be able to place the following elements in order of reactivity: K, Na, Mg, Zn, Fe, H2
and Cu, and know that this list is part of the reactivity series
• be able to describe metal displacement reactions limited to metals from the above
list (ionic equations will not be required)


• be able to interpret the results of metal displacement to place metals into reactivity
order
Extraction of metals
Core




• know that reactive metals occur in ores which contain a compound of the metal
• know that a chemical reaction called reduction (see also Topic 5) can be used to
extract the metal (e.g. reduction of iron(III) oxide or copper(II) oxide)
• know that for very reactive metals, electrolysis is required (see also Topic 5)




• know that an alloy is a mixture mainly of metals




• know that steels are examples of alloys of iron which contain controlled amounts of
carbon and other elements
• know that steels are stronger and less brittle than iron and are more resistant to
rusting



• state the use of mild steel for car bodies and machinery, and stainless steel for
cutlery and industrial chemical plant


• know some of the common uses of aluminium linked firmly to its properties; in
particular, its use in food containers and kitchen utensils, because of its resistance to
corrosion; its use in overhead cables, because of its low density and good electrical
conductivity; its use in making low density alloys, used in airframes
Extraction of metals
Supplement
• be able to give an outline description of the extraction of iron by reduction in the blast
furnace (recall of the diagram is not required)

• know the main chemical reactions involved; combustion of carbon to give CO2 and
heat, reduction of CO2 to CO, and know that iron(III) oxide is reduced mainly by CO
• appreciate that aluminium is not extracted by chemical reduction because it is too
reactive
Non-metals
Core



• know that air is a mixture of elements and compounds, and be able to name the
main components, including the noble gases, water and carbon dioxide



• know the approximate volume % composition of air limited to nitrogen, oxygen,
carbon dioxide and ‘other gases’


• be able to name some of the common pollutants (i.e. carbon monoxide, sulfur
dioxide and nitrogen oxides)




• be able to explain that CO and NOx are found in exhaust gases from vehicles when
hydrocarbon fuels are burnt, and know that these gases are highly toxic

• appreciate that sulfur must be removed from fossil fuels to avoid formation of SO2

• know that SO2 can exacerbate breathing problems such as asthma if inhaled, and
that it contributes to ‘acid rain’ which can damage buildings, vegetation and habitats
Non-metals
Supplement


• be able to describe one practical method for determining the percentage of oxygen
in the air




• understand that CO is the result of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing
fuels (see Topic 6)
Rusting of iron
Core
• know that both water and oxygen are needed together for iron to rust
• be able to describe the common methods of preventing rusting, including barriers,
galvanising, tinning and alloying
Rusting of iron
Supplement
• be able to describe rusting as an oxidation reaction, and understand why there is an
increase in mass during rusting
Water
Core
• appreciate the need for a supply of clean drinking water


• be able to describe, in outline, the purification of the water supply in terms of filtration
and chlorination



• understand that chlorination sterilises the supply, and why this is important
Water
Supplement

• be able to describe a chemical test for water, such as the use of cobalt (II) chloride
paper
CHEMISTRY TOPIC 4: ACIDS, BASES AND SALTS
Core



• be able to describe an acid as a substance containing hydrogen that can be
replaced by a metal to form a salt



• be able to describe a base as a substance that will neutralise an acid to form a salt
and water




• know the general form of the pH scale
• be able to recognise the chemical formulae HCl, H2SO4 and HNO3 and name
these acids



• be able to describe the reactions of the common mineral acids with metals, bases
and carbonates, and their effect on litmus and Universal Indicator
• be able to write word equations for simple examples of these reactions
• know that alkalis are soluble bases, and recognise the names and formulae of
NaOH, KOH and NH3(aq)
Supplement
• know that hydrogen can be released in aqueous solution as H+(aq), and that pH is
related to the concentration of hydrogen ions

• know that alkaline solutions contain excess OH– ions




• understand that neutralisation involves the reaction between H+ and OH– ions to
form water




• be able to describe how to prepare a soluble salt from a suitable acid and an
insoluble base or carbonate




• be able to describe the preparation of a soluble salt by controlled neutralisation
followed by evaporation or crystallisation
CHEMISTRY TOPIC 5: CHEMICAL REACTIONS
Rate of reaction
Core
• appreciate that different chemical reactions proceed at different speeds



