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PART 6 THE 20TH CENTURY IN WORLD HISTORY

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PART 6 THE 20TH CENTURY IN WORLD HISTORY Powered By Docstoc
					PART 6: THE 20TH CENTURY IN WORLD HISTORY
                Pages 668 – 675


I.   SUMMARY

     A. Introduction: The 20th Century as a New Period in World History
        The 20th century has provided a rare break in world history, comparable in scope to
        the 5th century or 15th century. The contemporary period in world history had just
        taken shape even at the end of the 1990s. Two impulses of the 20th century affect
        the periodization. One impulse emphasizes the continuities of the century. At the
        other extreme, many other observers reflect a modern culture that emphasizes rapid
        and fundamental change and the creation of very strong and influential global
        contacts. These historians see the 20th century as a third revolution comparable to
        the Neolithic and Industrial Revolutions. There are three phases. The first was
        between 1914 and 1945 including the two wars and the Great Depression, which
        led to a new international order. Between 1945 and 1991, decolonization and the
        Cold War dominated much of the world. The end of the Cold War either began a
        third phase, or, as some argue, perhaps a new period.

     B. The Repositioning of the West
        Western decline resulted in part from the two world wars. Western population
        decreased as a percentage of the world total and immigration to western countries
        increased rapidly. The West has also lost its technological monopoly including its
        military superiority, and has been challenged as the preeminent world trader and
        manufacturer. More decisive was decolonization in which European empires broke
        up and the rise of non-European super powers, namely the Soviet Union (Russia),
        the United States, China, and Japan.

     C. International Contacts
        The intensification of international contacts was a basic feature of the 20th century.
        Technology was critical: Innovations included faster communication, faster
        transport, and larger capacities for communication and the movement of goods.
        Levels of world trade increased and more corporations operated internationally.
        Diplomatic contacts were internationalized and influential international
        organizations arose. International cultural influences spread.

     D. International Challenges in Politics and Culture
        Change undermined long-standing traditions in all institutions and structures.
        Governments have changed, often adopting Western style institutions, and all
        governments have taken on new roles in societies and economies. Belief systems
        have been modified or challenged by systems that were more secular. Growing
        interest in science also challenged them. Another change was the displacement of
        long-standing beliefs in rigid social inequalities.


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II.    UNIT REVIEW

       A. What contradictory impulses affect the understanding of the 20th century?

       B. How significant is the 20th century in world history? Is it a period? Why?

       C. How did the West’s global position change during this period?

       D. What countries have dominated this period?

       E. What international contacts and exchanges typify the 20th century?

       F. What conditions have changed and remained the same in the 20th century?


III.   VOCABULARY

       A. Globalization

       B. Multinational Corporations


IV.    TIME LINE: The 20th Century (Pages 670 – 671)

       A. What major events herald the beginning of the period?

       B. Why might one argue that the 20th century ended in 1989 or 1991?

       C. What revolutions and major wars occurred between 1910 and 1999?

       D. Based on items of the timeline, what themes dominated this period?


V.     MAP EXERCISES

       A. Map: World Distribution of Manufacturing, 1930 (Page 672)
          1. Which nations are the largest industrial powers?

          2. Which continents are most and least industrialized?

       B. Map: The World in 1995 (Page 672)
          1. What nations and regions have experienced recent conflict and unrest?

          2. Based on the map and timeline, what regions seem the most violent?




                                            248
VI.   MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

      1. All of these themes are typical of the 20th century in world history EXCEPT:
         A. increased national sentiment.
         B. increased religious revivalism.
         C. rapid and fundamental changes.
         D. increasing cross-cultural contacts and connections.
         E. continuing dominance of the world by western powers.

      2. Which of these statements about the West’s 20th century position is a FACT?
         A. The western domination of the world has continued.
         B. The West’s population relative to the rest of the world has declined.
         C. Fewer people immigrate to the West and the U.S. today than in 1900.
         D. European empires and colonial empires persist today.
         E. The west and the USA still have a monopoly on military technologies.

      3. Regarding world trade and manufacturing in the 20th century,
         A. Japan is the wealthiest nation with the largest economy.
         B. Brazil, China, and similar nations cannot compete with the western
            dominated global economy.
         C. the U.S.A. has the largest business and economic sector, but has many rivals.
         D. most societies now earn of bulk of their profits from international trade.
         E. the largest sector of the world economy is still agriculture.

      4. The intensification of international contacts in the 20th century is largely due to
         A. technology.
         B. war.
         C. international trade.
         D. the spread of global diseases.
         E. the intensification of religious feeling.

      5. Diplomatically, 20th century international relations
         A. has been dominated by the U.S., Russia, Western Europe and China.
         B. has too many actors for any one power to dominate.
         C. while important, have seen the decline of embassies and diplomatic staffs.
         D. has seen a proliferation of non-governmental organizations such as the U.N.
         E. has been dominated by the United Nations.

      6. In the 20th century the role of the governments in societies around the world has
         A. increased dramatically.
         B. declined.
         C. remained similar to past traditional roles.
         D. lost many roles and functions to non-governmental organizations.
         E. had little effect on citizens.




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       7. In the 20th century, all of these institutions have challenged or modified the
          traditional dominance of religions over world societies EXCEPT:
          A. nationalism.
          B. communism.
          C. atheism.
          D. science.
          E. mass education.

       8. The 20th century has seen what significant social change in most world societies?
          A. The disenfranchisement of minorities
          B. Pauperization of most workers and the middle class
          C. The elimination of social and political elites
          D. The wide-spread acceptance of differences in gender, race, ethnic, and sexual
             preferences
          E. The displacement of long-time systems of inequalities

       9. The system of government or political ideology, which seems to have had the
          largest support in the 20th century has been
          A. aristocratic monarchy.
          B. nationalism.
          C. communism.
          D. popular sovereignty.
          E. theocracy.

       10. All of these events have had profound effects on the development of the 20th
           century EXCEPT:
           A. World War I.
           B. the Agricultural Revolution.
           C. World War II.
           D. decolonization.
           E. the Cold War.


VII.   ESSAY QUESTIONS

       A. Compare and contrast the beginnings of the contemporary and early modern
          periods.

       B. Compare and contrast the decline of Western influence in the 20th century with
          the decline of Chinese or Arabic Muslim influences in earlier periods.

       C. Compare the patterns and nature of international contacts in the 20th century
          with contacts in the Classical, Post-Classical, or Early Modern periods.

       D. Compare and contrast demographic and environmental changes in the 20th
          century with the shift from the Neolithic cultures to classical civilizations or the
          Industrial Revolution.


                                              250
          UNIT VI GEOGRAPHY: THE MAP OF THE CONTEMPORARY WORLD

The 20th century world encompassed the globe. All continents were explored and except for
the Antarctic, settled. Physical geography no longer played an important role as protection
or isolation from contact. Physical geography was critical only in the sense that it helped or
retarded development and population through its resource base or lack of one. The only
barrier to movement or communication remained distance and time. Although civilization
became truly global, strong regional alliances arose. And vast super cities spread out.

I.     POLITICAL GEOGRAPHY
       A. MODERN ALLIANCES
          1. N.A.T.O.                                        5. Arab League
          2. N.A.F.T.A.                                      6. O.P.E.C.
          3. European Union                                  7. C.I.S.
          4. A.S.E.A.N.

       B. HISTORIC ALLIANCES AND STATES
          1. Warsaw Pact Organization                        5. Axis Powers
          2. COMECON                                         6. Yugoslavia
          3. Triple Entente                                  7. U. S. S. R.
          4. Triple Alliance

II.    LOCATE
       A. CITIES
          1. Mexico City                                     6. Hong Kong
          2. Shanghai                                        7. Calcutta
          3. Los Angeles                                     8. Sao Paulo
          4. Djakarta                                        9. Lagos
          5. Singapore                                       10. Cairo

       B. COUNTRIES
          1. United States                                   16. Kenya
          2. Mexico                                          17. Senegal
          3. Brazil                                          18. Algeria
          4. United Kingdom                                  19. Zimbabwe
          5. France                                          20. South Africa
          6. Germany                                         21. Pakistan
          7. Russia                                          22. China
          8. Turkey                                          23. Vietnam
          9. India                                           24. Japan
          10. Egypt                                          25. Indonesia
          11. Israel                                         26. Koreas
          12. Iran                                           27. Taiwan
          13. Saudi Arabia                                   28. Malaysia
          14. Nigeria                                        29. Singapore
          15. Ghana                                          30. Cuba



                                             251
CHAPTER 28: INTERNATIONAL CONTACTS
     AND CONFLICTS, 1914 – 1999
             Pages 676 – 705


I.   SUMMARY

     A. World War I

        World War I launched many trends of the 20th century. Bitter nationalist warfare
        weakened Western Europe while nationalism and revolution stirred elsewhere. An
        inadequate peace settlement after Germany’s defeat guaranteed further tensions in
        Europe, east Asia, and the Middle East, while debts and reparations contributed to
        future economic difficulties.

     B. The Great Depression

        The economic depression that dominated the 1930s was international in scope.
        Economic shocks were particularly severe in Western Europe and the United
        States. The depression triggered important new governmental policies and also
        furthered extremist political forces in many countries. The Great Depression
        resulted from problems in the industrial economies of the West, combined with
        long-term structural weaknesses in other parts of the world. The result was a
        worldwide collapse that spared few economies.

     C. World War II

        World War II involved major battles on all seas and across the globe. The Axis
        powers initial victories gradually gave way to an Allied victory. The war furthered
        the exhaustion of Europe and saw the United States and the Soviet Union become
        the dominant great powers.