• know that the speed of a given reaction can be changed by changing the conditions
of the reaction




• know that increasing the temperature increases the speed




• know that increasing the concentration of solutions increases the speed




• know that increasing the surface area of solid reagents increases the speed
• know that a catalyst increases the speed without itself suffering chemical change ( a
discussion of activation energy is not required)
Rate of reaction
Supplement



• understand the effects of temperature, concentration and surface area on rate in
terms of increased frequency and/or energy of collisions between particles



• be able to interpret supplied data from rate experiments

• appreciate the importance of catalysts in industrial processes, as agents which
increase the speed of reactions and reduce costs (recall of specific industrial
processes is not required)
Oxidation and reduction
Core




• be able to describe oxidation as a reaction in which a substance gains oxygen
• be able to describe combustion reactions as oxidation
• appreciate that oxidation and reduction reactions always take place together in
reactions which are often called redox
Oxidation and reduction
Supplement



• know that redox can also be described in terms of electron transfer
Thermal decomposition
Core
• be able to distinguish between thermal decomposition and combustion
• know that thermal decomposition involves the breaking down of a complex
substance into simpler ones by heat alone
Thermal decomposition
Supplement
• know the products of the thermal decomposition of calcium carbonate
• understand the use of calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxide (lime) in treating
acid soils and acidic effluent
Electrolysis
Core
• be able to describe electrolysis as the breaking down of a compound by the passage
of direct electric current
• know, in general terms, the apparatus and materials needed for electrolysis
• know the terms anode and cathode
• know that an electrolyte is a liquid which allows a current to pass through it



• know that either dissolving or melting an ionic substance forms an electrolyte




• be able to describe the electrolysis of aqueous copper(II) chloride and of molten
lead(II) bromide



• know the general result that metals are deposited on the cathode, and non-metals
are formed at the anode
• appreciate that energy is used up in electrolysis, and that this is supplied from the
electrical power source




• know that electrolysis is used to extract aluminium, and is used in the production of
chlorine, sodium hydroxide and reactive metals




• know that electrolysis is used as a method of plating, and is used in the electrolytic
purification of copper (details of industrial processes are not required)
Electrolysis
Supplement


• understand the principle that positive ions are attracted to the cathode, and negative
ions are attracted to the anode
• understand that positive ions are discharged by gaining electrons from the cathode,
and negative ions give up electrons to the anode (ion-electron equations are not
required)
• appreciate that electrolysis of aqueous electrolytes may produce hydrogen at the
cathode and oxygen at the anode




• be able to describe the electrolysis using carbon electrodes of aqueous copper(II)
sulfate and of concentrated aqueous sodium chloride




• be able to describe the electrolysis of molten aluminium oxide (recall of industrial
cells is not required)
Tests for ions and gases
Core




• be able to describe tests for the following aqueous cations: ammonium, copper(II),
iron(II), iron(III) and zinc, using aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia
• be able to describe tests for the following aqueous anions: carbonate, chloride,
nitrate and sulfate




• be able to describe tests for the gases: ammonia, carbon dioxide, oxygen, hydrogen
and chlorine
CHEMISTRY TOPIC 6: FUELS AND POLYMERS
Fuels and combustion
Core




• know what is meant by the term fossil fuel
• be able to give examples and uses of solid, liquid and gaseous fuels

• understand that a hydrocarbon is a compound containing hydrogen and carbon only




• appreciate that hydrocarbon fuels are derived from crude oil (petroleum)

• understand burning in terms of the fire triangle (fuel, oxygen, heat), and that the
products of the complete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels are carbon dioxide and
water




• appreciate that the products of burning fossil fuels may have damaging effects on
the environment


• be able to describe exothermic reactions as those which give out heat to the
surroundings
Fuels and combustion
Supplement
• know the balanced equation for the complete combustion of methane




• understand that incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels produces carbon
monoxide and carbon (as black smoke)




• understand that bond breaking absorbs energy, and that bond making releases it
• understand that, in exothermic reactions, more energy is released when new bonds
form than is absorbed to break bonds in the reactants
• appreciate that different fuels release different amounts of energy
Oils and polymers
Core




• appreciate that crude oil (petroleum) is a mixture of hydrocarbons



• know that the mixture can be refined into simpler, more useful mixtures by fractional
distillation (details of the industrial plant are not required)
• understand, in outline, the principles of fractional distillation




• know that most plastics are made from molecules derived from oil




• understand that plastics are made from long chain-like molecules
• understand that long, chain-like molecules are formed when smaller molecules link
together




• understand and use the terms monomer and polymer
• appreciate that chemists are able to modify the properties of plastics, and that these
materials are often used as substitutes for natural materials which may need
conservation or whose properties may be inferior
Oils and polymers
Supplement



• understand, in outline, the process of cracking


• know that cracking involves breaking larger hydrocarbons into smaller ones, some
of which contain double bonds and so may be used in addition polymerisation




• know the aqueous bromine test for the presence of carbon to carbon double bonds



• be able to describe the process of addition polymerisation of ethene to form
poly(ethene)
0610 (Chemistry)



3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
Core
• State the relative charges and approximate relative masses of protons, neutrons
and electrons
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
Core
• Define proton number and nucleon number
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
Core
• Use proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the basis of the
Periodic Table (see section 9), with special reference to the elements of proton
number 1 to 20



3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
Core
• Describe the build-up of electrons in ‘shells’ and understand the significance of the
noble gas electronic structures and of valency electrons (the ideas of the
distribution of electrons in s and p orbitals and in d block elements are not
required.)
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
Core
• Use proton number and the simple structure of atoms to explain the basis of the
Periodic Table (see section 9), with special reference to the elements of proton
number 1 to 20
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
Core
• Describe the build-up of electrons in ‘shells’ and understand the significance of the
noble gas electronic structures and of valency electrons (the ideas of the
distribution of electrons in s and p orbitals and in d block elements are not
required.)
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
Core
• Describe the build-up of electrons in ‘shells’ and understand the significance of the
noble gas electronic structures and of valency electrons (the ideas of the
distribution of electrons in s and p orbitals and in d block elements are not
required.)



3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.1 Atomic structure and the Periodic Table
Core
• Define isotopes




3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 Bonding: the structure of matter
Core
• Describe the differences between elements, mixtures and compounds, and
between metals and non-metals



4. Stoichiometry
Core
• Use the symbols of the elements and write the formulae of simple compounds


3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 Bonding: the structure of matter
Core
• Describe the differences between elements, mixtures and compounds, and
between metals and non-metals



2. Experimental techniques
2.2 (b) Methods of purification
Core
• Describe methods of purification by the use of a suitable solvent, filtration,
crystallisation, distillation (including use of fractionating column). (Refer to the
fractional distillation of crude oil in section 14.2 and products of fermentation in
section 14.6.)
2. Experimental techniques
2.2 (a) Criteria of purity
Core
• Describe paper chromatography
• Interpret simple chromatograms

Supplement
• Outline how chromatography techniques can be applied to colourless substances
by exposing chromatograms to substances called locating agents (knowledge of
specific locating agents is not required)


3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 Bonding: the structure of matter
Core
3.2 (a) Ions and ionic bonds
Core
• Describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain

3.2 (b) Molecules and covalent bonds
Core
• Describe the formation of single covalent bonds in H2, Cl2 , H2O, CH4 and HCl as
the sharing of pairs of electrons leading to the noble gas configuration
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (b) Molecules and covalent bonds
Core
• Describe the differences in volatility, solubility and electrical conductivity between
ionic and covalent compounds




3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (a) Ions and ionic bonds
Core
• Describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain

3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (a) Ions and ionic bonds
Core
• Describe the formation of ionic bonds between elements from Groups I and VII

3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (b) Molecules and covalent bonds
Supplement
• Describe the formation of ionic bonds between metallic and non-metallic elements
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (b) Molecules and covalent bonds
Core
• Describe the formation of single covalent bonds in H2, Cl2 , H2O, CH4 and HCl as
the sharing of pairs of electrons leading to the noble gas configuration
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (c) Macromolecules
Supplement
• Describe the electron arrangement in more complex covalent molecules such as
N2, C2H4, CH3OH and CO2