     D. The Cold War and Decolonization, 1945 – 1989
        The Cold War rivalry primarily began in Europe but had worldwide ramifications.
        The Soviet Union created a communist-bloc, which included much of eastern
        Europe and parts of east Asia. An American-led system of alliances surrounded the
        Eurasian communist bloc and tried to contain its spread. Proxy wars were fought
        across Eurasia and Africa. Around the globe colonial empires crumbled and newly
        independent nations often sought a neutral path between these two alliances.

     E. Conclusion: A Legacy of Uncertainty
        World wars and cold wars brought new destruction and new levels of fear across
        the globe as world power shifted. American industrial and military strength, and an
        increasingly popular American culture and way of life replaced Europe’s position
        of importance. New leaders arose across the globe in Africa and Asia, but few, even
        the Soviet Union, could rival the United States.


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II.    CHAPTER REVIEW

       A. What moves toward internationalism preceded World War I?

       B. What long term causes led to World War I?

       C. How was World War I fought that made it different from previous wars?

       D. How did World War I change Western governments and societies?

       E. Why would any conflict between European nations involve the world?

       F. How did World War I end?

       G. What led to the Great Depression and what was its worldwide impact?

       H. How did totalitarianism lead to World War II?

       I. How was World War II fought and ended?

       J. What is a total war and how does it affect the societies involved?

       K. What agreements settled World War II and structured the post-war world?

       L. What events led to the Cold War?

       M. Describe the course, actions, alignments, and results of the Cold War.

       N. What conditions have predominated in the post-Cold War world?

       O. In what ways is the period from 1914 – 1999 an era of American influences?


III.   VOCABULARY

       A. Internationalization

       B. World Court

       C. Submarine warfare

       D. Balfour Declaration

       E. League of Nations

       F. Isolationism



                                            253
      G. Socialism in One Country

      H. National Socialist Party

      I. Anschluss and the Munich Conference

      J. Appeasement

      K. Tripartite Pact (Axis)

      L. Blitzkrieg

      M. Stalingrad; El Alamein; Midway

      N. Nagasaki

      O. Holocaust

      P. Total War

      Q. United Nations (UN)

      R. Teheran; Yalta; Potsdam

      S. Iron Curtain

      T. Cold War

      U. North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)


IV.   PHOTO ESSAY: Technology and War (Pages 701 – 702)
      20th Century warfare has been dominated by technology, science, and ever more
      terrifying weapons of war.

      A. How are modern conditions of warfare represented in these photographs?
         1. Speed

         2. Power

         3. Mobility

         4. Secrecy

      B. Why might nations spend billions to support and train spies and intelligence
         agencies?

      C. How would modern technology eliminate the idea of “front lines” and blur the
         distinction between civilian and military?



                                          254
V.   MAP EXERCISES

     A. Map 28.1: World War I (Page 682)
        1. Alliances
           a. Identify nations belonging to the Entente powers.
           b. Identify nations belonging to the Central Powers.

        2. Geography and War
           a. What geographic advantages did the Central Powers possess?
           b. Why is Russia virtually isolated? How would this affect her?
           c. Why is the Ottoman Empire exposed to Allied attack?
           d. What problems relative to sea movement do Britain and Germany have?

     B. Map 28.3: World War II (Page 694)
        1. Limits
           a. In what year were the Axis gains the greatest?
           b. What areas did each power control:
              (1) Germany and Italy?
              (2) Japan?

        2. Geography and War
           a. How did geography hurt the Soviet Union, China, and Great Britain?
           b. What type of war did geography force the U.S. and Japan to fight?
           c. Why would the Mediterranean Sea be so critical to Great Britain?

     C. Map 28.5: The Cold War (Page 700)
        1. Alliances
           a. What countries were allied with the U.S.? The Soviet Union?
           b. What nations were neutral?
           c. Why are Yugoslavia and China critical to both alliances?

        2. Geo-politics and Military Considerations
           a. How does geographic location help and hinder the
              (1) American-led alliance?
              (2) Soviet-led alliance?
           b. Why are Cuba and Nicaragua threats to the United States?
           c. How are South Yemen and Ethiopia threats to world trade?
           d. Why would the invasion of Korea threaten the United States?
           e. How would revolts in Eastern Europe threaten the Soviet Union?
           f. Why is the Middle East critical to both alliances?


                                         255
VI.   INTERPRETING CHARTS AND TABLES

      A. Chart 28.1: World War I Loses (Page 684)
         1. Loses
            a. Which country had the most killed and wounded? The least?

            b. How might these loses affect Germany, Russia, Austria, and France?

            c. Why might the U.S. have a different perspective on the war?

         2. Drawing Conclusions
            a. Russia had greater loses than listed here. Why?

            b. How would number of wounded be a burden of a society at war?

            c. Most killed would have been young men. How would this affect a society?


      B. Table 28.2: US Defense Spending (Page 703)
         1. Drawing Conclusions
            a. Why might expenditures increase from 1950-1970 and 1980-1985?

            b. What international expense in 1990 would have increased expenditures?

            c. What effect would this percentage of defense expenditures out of the total
               federal budget have had on the U.S.?

            d. What might you conclude about the American economy if the portion of
               the defense budget was always below 10% of the Gross National Product?

         2. Making Inferences
            a. Soviet defense expenditure usually accounted for 40% to 60% of their
               total budget and around 30% of their GNP. What can you infer about the
               Soviet Union and their ability to pay for the Cold War?


            b. Gorbachev said the U.S. spent the Soviet Union into defeat during the
               Cold War. Do you agree? Why or why not?


            c. The American allies included Western Europe and Japan, which had
               their own defense budgets. Why would the dollar disparity between the
               western and communist alliances be even greater?




                                          256
VII.   MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

       1. The immediate cause for the outbreak of World War I was
          A. nationalist tensions.
          B. a naval race between Germany and Great Britain.
          C. colonial disputes over Morocco.
          D. conflicting alliances.
          E. the Industrial Revolution.

       2. The influence of technology on modern warfare is demonstrated by all of these
          developments in World War I EXCEPT:
          A. submarines.
          B. airplanes and aerial warfare.
          C. the destructive power of artillery and machine guns.
          D. mechanized warfare as demonstrated during the Blitzkrieg.
          E. poisonous gases and barbed wire.

       3. Which of the following statements about the effects of World War I and the
          Great Depression on world governments is a FACT?
          A. Both made governments more responsive to the needs of the governed.
          B. Both made it easier for the military to dominate the government.
          C. Both supported the rise of totalitarian dictatorships.
          D. Both encouraged the growth of democracy and representative governments.
          E. Both led to the unprecedented growth of governments and their intervention
             in society.

       4. It was inevitable the conflict in Europe would become a world war because
          A. Great Britain and France had existing alliances with Japan and the U.S.
          B. the European combatants had colonies and forces around the world.
          C. Germany attacked China and Japan.
          D. Germany had alliances with Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico.
          E. the U.S. was heavily invested in German industry and protected its ally.

       5. The biggest battles outside of Europe during World War I occurred in
          A. African colonies of Europe.
          B. East Asia where Japan and China fought each other.
          C. the Middle East where the Turks fought Britain, Russia, and France.
          D. the Pacific where Germany and Japan fought for control of many islands.
          E. Latin America where Mexico invaded the United States.

       6. The immediate result of World War I was the
          A. rise of the United States as a great power.
          B. beginning of European decolonization.
          C. rise of Japan to great power status.
          D. Great Depression.
          E. collapse of all European empires.



                                            257
7. The principle of Woodrow Wilson that influenced future decolonization was
   A. immediate independence for all colonies.
   B. evacuation of all occupied territories.
   C. popular self-determination.
   D. reparations for war damage.
   E. the League of Nations.

8. All of these were causes of the Great Depression EXCEPT:
   A. the collapse of agricultural prices around the world.
   B. World War I reparations, which bankrupted the old Central Powers.
   C. weak banking systems around the world.
   D. the intervention of governments to stabilize economic problems.
   E. overproduction and easy credit.

9. The symbol for the start of the world-wide Great Depression was the
   A. 1919 Treaty of Versailles with its reparations clauses.
   B. October 1929 collapse of the American stock markets.
   C. election of Franklin Roosevelt as president of the USA in 1933.
   D. abandonment of the international gold standard in 1933.
   E. coming to power of Hitler and the Nazis in 1933.

10. The only major country to escape the world-wide depression was
    A. Japan because it did not have any economic connections to world commerce.
    B. the United States due to its extreme wealth.
    C. Germany due to the election of a Nazi government.
    D. France due to the support of its African colonies.
    E. the Soviet Union due to its communism and isolation.

11. 20th century totalitarianisms usually follow all of these practices EXCEPT:
    A. an all-powerful dictatorial leader.
    B. an aggressive nationalist foreign policy.
    C. one mass party representing one social group or class.
    D. the use of violence, secret police, and terror to maintain its control.
    E. control of the economic system, religion, education, and communications.

12. The Axis bloodless victories between 1931 and 1938 succeeded because
    A. the Germans, Italians, and Japanese had many international allies.
    B. only the U.S. opposed the moves.
    C. only the British opposed the moves.
    D. the Great powers able to stop the takeovers were unwilling to do much.
    E. the West felt the takeovers were justified.

13. Ultimately, the Axis powers were defeated because
    A. the Soviet Union stopped both the Germans and Japanese.
    B. the U.S. developed and used the atomic bomb on Germany.
    C. Japan could not defeat China.
    D. resistance movements and partisans stopped the Axis advance.
    E. the manpower and industrial output of the Allies was so much greater.


                                    258
     14. After World War II, the rise of internationalism was best represented by the
         A. rise to prominence of the U.S. and Soviet Union.
         B. victory of the communists in the Chinese Civil War.
         C. United Nation and its organizations and activities.
         D. willing breakup of the colonial empires by the European powers.
         E. United States end of its isolationism in international affairs.