3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (a) Ions and ionic bonds
Core
• Describe the formation of ionic bonds between elements from Groups I and VII
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (a) Ions and ionic bonds
Core
• Describe the formation of ions by electron loss or gain


3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (b) Molecules and covalent bonds
Core
• Describe the formation of single covalent bonds in H2, Cl2 , H2O, CH4 and HCl as
the sharing of pairs of electrons leading to the noble gas configuration
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (b) Molecules and covalent bonds
Core
• Describe the formation of single covalent bonds in H2, Cl2 , H2O, CH4 and HCl as
the sharing of pairs of electrons leading to the noble gas configuration
3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 (c) Macromolecules
Supplement
• Describe the electron arrangement in more complex covalent molecules such as
N2, C2H4, CH3OH and CO2




 4. Stoichiometry
Core
• Use the symbols of the elements and write the formulae of simple compounds
 4. Stoichiometry
Core
• Deduce the formula of a simple compound from the relative numbers of atoms
present
• Deduce the formula of a simple compound from a model or a diagrammatic
representation
 4. Stoichiometry
Core
• Construct word equations and simple balanced chemical equations
 4. Stoichiometry
Supplement
• Deduce the balanced equation for a chemical reaction, given relevant information



 4. Stoichiometry
Supplement
• Determine the formula of an ionic compound from the charges on the ions present

 4. Stoichiometry
Supplement
• Deduce the balanced equation for a chemical reaction, given relevant information
 4. Stoichiometry
Core
• Define relative molecular mass, Mr , as the sum of the relative atomic masses
(relative formula mass or Mr will be used for ionic compounds)
(Calculations involving reacting masses in simple proportions may be set.
Calculations will not involve the mole concept.)
 4. Stoichiometry
Core
• Define relative molecular mass, Mr , as the sum of the relative atomic masses
(relative formula mass or Mr will be used for ionic compounds)
(Calculations involving reacting masses in simple proportions may be set.
Calculations will not involve the mole concept.)


9. The Periodic Table
Core
• Describe the Periodic Table as a method of classifying elements and its use to
predict properties of elements




9. The Periodic Table
9.1 Periodic trends
Core
• Describe the change from metallic to non-metallic character across a period

9. The Periodic Table
9.2 Group properties
Core
• Describe lithium, sodium and potassium in Group I as a collection of relatively soft
metals showing a trend in melting point, density and reaction with water

9. The Periodic Table
Core
• Describe chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII as a collection of diatomic non-
metals showing a trend in colour, and state their reaction with other halide ions
9. The Periodic Table
Core
• Describe chlorine, bromine and iodine in Group VII as a collection of diatomic non-
metals showing a trend in colour, and state their reaction with other halide ions
9. The Periodic Table
9.3 Transition elements
Core
• Describe the transition elements as a collection of metals having high densities,
high melting points and forming coloured compounds, and which, as elements and
compounds, often act as catalysts
9. The Periodic Table
9.4 Noble gases
Core
• Describe the uses of the noble gases in providing an inert atmosphere, i.e. argon
in lamps, helium for filling balloons
9. The Periodic Table
9.4 Noble gases
Core
• Describe the uses of the noble gases in providing an inert atmosphere, i.e. argon
in lamps, helium for filling balloons



9. The Periodic Table
Core
• Predict the properties of other elements in Group I, given data, where appropriate

9. The Periodic Table
9.1 Periodic trends
Supplement
• Describe the relationship between Group number, number of valency electrons
and metallic/non-metallic character



8. Acids, bases and salts
8.2 Types of oxides
Core
• Classify oxides as either acidic or basic, related to metallic and non-metallic
character


8. Acids, bases and salts
8.2 Types of oxides
Supplement
• Further classify other oxides as neutral or amphoteric
10. Metals
10.2 Reactivity series
Core
• Place in order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron,
(hydrogen) and copper, by reference to the reactions, if any, of the metals with
– water or steam
– dilute hydrochloric acid
and the reduction of their oxides with carbon

10. Metals
10.2 Reactivity series
Core
• Place in order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron,
(hydrogen) and copper, by reference to the reactions, if any, of the metals with
– water or steam
– dilute hydrochloric acid
and the reduction of their oxides with carbon