     15. The Cold War was caused by the
         A. rivalries between the western and communist blocs.
         B. American support for anti-Soviet activities.
         C. aggressive Soviet moves in Eastern Europe and Asia.
         D. American possession of the atomic bomb.
         E. Western domination of the United Nations.

     16. Which of these is a FACT about the Cold War?
         A. China supported the Soviet Union throughout the Cold War period.
         B. The disputes between the U.S. and Soviet Union were confined to Europe.
         C. While no war was fought in Europe, supporters of both major alliances
            fought smaller wars around the world.
         D. Most countries of the world supported one of the alliances.
         E. The Soviet Union was the victor in the Cold War.

     17. All of these are trends in the Post Cold War world EXCEPT:
         A. the U.S. is the world’s single superpower.
         B. the revival of cultural and religious identities.
         C. the standardization of economic and trade philosophies.
         D. an increase in anti-democratic, dictatorial states.
         E. regional conflicts have flared up.


VIII. ESSAY QUESTIONS

     A. How did the role of technology in warfare change from 1500 – 2000?

     B. Compare and contrast the international role of the U.S. in the 20th century with
        one of these: Britain 1750 – 1945, or China and Islam in the post-classical age.

     C. Compare and contrast European 20th century decolonization with any one of
        these: Haiti, 1800; Latin America, 1820s; the collapse of the Soviet Union, 1991.

     D. Compare and contrast the causes and consequences of the Great Depression
        with the epidemics of the post-classical and early modern periods.

     E. How did the role of the U.S. in world affairs change from 1789 to 2000?

     F. Compare and contrast the notions of “East” and “West” during the Cold War.



                                          259
     CHAPTER 29: THE WEST IN THE 20TH CENTURY
                   Pages 706 – 727


I.    SUMMARY

      A. The Disarray in the West, 1914 – 1945

         World War I was a traumatic experience for western Europe. Despite important
         innovations, particularly in the 1920s, during which west European nations were at
         the pinnacles of their influence and power, the West could not resolve key postwar
         problems in politics and economics until after another world war.

      B. After World War II: International Setting for the West

         Western Europe seemed at an all-time low in 1945, as wartime damage combined
         with pressures against colonialism and the rise of two new superpowers, which
         replaced Great Britain as the preeminent world power. The Cold War and
         American concerns seemed to dwarf European concerns. But Western Europe
         bounced back with U.S. collaboration in one of the most innovative periods in
         Europe’s history. New economic vitality combined with a resurgence of democracy,
         the rise of the welfare state, and a growing movement of regional integration.

      C. Society and Culture in the West

         Political and economic changes in Western society changed the contours of earlier
         industrial development. They also reduced many earlier social differences within
         Western society, particularly between the United States and Western Europe, as the
         two key Western spaces converged in many respects. The West became the first
         example of an advanced industrial, consumer society, especially from the 1950s
         onward. Both the United States and western Europe had key roles in this change.

      D. Conclusion: Will the Real West Please Stand Up?

         20th century Western society has reflected increasing tensions between industrial
         values and Western traditions. Western intellectuals insisted on rational inquiry
         while relying on artistic forms that seemed bent on portraying a world gone mad.
         Ordinary Europeans and Americans accepted a disciplined work environment that
         stressed control over emotion while reveling in scenes of violence, drugs, alcohol,
         and sexual ecstasy in their leisure hours. By the 1950s television watching had
         become a leading recreational interest. Individualism and consumerism have
         become hallmarks of Western society. Western society seems at times confused.
         Poverty and job boredom coexist with affluence and the highest productivity rates
         in the world. Yet social protests, family instability, and destruction of the
         environment might be signs of a fatally flawed society.




                                            260
II.    CHAPTER REVIEW

       A. Why were the world wars traumatic for Western society?
       B. What developments of the 1920s heralded a new society?
       C. How did the Great Depression impact Western Europe and the U.S.?
       D. What did the fascists and Nazis advocate and how did they govern their states?
       E. Why did Europe accept decolonization and what were its effects on Europe?
       F. How did the post-war era represent a fundamental diplomatic shift for Europe?
       G. What developments in political and economic structures occurred after 1945?
       H. How did Western economics change?
       I. How have social inequalities eased since 1945? What progress has been made?
       J. What themes or developments have dominated culture and science this century?
       K. What problems or concerns remain unsolved in contemporary Western society?


III.   PHOTO ESSAY

       A. The Power of the People (Pages 706, 715, 721, and 722)
          1. Popular sovereignty is critical to western society. Based on the photographs,
             who tends to demonstrate and what do they hope to achieve?
          2. How might this affect western politics and politicians?

       B. Western Culture (Pages 709, 719, 726, and Table 29.1 on page 726)
          1. What do these photographs say about Western cultural values?
          2. What is meant by Western consumer society?


IV.    MAP EXERCISES

       A. Map 29.1: Political Alliances of Europe (Pages 700 and 716-717)
          1. Military Alliances
             a. Identify the NATO nations in Europe.
             b. Identify Warsaw Pact nations of Europe.
          2. What European nations remained neutral?
       B. Economic and Political Unions
          1. List the nations of European Economic Communities (Page 716-717)
          2. What nations belong to the European Union?


                                            261
V.     DOCUMENT ANALYSIS: The Resistance Spirit (Page 713)

       A. Document Analysis
          1. Who wrote each? (Attribution includes biographical references)

           2. What were the authors’ points of view?

           3. How reliable are the documents? Why?

           4. What were the intents or purposes behind the documents?

           5. Who were the intended audiences?

           6. What are the documents’ tones?

       B. Comparison
          1. What do the documents identify as Europe’s
             a. Problems?

              b. Desired economic changes?

              c. Desired social changes?

          2. How do the documents see nationalism and internationalism?

          3. Who would write and support such documents?


VI.    VISUALIZING THE PAST: Women at Work (Page 720)

       A. What patterns are described?

       B. Which country has experienced the greatest change?

       C. What might account for the differences between France and the U.S.?


VII.   MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

       1. World War I and the immediate aftermath of the Versailles Treaty
          A. produced a decade in the 1920s of great economic instability.
          B. resolved many if not most of the issues affecting World War I.
          C. led to the political polarization of European parties between right and left.
          D. saw a realistic appraisal that wars could be avoided.
          E. had little demographic or social impact on Western society.




                                             262
2. All of these conditions were characteristic of the 1920s in the West EXCEPT:
   A. industrial production boomed.
   B. mass consumption standards rose.
   C. technology increasingly impacted the economy and daily life.
   D. unemployment declined.
   E. women joined the work force in ever-larger numbers.

3. When the Great Depression began, Western governments
   A. were ill equipped legislatively or psychologically to solve the problems.
   B. generally formed national governments in which all parties cooperated.
   C. cooperated internationally by lowering tariffs and other barriers to trade.
   D. decreased government spending and tax rates.
   E. worked effectively to solve the Great Depression.

4. The chief political consequence of the Great Depression in the West was the
   A. election of communist governments in German, France, and Great Britain.
   B. creation of stable, constitutional regimes in German and Italy.
   C. introduction of many social and economic reforms.
   D. weakening of the parliamentary system and rise of totalitarian parties.
   E. breakup of the League of Nations.

5. All of these groups tended to support Fascist and Nazi regimes EXCEPT:
   A. trade unions and workers.
   B. ardent nationalists and people opposed to the Versailles settlements.
   C. former veterans.
   D. landlords and business groups.
   E. middle class people.

6. In foreign policy between 1922 and 1935, the Nazis and Fascists
   A. accepted the Versailles Treaty and the League of Nations.
   B. Allied openly with the Soviet Union and communists.
   C. worked closely with Britain and France.
   D. sought territorial acquisitions and envisioned war as likely.
   E. agreed to limit the size of their armed forces including no tanks or planes.

7. Which of these statements about European decolonization is a FACT?
   A. Most Europeans felt colonies were worth the trouble and expense.
   B. France opposed decolonization in Vietnam and Algeria and lost two wars.
   C. Europe left their colonies only after their military defeats by rebels.
   D. Decolonization had little impact on Europe itself.
   E. European nations do not get along with their former colonies.

8. Politically, post-war West Europe has seen the
   A. rise of the communists to unprecedented power and influence.
   B. continuing influence of the ultra-nationalist and rightist parties.
   C. fragmentation of politics into splinter parties with no one in control.
   D. political power remain in the hands of a wealthy oligarchy of industrialists.
   E. shift toward fuller support for democracy and welfare activities.


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9. The greatest dissimilarity between postwar social values and institutions in the
   U.S. and Western Europe was the
   A. mass consumerism, which American society encouraged but Europeans did
      not.
   B. refusal by Europeans to grant minorities equality, which Americans did.
   C. large American military and defense expenditure, which few European
      nations equaled.
   D. increasing conservatism of European governments and society.
   E. importance of communism in West European society.

10. All of these measures have been supported by North American and West
    European welfare states EXCEPT:
    A. unemployment insurance.
    B. guaranteed university education.
    C. health care benefits.
    D. family assistance programs.
    E. retirement benefits.

11. Economically, the governments of Western society and states support
    A. the classical economic system – no government intervention in the economy.
    B. a traditional economic structure of rule by economic elites.
    C. a communist system which abolished private property.
    D. Keynesian economics - a private economy with a positive government role.
    E. the primacy of government controls and regulation of markets.

12. Which of these statements is a FACT about the E.E.C. or Common Market?
    A. Its goal was to link German recovery to an international framework and
       protect the post-war peace.
    B. France and the United States dominated it.
    C. Initially it included Britain, which withdrew in 1973.
    D. The United States established the EEC to manage the Marshall Plan.
    E. Germany was not originally included.

13. Post-war West European economic recovery was first stimulated by the
    A. formation of NATO.
    B. establishment of COMECON.
    C. support from the United Nations.
    D. formation of the European Economic Communities.
    E. Marshall Plan.

14. The economic growth and disposable income in Western society
    A. has declined as welfare taxes have increased.
    B. ended in the economic downturn of the 1980s.
    C. led to an affluent consumer society and widespread prosperity.
    D. included migrant workers from the poorer nations of the world.
    E. diminished racism and bias against foreign workers.



                                     264
     15. All of these social tensions and problems persist in Western society EXCEPT:
         A. an increased crime rate.
         B. unskilled, low paid work is left to immigrants.
         C. migrant and quest workers are often segregated and discriminated against.
         D. women are barred from higher education opportunities and important jobs.
         E. racism still remains.

     16. Religiously, 20th century Western society has
         A. seen the rise to importance of cults.
         B. become largely secular in Europe but maintained its strength in the U.S.
         C. been marginalized throughout all societies.
         D. experienced a revival of unprecedented strength amongst the youth.
         E. seen the rise of reform movements in Protestant and Catholic Christianity.

     17. The central thread in Western culture after 1920 has been the
         A. conflict and tension especially in the arts.
         B. continuing importance of religion in everyday life.
         C. collective understanding or responsibility.
         D. inability to change or absorb foreign or new elements.
         E. dynamism of scientific research and faith that science can solve anything.


VIII. ESSAY QUESTIONS

     A. How did Western culture change from 1000 – 2000?

     B. How did Western religion change from 1000 – 2000?

     C. How did Western economics and trade change from 1000 – 2000?

     D. How did Western political institutions change from 1000 – 2000?

     E. Compare and contrast European social and economic transformations resulting
        from the world wars with either the Reformation or Industrial Revolution.

     F. Compare and contrast Western consumer society with Medieval European
        society or 11th century Islamic society or 11th century Chinese society.

     G. Compare and contrast social reform and revolution (gender, family) in 20th
        century western society with the advent of ancient and classical societies.

     H. Compare and contrast patterns of internationalism in west Europe with
        nationalism in 18th and 19th century west Europe.

     I. Compare and contrast the disruptions caused by the Great Depression with the
        Black Death, nomadic invasions of Rome, Mongol disruptions, and European
        arrival in the Americas.


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CHAPTER 30: RUSSIA AND EASTERN EUROPE
            Pages 728 – 751


I.   SUMMARY

     A. The Russian Revolution
        The period of the Russian Revolution lasted from 1917 to the mid-1920s. Internal
        and foreign opposition including a civil war complicated the process, but key
        patterns of the new regime were set in less than a decade.

     B. Building Soviet Society
        After an experimental phase in the 1920s, Stalinism dominated the Soviet system
        for nearly two decades. Stalin’s system involved increased police repression, rapid
        industrialization, agricultural collectivization, and ultimately the Soviet Union’s
        successful defense against the German invasion in World War II.

     C. The Soviet Union as a Superpower
        Despite the massive dislocations caused by World War II, the initial postwar
        decades saw the high-water mark of the Soviet system. In weaponry and space
        exploration, the Soviet Union competed with the United States as a superpower.
        The Soviet empire spread to embrace the smaller nations of Eastern Europe, now
        under communist control. Soviet culture blossomed, combining distinctive
        communist themes with a new expressiveness by certain intellectuals.

     D. The Explosion of the 1980s and 1990s
        Beginning in the 1980s, an economic crisis forced political change. Piecemeal
        experiments within the Soviet Union led to an explosion by 1989, when the
        independent nations renounced communism and the state split apart. Instability
        persisted into the late 1990s as the region found it difficult to define a new political
        and economic order.

     E. Conclusion: What Next?
        Recent events have made clear that much less changed in this region during the
        20th century than had been believed. Women played vital roles in the labor force,
        but inequalities remained. Despite a federal system of government, central control
        and Russian ethnic domination spurred nationalist tensions. Within Russia,
        conservatives and democratic elements are at odds. Religion, despite secularization,
        remains vital. Revolution and a totalitarian state had made little impact as most
        East European states rushed to proclaim Western-style liberty and establish market
        economies. Yet many eastern Europeans continue to value the protections and
        benefits of a socialist system, even while seeking membership in NATO and the
        European Union, while Russia itself remains a great, although diminished power.


                                             266
II.    CHAPTER REVIEW

       A. What conditions led to the outbreak of the first Russian Revolution?

       B. How did Lenin change Marxism to fit the needs of Russian society and realities?

       C. How was the Bolshevik Party organized and what policies did it pursue?

       D. How did the Communists gain control in Russia between 1917 and 1921?

       E. What patterns did 20th century revolutions take?

       F. How did Stalin centralize control within Russia? With what results?

       G. Why and how did the Soviet Union become a great power and how did it create
          and administer its empire?

       H. What economic and cultural policies did Communist regimes follow?

       I. What problems led to the collapse of the Soviet Union?


III.   VOCABULARY

       A. V. I. Lenin

       B. Soviet, Congress of Soviets

       C. Bolshevik

       D. Social Revolutionary Party

       E. Russian, Bolshevik Revolutions

       F. Nationalization

       G. Red Army

       H. New Economic Policy (NEP)

       I. Kulaks

       J. Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)

       K. Supreme Soviet, Politburo




                                           267
      L. Joseph Stalin

      M. Socialism in One Country

      N. Collectivization

      O. 5-Year Plans

      P. Centralized (Command) Economy

      Q. Berlin Wall

      R. Solidarity

      S. Socialist Realism

      T. Sputnik

      U. Glasnost, Perestroika

      V. 1989

      W. Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)


IV.   MAP EXERCISES

      A. Map 30.1: Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, 1919 – 1939 (Page 733)
         1. 1914
            a. What three empires dominated Eastern Europe in 1914?

            b. By 1919, what empires had collapsed?

         2. 1919 (Also see map on page 736)
            a. What new states arose in 1919?

            b. How might these new states affect international politics?

            c. How did World War I affect the geography of Russia?

         3. Make Predictions
            a. How might the Russian Civil War affect the green areas of the map?

            b. What future problems might this war have caused?




                                          268
     B. Map 30.2: Soviet Union and East European Boundaries by 1948 (Page 736)
        1. 1945
           a. What lands did the Soviet Union annex?

            b. What happened to the borders of Poland, Czechoslovakia, and Romania?

            c. What happened to Germany (See also map page 699)

        2. Post-1945
           a. What East European countries belonged to the Warsaw Pact?

            b. What was Yugoslavia’s and Albania’s relationship to the Soviet Union?

            c. Why was Finland not annexed to the Soviet Union or included in the
               Warsaw Pact?

     C. Map 30.3: The Breakup of the Soviet Union (Page 748)
        1. Europe
           a. What new states arose following the breakup of the Soviet Union?

            b. How did the breakup affect Russian access to the West?

        2. Central Asia and the Caucasus
           a. What new states arose?

            b. If the ending “-istan” means “land” in Arabic, what conclusions might
               you reach regarding the Central Asian states?

            c. Why might Russia’s relationship with these states be troubling?


V.   VISUALIZING THE PAST: Socialist Realism (Page 742)

     A. What values does the picture represent about:
        1. Women?

        2. Work?

        3. Technology?

     B. How does the picture conform to the description of Socialist Realism discussed in
        the document?




                                          269
VI.    PHOTO ESSAY: Soviet Realities (Pages 728, 731, 732, 739, 742, 743, 746, 749, 750)

       Despite all the propaganda that the Soviet regime put out, Soviet citizens had to live
       very real and often bleak lives. How do the pictures depict the realities of living in a
       Socialist state and what values do they represent? Lenin and Communism talked
       about building a worker’s paradise. To what extent do these pictures represent and
       depart from this idea?


VII.   DOCUMENT ANALYSIS: Social Realism (Pages 740 – 741)

       A. Document Analysis
          1. Who wrote it? (Attribution includes biographical references)

           2. What was the author’s point of view?

           3. How reliable is the document? Why?

           4. What was the intent or purpose behind the documents?

           5. Who was the intended audience?

           6. What is the document’s tone?

       B. Analysis
          1. What purpose did culture and art serve in Soviet society?

          2. How do the Soviets view Western life?

          3. What is the proper role of the intellectual in Soviet society?

          4. How did the intellectual internalize socialism and socialist reality?


VIII. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

       1. The liberal provisional government in Russia following the first 1917 revolution
          lost control to the Soviets for all the following reasons EXCEPT:
          A. lack of popular support.
          B. lack of support by the tsar and imperial officials.
          C. continuing to try to fight the Germans in World War I.
          D. failure to institute land reform for the peasants.
          E. economic misery and popular discontent.




                                              270
2. In order to fight and win the Russian Revolution, Lenin and the Bolsheviks
   A. made common cause with the Western Allies.
   B. Allied with Kerensky, the Liberals, and Social Revolutionaries.
   C. signed a humiliating peace treaty with the Germans to end World War I.
   D. shed their radical ideology requiring a violent revolution and dictatorship.
   E. tolerated the tsar as a figurehead ruler.

3. When his enemies and rivals won a majority in the first free elections, Lenin and
   the Bolsheviks
   A. formed a coalition with the Social Revolutionaries.
   B. tolerated a western-style democracy.
   C. withdrew from politics and the revolution.
   D. used terror tactics, shut down the parliament, and established a dictatorship.
   E. had the Germans destroy the opposition.

4. Which of these statements about the Russian Civil War is a FACT?
   A. The Western Allies including the U.S. and Japan invaded Russia.
   B. The Bolsheviks had no real opposition in the war.
   C. The pro-tsarist (White) forces defeated the Bolsheviks.
   D. The Bolsheviks compromised with the democratic forces to win the war.
   E. The Allies invited Russia to the Versailles Peace Conference to end the war.