10. Metals
10.2 Reactivity series
Core
• Place in order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron,
(hydrogen) and copper, by reference to the reactions, if any, of the metals with
– water or steam
– dilute hydrochloric acid
and the reduction of their oxides with carbon


10. Metals
10.2 Reactivity series
Core
• Deduce an order of reactivity from a given set of experimental results


10. Metals
10.3 (a) Extraction of metals
Core
• Describe the ease in obtaining metals from their ores by relating the elements to
the reactivity series
 7. Chemical reactions
7.3 Redox
Core
• Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen loss/gain. (Oxidation state
limited to its use to name ions, e.g. iron(II), iron(III), copper(II), manganate(VII),
dichromate(VI).)

10. Metals
10.2 Reactivity series
Core
• Place in order of reactivity: potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron,
(hydrogen) and copper, by reference to the reactions, if any, of the metals with
– water or steam
– dilute hydrochloric acid
and the reduction of their oxides with carbon


3. Atoms, elements and compounds
3.2 Bonding: the structure of matter
Core
• Describe an alloy, such as brass, as a mixture of a metal with other elements
10. Metals
10.3 (a) Extraction of metals
Core
• Describe the conversion of iron into steel using basic oxides and oxygen

10.3 (b) Uses of metals
Core
• Describe the idea of changing the properties of iron by the controlled use of
additives to form steel alloys


10. Metals
10.3 (b) Uses of metals
Core
• Name the uses of mild steel (car bodies and machinery)
and stainless steel (chemical plant and cutlery)
10. Metals
10.3 (b) Uses of metals
Core
• Name the uses of aluminium:
– in the manufacture of aircraft because of its strength and low density
– in food containers because of its resistance to corrosion
11. Air and water
Core
• Describe the composition of clean air as being approximately 79% nitrogen, 20%
oxygen and the remainder as being a mixture of noble gases, water vapour and
carbon dioxide
11. Air and water
Core
• Describe the composition of clean air as being approximately 79% nitrogen, 20%
oxygen and the remainder as being a mixture of noble gases, water vapour and
carbon dioxide
11. Air and water
Core
• Name the common pollutants in the air as being carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide,
oxides of nitrogen and lead compounds
11. Air and water
Core
• State the source of each of these pollutants:
– carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing
substances
– sulfur dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels which contain sulfur compounds
(leading to ‘acid rain’ – see section 13)
– oxides of nitrogen from car exhausts

Supplement
• Describe and explain the presence of oxides of nitrogen in car exhausts and their
catalytic removal


11. Air and water
Core
• State the adverse effect of common pollutants on buildings and on health


11. Air and water
Supplement
• Describe the separation of oxygen and nitrogen from liquid air by fractional
distillation
11. Air and water
Core
• State the source of each of these pollutants:
– carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing
substances
– sulfur dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels which contain sulfur compounds
(leading to ‘acid rain’ – see section 13)
– oxides of nitrogen from car exhausts
11. Air and water
Core
• Describe methods of rust prevention, specifically paint and other coatings to
exclude oxygen

Supplement
• Describe sacrificial protection in terms of the reactivity series of metals and
galvanising as a method of rust prevention




11. Air and water
Core
• Describe, in outline, the purification of the water supply in terms of filtration and
chlorination
11. Air and water
Core
• Describe, in outline, the purification of the water supply in terms of filtration and
chlorination


11. Air and water
Core
• Describe a chemical test for water



8. Acids, bases and salts
8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases
Supplement
• Define acids and bases in terms of proton transfer, limited to aqueous solutions
8. Acids, bases and salts
8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases
Core
• Describe the characteristic properties of bases as reactions with acids and with
ammonium salts and effect on litmus
8. Acids, bases and salts
8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases
Core
• Describe neutrality and relative acidity and alkalinity in terms of pH (whole
numbers only) measured using Universal Indicator paper