5. The state called the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.)
   A. allowed local autonomy to smaller governmental units.
   B. granted equality to the different nationalities.
   C. permitted a free market economy with no central control of economics.
   D. respected human rights.
   E. recognized the multinational character of the state but put the peoples under
      the control of the communists.

6. Which of these statements regarding Stalin’s Socialism in One Country is a
   FACT?
   A. The Soviet Union concentrated on protecting the state and internal
      developments.
   B. Stalin allowed freedom of action to businessmen and peasant landowners.
   C. The Soviet Union allowed its constituent republics autonomy.
   D. Stalin discouraged collectivization and the building of heavy industry.
   E. The Soviet Union accepted German demands for annexations of western
      lands.

7. All of these descriptions form the pattern of 20th century revolutions EXCEPT:
   A. they occurred in societies undergoing significant changes.
   B. they occurred in states with strong governments.
   C. different groups existed, each with divergent demands for their nations.
   D. groups with strong ideological and religious outlooks dominated them.
   E. winning groups all developed authoritarian institutions and policies.



                                     271
8. In order to fund his rapid industrialization and provide labor for his factories,
   Stalin
   A. borrowed money from the Western allies.
   B. reestablished trade relations with Russia’s old trading partners.
   C. collectivized Russian agriculture.
   D. gave land to the richer, more successful peasants in order to raise money.
   E. allowed freedom of enterprise and profit if a percentage of the earnings were
       paid to the state.

9. Stalin’s economic policies are BEST categorized as a(n)
   A. free market.
   B. traditional economic system.
   C. laissez faire economy.
   D. centrally planned economy.
   E. mixed system.

10. Throughout Soviet history, the weakest sector of the Russian economy due to
    collectivization and lack of initiative was the
    A. industrial sector.
    B. foreign trade sector.
    C. agricultural sector.
    D. technological sector.
    E. defense industries sector.

11. Which of these statements about the Soviet Union’s post World War II foreign
    policy is a FACT?
    A. The U.S.S.R. and U.S. remained on friendly terms between 1945 and 1960.
    B. Communists established sympathetic regimes in their occupied territories.
    C. The U.S.S.R. joined the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
    D. The U.S.S.R., favoring Socialism in One Country, remained isolationist,
    E. The Soviet Union allowed its European allies considerable autonomy.

12. The Soviet Union invaded all of these nations between 1945 and 1981 in order to
    reestablish or establish a communist regime EXCEPT:
    A. Yugoslavia, 1948.
    B. East Germany, 1953.
    C. Hungary, 1956.
    D. Czechoslovakia, 1968.
    E. Afghanistan, 1980.

13. The greatest cultural emphasis in Soviet societies was on
    A. art and music.
    B. literature and poetry.
    C. science, technological developments, and the social sciences.
    D. the free practice and study of religious and intellectual discussions.
    E. ballet and dance.



                                      272
      14. The east European state whose trade union movement seriously threatened
          Communist domination of the nation, state, religion, and economics was
          A. China’s Mao Zedong.
          B. Czechoslovakia’s Dubcek.
          C. Yugoslavia’s Tito.
          D. Finland’s Group of 77.
          E. Poland’s Solidarity.

      15. Soviet and Western European lifestyles were similar in all these ways EXCEPT:
          A. living standards improved and extensive health care services developed.
          B. the emphasis on consumerism and the development of a consumer society.
          C. the pace of work and its increasing supervision.
          D. leisure activities including movies and sports.
          E. the division on class lines between better educated elites and bureaucrats on
             one hand, and workers and peasants.

      16. By the 1980s, the Soviet Union’s industrial policies
          A. responded to the peoples’ demands for consumer items.
          B. led the world in high tech, space, and aircraft technologies.
          C. made it the richest, most powerful economy in the world.
          D. had damaged the environment extensively and perhaps irrevocably.
          E. helped make otherwise harsh Soviet policies acceptable.

      17. Besides Gorbachev’s policies of perestroika and glasnost, the main reason for the
          breakup of the Soviet Union was
          A. nationalism and national self-determination.
          B. openness, which allowed Soviet citizens and press to criticize society.
          C. economic restructuring which encouraged private property and profits.
          D. due to the first free elections for representatives to the Supreme Soviet.
          E. environmental disasters.


IX.   ESSAY QUESTIONS

      A. How did Russia change from 1850 through 2000?

      B. Compare and contrast Western and Russian societies.

      C. Compare and contrast decolonization with the breakup of the Soviet Union.

      D. Compare and contrast Soviet industrialization and the West’s Industrial
         Revolution.

      E. Compare and contrast the Soviet political system with its Western counterpart.

      F. Compare and contrast gender roles in Western and Soviet societies.



                                           273
     CHAPTER 31: JAPAN AND THE PACIFIC RIM
                  Pages 752 – 771                                     ¥
I.    SUMMARY

      A. Decades of Turmoil: The World Wars and their Consequences

         The first decades of the 20th century brought important changes to east Asia as
         China was consumed with internal problems and Japan surged ahead economically
         and militarily. Japan’s economic strength showed in its quick rebound from the
         Great Depression, but after some experiments with fuller democracy, its political
         system moved toward growing militarism.

      B. East Asia and the Postwar Settlements

         Adjustments at the end of World War II defined the Pacific Rim into the 1950s, as a
         zone of reasonably stable noncommunist states developed. Linked to the West, these
         states maintained a neo-Confucian emphasis on the importance of conservative
         politics and a strong state.

      C. Japan, Incorporated

         The keynotes of Japanese history from the 1950s onward were a fierce
         concentration on economic growth and distinctive political and cultural forms as
         the nation proved that industrial success did not depend on a strict Western pattern.

      D. The Pacific Rim: New Japans?

         Economic and some political developments in several other nations and city-states
         on Asia’s Pacific coast mirrored elements in Japan’s 20th century history, although
         at a later date. The states of South Korea, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore are
         called The Four Dragons. Political authoritarianism was characteristic, though
         usually with bows to parliamentary forms and with recurrent protests from
         dissidents. Government functions extended to careful economic planning and rapid
         expansion of the educational system, which emphasized technical training. Group
         loyalties promoted diligent labor and a willingness to work hard for low wages.
         Economic growth burgeoned, although problems appeared in the 1990s.

      E. Conclusion: The Pacific Rim as Exception or Model

         The rise of the Pacific Rim nations was based on a combination of several factors.
         The nations shared aspects of Confucian cultural and political heritage. The
         nations shared some specific contacts with the West through unusually intense
         interactions with the British and Americans. And these nations were rocked by 20th
         century events, which forced rethinking and massive innovation.



                                            274
II.    CHAPTER REVIEW

       A. Describe Japanese development between 1920 and 1940.

       B. What factors led to the growth of militarism in Japan prior to World War II?

       C. How did World War II affect the Pacific Rim?

       D. How was Korea at the center of the Cold War?

       E. Why did the Four Dragons emerge as leaders in the region?

       F. What political, economic, and cultural styles developed in post-war Japan?

       G. How did Japanese society differ from traditional Western societies?

       H. To what extent did the Four Dragons economically, politically, and socially
          conform or depart from Japanese or Western counterparts?

       I. What has been the American role in the Pacific Rim?


III.   VISUALIZING THE PAST: Pacific Rim Growth: Identifying the Dragons (Page 767)

       A. Growth Rates
          1. Which nations had the largest growth rates in 1965? 1996?

          2. Which nations had the smallest growth rates in 1965? 1996?

          3. Why might Filipino and Japanese growth rate be lower than China?

          4. Why are the GNP growth rates of these nations difficult statistics to use to
             make analyses?

          5. If you compare growth rates with all pre-existing industrialized countries,
             the U.S., and India, what conclusions can you reach?

       B. Social and Economic Data
          1. Which nations’ labor force is largely agricultural? Least agricultural?

          2. Which nations would have the largest industrial and service sectors?

          3. Which nations are largely urbanized? Rural?

          4. Why should historians group Japan, Korea, and Malaysia together but
             exclude Thailand and China?



                                            275
IV.   PHOTO ESSAY: The Pacific and the World (752, 756, 757, 759, 761, 763, 765, 769)

      What is the military, economic or commercial, and cultural relationship between the
      Pacific Rim nations and the wider, especially Western world?


V.    DOCUMENT ANALYSIS: Japan and World War II (Pages 758)

      A. Document Analysis
         1. Who wrote it? (Attribution includes biographical references)

          2. What was the author’s point of view?

          3. How reliable is the document? Why?

          4. What was the intent or purpose behind the document?

          5. Who was the intended audience?

          6. What is the document’s tone?

      B. Analysis
         1. Why did the author accept defeat? Why did he ignore the military?

         2. What attitudes and values of the author will help post-war reconstruction?

         3. How did Japan and American ways of dealing with issues differ?

         4. How do you think the author will view American suggestions and ways?


VI.   MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

      1. All of these nations are economic powerhouses of the Pacific Rim EXCEPT:
         A. Vietnam.
         B. Taiwan.
         C. Hong Kong.
         D. South Korea.
         E. Singapore.

      2. One economic weakness of the Pacific Rim nations is a(n)
         A. vulnerability to economic conditions abroad especially trade fluctuations.
         B. large, uneducated force of workers.
         C. lack of ports or infrastructure to facilitate trade.
         D. inability to compete against Western industries.
         E. declining population.



                                           276
3. During the 1930s in Japan the
   A. nation resisted the rising trend towards militarism and nationalism.
   B. nation worked closely with the League of Nations to avoid war.
   C. government granted Korea and Taiwan its independence.
   D. military ignored the elected political authorities and intervened in civilian
      government.
   E. government recognized the Communist states in Russia and China.