8. Acids, bases and salts
8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases
Core
• Describe the characteristic properties of acids as reactions with metals, bases,
carbonates and effect on litmus
8. Acids, bases and salts
8.1 The characteristic properties of acids and bases
Supplement
• Define acids and bases in terms of proton transfer, limited to aqueous solutions
• Describe the meaning of weak and strong acids and bases
8. Acids, bases and salts
8.3 Preparation of salts
Core
• Describe the preparation, separation and purification of salts as examples of
some of the techniques specified in section 2.2(b) and the reactions specified in
section 8.1
8. Acids, bases and salts
8.3 Preparation of salts
Core
• Describe the preparation, separation and purification of salts as examples of
some of the techniques specified in section 2.2(b) and the reactions specified in
section 8.1




7. Chemical reactions
7.1 Speed of reaction
Core
• Describe the effect of concentration, particle size, catalysts (including enzymes)
and temperature on the speeds of reactions
7. Chemical reactions
7.1 Speed of reaction
Core
• Describe the effect of concentration, particle size, catalysts (including enzymes)
and temperature on the speeds of reactions
7. Chemical reactions
7.1 Speed of reaction
Core
• Describe the effect of concentration, particle size, catalysts (including enzymes)
and temperature on the speeds of reactions
7. Chemical reactions
7.1 Speed of reaction
Core
• Describe the effect of concentration, particle size, catalysts (including enzymes)
and temperature on the speeds of reactions
7. Chemical reactions
7.1 Speed of reaction
Core
• Describe the effect of concentration, particle size, catalysts (including enzymes)
and temperature on the speeds of reactions


7. Chemical reactions
7.1 Speed of reaction
Supplement
• Describe and explain the effects of temperature and concentration in terms of
collisions between reacting particles
7. Chemical reactions
7.1 Speed of reaction
Supplement
• Interpret data obtained from experiments concerned with speed of reaction




7. Chemical reactions
7.3 Redox
Core
• Define oxidation and reduction in terms of oxygen loss/gain. (Oxidation state
limited to its use to name ions, e.g. iron(II), iron(III), copper(II), manganate(VII),
dichromate(VI).)




7. Chemical reactions
7.3 Redox
Supplement
• Define redox in terms of electron transfer
5. Electricity and chemistry
Core
• State the general principle that metals or hydrogen are formed at the negative
electrode (cathode), and that non-metals (other than hydrogen) are formed at the
positive electrode (anode)

5. Electricity and chemistry
Supplement
• Describe electrolysis in terms of the ions present and reactions at the electrodes
in the examples given
5. Electricity and chemistry
Core
• Describe the electrode products in the electrolysis of:
– molten lead(II) bromide
– concentrated hydrochloric acid
– concentrated aqueous sodium chloride
between inert electrodes (platinum or carbon)
5. Electricity and chemistry
Core
• State the general principle that metals or hydrogen are formed at the negative
electrode (cathode), and that non-metals (other than hydrogen) are formed at the
positive electrode (anode)


5. Electricity and chemistry
Supplement
• Describe, in outline, the manufacture of
– aluminium from pure aluminium oxide in molten cryolite
– chlorine and sodium hydroxide from concentrated aqueous sodium chloride
(Starting materials and essential conditions should be given but not technical details
or diagrams.)
5. Electricity and chemistry
Core
• Describe the electroplating of metals
• Name the uses of electroplating
• Describe the reasons for the use of copper and (steel-cored) aluminium in cables,
and why plastics and ceramics are used as insulators


5. Electricity and chemistry
Supplement
• Describe electrolysis in terms of the ions present and reactions at the electrodes
in the examples given
5. Electricity and chemistry
Core
• Describe the electrode products in the electrolysis of:
– molten lead(II) bromide
– concentrated hydrochloric acid
– concentrated aqueous sodium chloride
between inert electrodes (platinum or carbon)

Supplement
• Relate the products of electrolysis to the electrolyte and electrodes used,
exemplified by the specific examples in the Core together with aqueous copper(II)
sulfate using carbon electrodes and using copper electrodes (as used in the
refining of copper)
5. Electricity and chemistry
Core
• Describe the electrode products in the electrolysis of:
– molten lead(II) bromide
– concentrated hydrochloric acid
– concentrated aqueous sodium chloride
between inert electrodes (platinum or carbon)

Supplement
• Relate the products of electrolysis to the electrolyte and electrodes used,
exemplified by the specific examples in the Core together with aqueous copper(II)
sulfate using carbon electrodes and using copper electrodes (as used in the
refining of copper)
5. Electricity and chemistry
Supplement
• Describe, in outline, the manufacture of
– aluminium from pure aluminium oxide in molten cryolite
– chlorine and sodium hydroxide from concentrated aqueous sodium chloride
(Starting materials and essential conditions should be given but not technical details
or diagrams.)