4. Between 1910 and 1945 Korea
   A. Allied with the United States to resist Japanese aggression.
   B. was invaded and occupied by China.
   C. remained neutral and isolated from outside influences.
   D. experienced an economic boom.
   E. was ruled by Japan, which suppressed indigenous institutions and culture.

5. The chief stimulus for the collapse of Western colonial rule and influence in the
   Pacific Rim was due to the
   A. communist victory in the Chinese civil war in 1945.
   B. British grant of independence to India in 1947.
   C. initial Japanese defeat of the Western colonial powers.
   D. American insistence during World War II that Europe grant its colonies
      independence.
   E. Russian invasion of Asian colonial territories in World War II.

6. Before 1950, the American role in Asia and the Pacific Rim is BEST described as
   A. largely colonial – the U.S. had obtained a large colonial empire.
   B. isolationist – the U.S. retreated to its prewar boundaries.
   C. interventionist – U.S. troops landed in China to support the Nationalists.
   D. militarily critical for Japan, the Philippines, and the Pacific islands with a
      temporarily waning influence on the Asian mainland.
   E. tolerant of colonialism and revival of the Japanese Empire.

7. Japan’s postwar government is BEST characterized as a
   A. communist people’s democracy.
   B. traditional monarchy with a hereditary emperor and little popular
      sovereignty.
   C. democracy dominated by a political and economic oligarchy.
   D. democratic republic with an unstable party system.
   E. militaristic state.

8. The chief tension within postwar Japan has been
   A. the lack of social mobility.
   B. a large non-Japanese ethnic minority deprived of any rights.
   C. limited rights for women and minorities.
   D. severe demographic dislocation due to rapid industrialization.
   E. a conflict between indigenous traditions or values, and Western influences.



                                      277
9. Postwar Korean development has been largely determined by the
   A. occupation of the country by China and the Soviet Union.
   B. division of the peninsula between pro-Soviet and pro-capitalist states.
   C. long and autocratic rule by the Korean king.
   D. extreme hunger and poverty of the Korean peoples.
   E. devastation caused by World War II.

10. Following its defeat on mainland China, the Kuomintang or Nationalist Party
    led by Chiang Kai-shek
    A. collapsed.
    B. fled to Korea.
    C. fled to the island of Formosa and established a government.
    D. sought support from the U.S.S.R. for a prolonged fight against Mao’s
        communists.
    E. joined with the Chinese Communist Party to form the People’s Republic of
        China.

11. As a modern culture, the Japanese people most value
    A. stability.
    B. tradition.
    C. innovation.
    D. Western-style institutions.
    E. social equality.

12. The relationship between business and government in Japan, Korea, and
    Taiwan in the later half of the 20th century is BEST described as
    A. a communist style command economy.
    B. a socialist-capitalist mix of private property and public welfare.
    C. separated by American style constitutions.
    D. cooperative – the government encourages and protects businesses in an
       almost mercantilist manner.
    E. antagonistic towards each other.

13. In contemporary Japan and Taiwan,
    A. Christianity replaced the older Shinto and Confucian belief systems.
    B. both have military alliances with the United States.
    C. individualism and competitiveness are valued.
    D. populations are increasingly abandoning traditional ways and values.
    E. group consensus and collective decision making are most highly valued.

14. The second largely Christian country in the Pacific Rim (after the Philippines) is
    A. Taiwan.
    B. South Korea.
    C. Singapore.
    D. Japan.
    E. Hong Kong.



                                      278
       15. The Pacific Rim nation that has recently emerged as an economic giant and
           whose industries and products have challenged Japan, the United States, and
           Western Europe is
           A. North Korea.
           B. Taiwan.
           C. Hong Kong.
           D. South Korea.
           E. Singapore.

       16. The chief concern and worry of contemporary Taiwan is
           A. its relationship to the communist regime in China, which claims to rule the
              island.
           B. its military alliance with the United States.
           C. its declining industrial base.
           D. widespread pollution caused by industry.
           E. the lack of democracy.

       17. All of these problems are shared by the contemporary Pacific Rim nations
           EXCEPT:
           A. falling growth rates.
           B. a rise in unemployment.
           C. antagonisms between the United States and China, which threaten war.
           D. declining power of their national currencies.
           E. popular pressures for change in traditional political practices.


VII.   ESSAY QUESTIONS

       A. Compare and contrast modern Japanese and Korean society with Western
          consumer culture.

       B. How has Japan changed from 1800 to 2000?

       C. How has Confucianism changed from the 5th century BCE to the contemporary
          age?

       D. Compare and contrast the Pacific Rim’s relationship to the U.S. today with the
          tributary relationship to China in the past.

       E. Compare and contrast Pacific Rim politics and structures or economics and
          commercial structures with their Western-style counterparts.

       F. Compare and contrast the American role in Pacific Asia with the American role
          in Latin America.

       G. Compare and contrast the Japanese reaction to the Great Depression with the
          American or German reaction.


                                            279
          CHAPTER 32: LATIN AMERICA –
          REVOLUTION AND REACTION
             IN THE 20TH CENTURY
                 Pages 772 – 799


I.   SUMMARY

     A. The Mexican Revolution and The Great War

        The Mexican Revolution (1910 – 1920) was a violent reaction to authoritarian
        modernization. It produced a new sense of nationalism, reforms, and an
        institutionalized party that took over the presidency and remained in power through
        the mid-1990s.

     B. Economic Change and New Political Actors

        During and after World War I, Latin American economies expanded and the
        population continued to increase, especially in the cities. The growth of middle
        class and working class populations challenged traditional oligarchies and resulted
        in new political parties, often populist and nationalist. These new parties and the
        traditional elites attacked liberalism and laissez-faire capitalism, which were clearly
        in crisis by the time of the Great Depression.

     C. Promises of Social Reform

        The regimes of the 1930s enacted broad reforms and mobilized the mass of the
        population in populist politics as never before in the region. Most leaders of this era
        drew ideas from socialist and fascist models and instituted broad reforms.

     D. Radical Options in the 1950s

        Frustration with the failures of social, political, and economic reforms led to
        radical solutions that were often influenced by socialist or communist ideas. In
        Bolivia, Guatemala, and Cuba, revolutionaries tried to change the nature of
        government and society, and eliminate foreign economic controls, but such
        changes also had to accommodate the reality of the Cold War and the interests of
        the United States.

     E. The Search for Reform and the Military Option

        Programs based upon Catholic, Marxist, and capitalist doctrines were used to seek
        solutions for Latin American problems. Military governments based on nationalism
        and advocating economic development created a “bureaucratic authoritarianism,”
        which served the Cold War interests of the United States. By the 1980s, a new wave
        of democratic regimes was emerging.



                                            280
      F. Societies in Search of Change

         Social relations changed slowly in Latin America. Inequalities based on ethnicity
         continued in many places. Women had entered the labor force in great numbers
         but only began to gain the right to vote after 1929. Population growth,
         urbanization, and migration continued to challenge the region.

      G. Conclusion: Struggling Toward the Future

         Latin America continues to search for economic growth, social justice, and political
         stability. In many ways, Latin American societies remained unrevolutionary,
         unable to bring about needed changes because of deeply entrenched traditions.
         However, the struggle for change produced important results.


II.   CHAPTER QUESTIONS

      A. What caused the Mexican Revolution? Cuban Revolution?

      B. How did the revolution become a civil war? With what results for Mexico?

      C. What motivated the post-revolutionary culture and politics in Mexico?

      D. How did revolution change Mexican society? Cuba?

      E. What unresolved challenges has Mexico faced during the last decade?

      F. How did international economics lead to change in Latin America after 1914?

      G. How did labor, middle class, and ideology influence society in the 20th century?

      H. How did the Great Depression affect Brazil and Argentina?

      I. What pressures led to radical changes during the 1950s?

      J. What ideologies were common in the 1960s and 1970s? What did they advocate?

      K. How did the military affect Latin American politics in the 20th century?

      L. Since the 1980s, what successes has democracy had?

      M. What role has the United States played in the 20th century?

      N. What social developments has Latin America experienced this century?

      O. What demographic shifts and movements has the region experienced since 1980?



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III.   VOCABULARY

       A. Third World

       B. Mexican Revolution (1910)

       C. Mexican Constitution of 1917

       D. Indianize

       E. Cristeros

       F. Party of the Institutionalized Revolution (PRI)

       G. North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

       H. Zapatistas

       I. Import Substitution Industrialization

       J. Anarchism

       K. Syndicalism

       L. Populism

       M. Peronism (Argentina)

       N. Corporatism

       O. United Fruit Company; Arbenz

       P. Cuban Revolution

       Q. Liberation Theology

       R. Salvador Allende and Chile, 1973

       S. Banana Republics

       T. Good Neighbor Policy

       U. Alliance for Progress

       V. Sandanistas (Nicaragua)




                                             282
IV.   PHOTO ESSAY: Change! (Pages 772, 776, 777, 778, 780, 783, 786, 788, and 795)

      Categorize the types of and forces for change in Latin America. Which ones would
      be most likely to succeed? Why?

      Note: Find any mural by Diego Rivera. Anyone of his murals can teach the history
      of Mexico in a visual format. They are excellent Document Based Questions. See the
      following websites:

      1. GATEWAY TO ART HISTORY
         http://www.harbrace.com/art/gardner/

      2. THE ARTCHIVES
         http://www.artchive.com/

      3. CAROL GERTEN’S ART MUSEUM
         http://sunsite.auc.dk/cgfa/index.html


V.    DOCUMENT ANALYSIS: The People Speak (Pages 790 – 791)

      A. Document Analysis
         1. Who wrote each? (Attribution includes biographical references)

          2. What were the authors’ points of view?

          3. How reliable are the documents? Why?

          4. What were the intents or purposes behind the documents?

          5. Who were the intended audiences?

          6. What are the documents’ tones?

      B. Comparison
         1. What barriers must each woman overcome?

         2. Which women would have an easier time of changing society? Why?

         3. How might Latin Americans of African descent see these issues?


VI.   TIMELINE: Latin America and the World (Page 774)

      What role have revolutions, wars, and the United States played in Latin American
      diplomatic history?



                                          283
VII.   READING GRAPHS: Chart 32.3 – Participation in the Mexican P.R.I. (Page 778)

       A. Which social group dominated the PRI in:
          1. 1936?
          2. 1959?
          3. 1988?

       B. What does the occupation category “people in general” represent?

       C. What does your above answer say about change in Mexican society?

       D. How revolutionary do you think the PRI was in 1988?


VIII. MAP EXERCISES – U.S. Intervention in Central America (Page 792)

       A. Reading the Map
          1. What territories in Central America and the Caribbean does the U.S. own?

          2. In what countries did the United States intervene?

       B. How might communists in Cuba and Nicaragua threaten the US?

       C. What other American interventions are not listed on the map? (See timeline)

       D. How might the Latin Americans perceive the United States? Why might the U.S.
          look upon the area as its empire?


IX.    MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

       1. All of these were 20th century Latin American revolutionary movements or
          revolutions EXCEPT:
          A. Liberation Theology.
          B. Nicaraguan Revolution.
          C. Cuban Revolution.
          D. Mexican Revolution.
          E. Haitian Revolution.

       2. The greatest international political and economic influence on the Latin America
          in the 20th century has been
          A. Great Britain’s capital investments.
          B. the United States and its larger corporations.
          C. communism and the Soviet Union.
          D. populism and the politics of nationalizations.
          E. syndicalism, anarchism, and the elimination of private property.


                                           284
3. All of these were causes of the Mexico Revolution (and other 20th century
   revolutions such as the 1911 Chinese and 1978 Iranian revolutions) EXCEPT:
   A. rapid modernization.
   B. revolts by ethnic minorities against an oppressive majority.
   C. increasing dependence on foreign investments.
   D. large percent of the national wealth owned by foreigners.
   E. a growing national resentment of foreigners.

4. The Mexican Revolution can be BEST described as a(n)
   A. reaction against an American invasion.
   B. attempt to overthrow an oppressive, bankrupt monarchy.
   C. civil war between social and regional groups, each with their own ideologies
      and agenda.
   D. slave rebellion against masters, plantations, and extreme cruelty.
   E. revolution for national independence from a colonial power.

5. Which of these statements about post-Revolutionary Mexico is a FACT?
   A. Mexican revolutionaries attempted to assimilate Indians into national
      society.
   B. The revolution disapproved of land redistributions to peasants.
   C. The Roman Catholic Church was unaffected by the Revolution.
   D. The U.S. accepted the revolution and its changes largely without comment.
   E. Mexico nationalized foreign economic holdings throughout the country.

6. World War I’s greatest impact on Latin America was the
   A. United States’ invasion of Mexico in 1917.
   B. European demand for goods stimulated the Latin American economy.
   C. communist revolution in Russia influenced the Mexican Revolution.
   D. need to develop industries to replace European imports lost due to the war.
   E. population growth in Latin America due to European immigration.

7. The major Latin American social or cultural change between 1914 and 1945 was
   the
   A. rise of a political influential middle class and activist worker movements.
   B. increasing “Indianization” of Latin American countries and cultures.
   C. enfranchisement of minorities and women.
   D. immigration to Latin American millions of Africans.
   E. spread of the Pentecostal Christians throughout Latin America.

8. All of these are traditional Latin American populist political practices or ideas
   EXCEPT:
   A. anti-imperialism especially anti-American and anti-European.
   B. acceptance of communism.
   C. nationalism.
   D. nationalization of foreign assets.
   E. anti-establishment (supported by urban workers and rural peasants).



                                      285
9. In 20th century Latin America, the military was typically
   A. small and usually ineffective.
   B. liberal and reform-minded.
   C. anti-Catholic and in favor of a secular society.
   D. democratic but involved in politics.
   E. socially conservative, elitist, and authoritarian.

10. Argentina’s Peron and Brazil’s Vargas regime were
    A. pro-European or Western.
    B. favorable to foreign investments in national industries.
    C. often simultaneously fascist, nationalistic, socialist, and populist.
    D. supportive of the communists.
    E. anti-union and anti-worker.

11. The largest impediment to radical reforms and leftist regimes in Latin America
    during the 1950s and 1970s was
    A. a working class unwilling to support radicalism.
    B. reactionary local militaries backed by American money and support.
    C. a small, ineffective working class.
    D. reforms carried out by the elites to democratize the society.
    E. opposition by the Roman Catholic Church.

12. Throughout 20th Latin America, the group most often excluded from influence
    or marginalized in society was the
    A. intellectuals, especially writers and artists.
    B. clergy, especially Roman Catholic priests and nuns.
    C. indigenous peoples and descendants of African slaves.
    D. peasants and rural landowners.
    E. workers and miners.

13. The Latin American country and rulers who most directly challenged American
    regional hegemony during the Cold War was
    A. Mexico’s Cardenas.
    B. Chile’s Allende.
    C. Argentina’s Peron.
    D. Brazil’s Vargas.
    E. Cuba’s Castro.

14. All of these Latin American nations experienced military dictatorships and
    repression during the 20th century EXCEPT:
    A. Chile.
    B. Argentina.
    C. Peru.
    D. Mexico.
    E. Brazil.




                                       286
     15. Which statement about Latin America since the 1980s is a FACT?
         A. Economic development came at the expense of enormous foreign debts.
         B. Democracy and democratic rule was threatened by military takeovers.
         C. Conservative groups and elite parties still dominate Latin America.
         D. The U.S. has abandoned its long time role of intervention in the region.
         E. Latin America has been able to exterminate the Drug Trade and cartels.

     16. The American policy most favored by the majority of Latin Americans in the
         20th century has been
         A. Kennedy’s Alliance for Progress.
         B. Franklin Roosevelt’s Good Neighbor Policy.
         C. Jimmy Carter’s return of the Panama Canal to Panama.
         D. Jimmy Carter’s human rights campaign.
         E. the periodic occupation of many nations by United States’ troops.

     17. All of these are demographic trends and problems in 20th century Latin America
         EXCEPT:
         A. rapid urbanization.
         B. migration of unskilled laborers, the poor and politically repressed to richer
             countries.
         C. millions of refugees due to wars and famines.
         D. excessively large population growth rates.
         E. staggering growth of metropolitan primate (capital) cities.


X.   ESSAY QUESTIONS

     A. Compare and contrast gender relations in 20th century Latin America with any
        one of these regions: Western, African, or Asian equivalents.

     B. How have trade and industry in Latin America changed from 1800 – 2000?

     C. Compare and contrast American relations with Latin America and Britain’s
        relations with its 19th and 20th century colonial empire.

     D. Compare and contrast the Mexican Revolution with any one of these: 1917
        Russian Revolution, 1911 Chinese Revolution, 1959 Cuban Revolution, and the
        1980 Iranian Revolution.

     E. Compare and contrast Latin American populism, fascism and corporatism to
        Italian Fascism or German Nazism.

     F. Compare and contrast the effects of World War I and the Great Depression on
        Latin American and Asia.

     G. Compare and contrast demographic and environmental changes in Latin
        America with Western lands or Asia.


                                          287
CHAPTER 33: DECOLONIZATION AND THE DECLINE
      OF THE EUROPEAN WORLD ORDER
                Page 800 – 829


I.   SUMMARY

     A. Prototypes for the Independence Struggle: India and Egypt

        Because India and much of southeast Asia had been colonized long before Africa,
        independence movements arose in Asia somewhat earlier than their African
        counterparts. By the end of the 19th century, educated elites in India and the
        Philippines organized politically for debate, while similar leaders in Burma and the
        Dutch East Indies formed associations to voice their political concerns. Local
        conditions in Asia and Africa led to important variations in the sequence of
        decolonization. But the key themes – the leadership of western-educated elites, the
        importance of charismatic leaders, and a reliance of nonviolent protest – appeared
        in most colonial struggles.

     B. World War I and the Post War Crisis of the European Empires

        The nationalist struggle against European colonial domination was given a great
        boost by the long, devastating war between the European great powers in 1914.
        Although the Europeans had long quarreled over colonies, World War I was the
        first time the powers fought each for colonies. Major theatres of war developed in
        the colonies, especially in Africa and the Middle East, while great numbers of
        colonial troops, laborers, and resources were involved in fights across the globe.
        The Great Depression exacerbated decolonization movements.

     C. Another Global War and the Collapse of the European World Order

        World War II proved fatal to the already weakened European colonial empires. The
        casualties and costs of the war made it unlikely Europeans could fight protracted
        colonial wars to retain overseas possessions. Additionally, there were pressures
        from the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Independence was easily won in non-settler
        colonies. But in settler colonies, large European settler communities tried to block
        nationalist aspirations, and independence struggles were usually violent and costly.

     D. Conclusion: The Limits of Decolonization

        The rapid demise of the European colonial order is not surprising but the winning
        of independence also represented less of a break with the colonial past than the
        new maps would suggest. The fact that elites led the revolutions limited the extent
        of social and economic transformations. The educated elites took over the offices
        and jobs of the departing Europeans. Often large landowners, who were
        indigenous, remained. But Western cultural influences remained. And
        decolonization did not disrupt the Western domination of trade and the economies.