8. Acids, bases and salts
8.4 Identification of ions and gases
Core
• Describe the following tests to identify:
aqueous cations:
aluminium, ammonium, calcium, copper(II), iron(II), iron(III) and zinc (using
aqueous sodium hydroxide and aqueous ammonia as appropriate) (Formulae of
complex ions are not required.)
8. Acids, bases and salts
8.4 Identification of ions and gases
Core
• Describe the following tests to identify:
anions:
carbonate (by reaction with dilute acid and then limewater), chloride (by reaction
under acidic conditions with aqueous silver nitrate), iodide (by
reaction under acidic conditions with aqueous silver nitrate), nitrate (by reduction
with aluminium), sulfate (by reaction under acidic conditions with aqueous barium
ions)
8. Acids, bases and salts
8.4 Identification of ions and gases
Core
• Describe the following tests to identify:
gases:
ammonia (using damp red litmus paper), carbon dioxide (using limewater), chlorine
(using damp litmus paper), hydrogen (using lighted splint), oxygen (using a glowing
splint).



14. Organic chemistry
14.2 Fuels
Core
• Name the fuels coal, natural gas and petroleum
• Name methane as the main constituent of natural gas



14. Organic chemistry
14.2 Fuels
Core
• Describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful
fractions by fractional distillation
6. Chemical changes
6.2 Production of energy
Core
• Describe the production of heat energy by burning fuels
11. Air and water
Core
• State the source of each of these pollutants:
– carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing
substances
– sulfur dioxide from the combustion of fossil fuels which contain sulfur compounds
(leading to ‘acid rain’ – see section 13)
– oxides of nitrogen from car exhausts
6. Chemical changes
6.1 Energetics of a reaction
Core
• Describe the meaning of exothermic and endothermic reactions
14. Organic chemistry
14.4 Alkanes
Core
• Describe the properties of alkanes (exemplified by methane) as being generally
unreactive, except in terms of burning
11. Air and water
Core
• Name the common pollutants in the air as being carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide,
oxides of nitrogen and lead compounds
• State the source of each of these pollutants:
– carbon monoxide from the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing
substances
6. Chemical changes
6.1 Energetics of a reaction
Core
• Describe the meaning of exothermic and endothermic reactions

Supplement
• Describe bond breaking as endothermic and bond forming as exothermic




14. Organic chemistry
14.2 Fuels
Core
• Describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful
fractions by fractional distillation
14. Organic chemistry
14.2 Fuels
Core
• Describe petroleum as a mixture of hydrocarbons and its separation into useful
fractions by fractional distillation


14. Organic chemistry
14.5 Alkenes
Core
• Describe the manufacture of alkenes and of hydrogen by cracking

14.8 (a) Synthetic polymers
Supplement
• Deduce the structure of the polymer product from a given alkene and vice versa
14. Organic chemistry
14.8 Macromolecules
Supplement
• Describe macromolecules in terms of large molecules built up from small units
(mononomers), different macromolecules having different units and/or different
linkages
14. Organic chemistry
14.8 Macromolecules
Supplement
• Describe macromolecules in terms of large molecules built up from small units
(mononomers), different macromolecules having different units and/or different
linkages
14. Organic chemistry
14.8 Macromolecules
Supplement
• Describe macromolecules in terms of large molecules built up from small units
(mononomers), different macromolecules having different units and/or different
linkages




14. Organic chemistry
14.5 Alkenes
Core
• Describe the manufacture of alkenes and of hydrogen by cracking
14. Organic chemistry
14.5 Alkenes
Core
• Describe the manufacture of alkenes and of hydrogen by cracking
14. Organic chemistry
14.5 Alkenes
Core
• Distinguish between saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons
– from molecular structures
– by reaction with aqueous bromine
14. Organic chemistry
14.5 Alkenes
Core
• Describe the formation of poly(ethene) as an example of addition polymerisation
of monomer units

								
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