                                           288
II.    CHAPTER REVIEW

       A. How did Egyptian and India leaders hope to achieve independence?

       B. How did the British react to independence movements in India and Egypt?

       C. How did World War I and the Paris Peace Conference effect the Middle East?

       D. Who was M. Gandhi and how did he plan to achieve Indian independence?

       E. Who led African independence movements and what ideologies did they hold?

       F. What role did women play in nationalist independence movements?

       G. How did World War II pave the way for decolonization?

       H. How did India achieve independence in 1947?

       I. How did African nations achieve independence?

       J. How did independence movements in settler colonies differ from other colonies?

       K. How did Southern Africa differ from the rest of Africa?

       L. What problems did Arabs and Jews face in the independence of Palestine?


III.   VOCABULARY

       A. Effendi

       B. Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1935

       C. Morley-Minto Reforms

       D. Satyagraha

       E. Muslim League, Muhammad Jinnah

       F. Indian National Congress Party

       G. Simon Commission

       H. Government of India Act

       I. Mandates



                                           289
      J. Balfour, Balfour Declaration

      K. Zionist, World Zionist Organization, Theodore Herzl

      L. Pogroms

      M. Dreyfus Affairs

      N. Wafd Party

      O. Pan-African Movement

      P. Negritude

      Q. Quit India

      R. Partition

      S. Atlantic Charter

      T. Kenyan African Union, Mau-Mau Rebellion

      U. Land Freedom Army

      V. National Liberation Front (NLF)

      W. Secret Army Organization (OAS)

      X. Afrikaaner National Party

      Y. Apartheid

      Z. Haganah


IV.   MAP EXERCISES

      A. Map 33.1: British India in the Nationalist Era (Page 804)
         1. Why would governing India be difficult?

         2. Why would a partition of India be difficult? Necessary?

         3. Along what boundaries would you partition India?

         4. If Muslim peoples would belong to one state, what problems would it have?




                                           290
     B. Map 33.2: The Middle East 1914 – 1922 (Page 807)
     C. Map 33.3: The Middle East in the Aftermath of World War I (Page 813)
        1. How had the Middle East changed as a result of World War I?

        2. What lands in the area were British influenced or controlled? French?

        3. What strategic considerations led Britain to desire influence in the area?

        4. What are the only three fully independent Middle East lands?

     D. Map 33.7: The Partition of Palestine (Page 827)
        1. Why would you want to partition Palestine?

        2. Why would the governance of either state be difficult?

        3. Why would Jerusalem not be given to either state?

        4. Why would the Israelis be worried about their borders?


V.   DOCUMENT ANALYSIS: Lessons for the Colonized (Page 810)

     A. Document Analysis
        1. Who wrote each document? (Attribution includes biographical references)

         2. What are the authors’ points of view?

         3. How reliable are the documents? Why?

         4. What were the intents or purposes behind the documents?

         5. Who were the intended audiences?

         6. What are the documents’ tone?

     B. Analysis
        1. How did World War I undermine the myth of European invincibility?

        2. What aspects of colonial societies did the authors emphasize?

        3. Are the authors guilty of any biases themselves?

        4. How might ethnocentrism, especially of political philosophies, make it
           difficult to run future nations once they have achieved independence from
           Europe?




                                          291
VI.    PHOTO ESSAY: Decolonization (Pages 800, 805, 808, 811, 816, 821, 822, 823, 824)

       Mohandas K. Gandhi knew that symbols often spoke louder than words. In order to
       combat colonialism, Gandhi suggested that Indians cease to buy British-made cloth
       and instead spin their own. The swaraj movement wore homespun cloth made on
       native spinning wheels.

       A. What images and ideals do the photographs represent?

       B. How do the photographs represent:
          1. Western ideas?

          2. Indigenous ideas?

          3. Struggles?

       C. Why might native leaders adopt certain poses and styles of dress?

       D. What might it say if native rulers adopt Western styles of dress?


VII.   MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

       1. In India and most other European colonies, the group that eventually led most
          independence movements was
          A. the native military leaders.
          B. the local merchants and entrepreneurs.
          C. the western educated elite such as lawyers and mid-level civil servants.
          D. peasants.
          E. guerillas and terrorists.

       2. The leader and political organization that led India to independence was the
          A. Bose’s Indian Nation Army.
          B. Herzl’s World Zionist Organization.
          C. Tilak’s Hindu Communal Movement.
          D. Jinnah’s Muslim League.
          E. Nehru’s Indian National Congress.

       3. The national movement for Indian independence was threatened most often by
          A. the sectarian influenced disagreements between Hindus and Muslims.
          B. the continual European wars such as World Wars I and II.
          C. Gandhi’s satyagraha movement.
          D. caste strife between upper and lower caste Hindus.
          E. the native Indian aristocracy, which opposed independence.




                                            292
4. In Egypt around 1900 CE, the urban middle class became the chief advocate of
   independence because
   A. it had contacts throughout the Muslim world.
   B. the great landlords and Khedive administration were too pro-British.
   C. the peasants were largely Christian and objected to independence.
   D. there were no political parties in Egypt.
   E. Europeans had ruined their businesses leaving them embittered towards the
      British.

5. World War I directly threatened continued European colonialism for all of these
   reasons EXCEPT:
   A. the war helped develop colonial enterprises and industries to support the war
      effort.
   B. the myth of European invincibility and superiority was destroyed on the
      battlefields.
   C. colonial powers increasingly gave native troops and officers real
      opportunities for the first time.
   D. the British and French defeat in World War I led directly to the first grants
      of independence for some of the colonies.
   E. it was hard to speak of equal rights and defending democracy while having
      colonies.

6. Mohandas Gandhi philosophy and actions
   A. divided Hindus and Muslims.
   B. appealed to the Hindu Communalists.
   C. mirrored Communist policies.
   D. lost India the moral support of Western intelligentsia.
   E. united the Indian masses and Western-educated nationalist leaders.

7. Gandhi’s satyagraha tactics
   A. espoused violence.
   B. encouraged Muslims and Sikhs to cooperate with the Hindus.
   C. influenced later nonviolent civil rights movements in Poland, the U.S., China,
      Burma, and the Philippines.
   D. were supported by the British, who opposed the Indian National Congress.
   E. were an outgrowth of Gandhi’s Christianity and Buddhism.

8. During World War I and the Paris Peace Conference, the Arabs
   A. supported the Turks against the Allied powers.
   B. fought both sides – the Turks, British and French.
   C. stayed neutral.
   D. acquired lands and independence as the Europeans had promised.
   E. fought against the Turks but were largely betrayed by the Western powers at
      the peace conference.




                                     293
9. The Middle Eastern problem created by the British during World War I, which
   still troubled the region in 2000 C.E., was the
   A. promise to create a Jewish homeland in Palestine.
   B. boundaries of Turkey were left undetermined.
   C. holy sites of Islam became colonial possessions of Egypt.
   D. occupation of Egypt and control of the Suez Canal.
   E. failure to create a Kurdish national state.

10. The results of the 1919 Wafd rebellion in Egypt was the
    A. occupation of Egypt by the British.
    B. collapse of British colonialism in Africa.
    C. outbreak of a Muslim holy war against the Europeans in Egypt.
    D. complete British withdrawal from Egypt and the Canal by 1936.
    E. British enactment of reforms including support for local industrialization.

11. Which statement BEST describes colonial Africa of the 1920s and 1930s?
    A. Many colonies were progressing on the road to self-government.
    B. The British and French rewarded their colonies for their support and efforts
       during World War I.
    C. Most Africans looked to local elites in their independence movements.
    D. While effective political leadership lacked, protests and rebellions intensified.
    E. The Negritude literary movement had little effect on Africa and Africans.

12. What statement BEST characterizes the role of women in African and Asian
    nationalist movements?
    A. Women were often the leaders of political movements.
    B. Women’s involvement in national independence movements was paralleled
       by a campaign for women’s rights within their own society.
    C. Women remained largely secluded and uninterested in the movements.
    D. While women participated, it was often in secondary roles.
    E. Only elite, upper class women participated in independence movements.

13. Real decolonization, which began in 1946 originated in World War II with
    A. Nazi and Japanese promises for the independence of colonial peoples.
    B. Western grants of independence in exchange for support against the Axis.
    C. American pressure on their allies to grant their colonies independence.
    D. Native rebellions against colonial powers engaged in wars elsewhere.
    E. an allied agreement that the United Nations would administer all colonies.

14. The first Western colony or mandate to gain full independence was
    A. Indonesia from the Dutch in 1949.
    B. Sri Lanka, India, and Pakistan from Great Britain in 1949.
    C. The Philippines from the U.S. in 1946.
    D. Algeria from France in 1944.
    E. Syria and Lebanon from France in 1943.




                                      294
     15. Indian independence resembled the independence of Palestine in that both
         A. were welcomed and encouraged by the British.
         B. were granted following extensive terrorist campaigns.
         C. the result of successful Axis invasions of the colonies.
         D. peoples cooperated with Europeans to achieve independence.
         E. states were partitioned after bitter disputes between ethnic groups.

     16. French and Dutch opposition to demands for the independence of their colonies
         A. led to several unsuccessful wars by these European states to maintain their
            empires.
         B. led to communist revolutions and victories in these states.
         C. was supported by the British and Americans.
         D. was to grant independence, provided European property was protected.
         E. led these states to turn their Asian colonies over to the United Nations.

     17. All of these were methods used by Africans to obtain independence from
         European or white settler regimes EXCEPT:
         A. widespread but nonviolent protests, boycotts, and strikes.
         B. military interventions by the U.S., U.S.S.R., and U.N. to end colonialism.
         C. cooperation between educated elites and Western nations in peaceful
             independence.
         D. guerrilla warfare and terrorist campaigns against white settler campaigns.
         E. revolutions and wars of independence between Europeans and natives.


VIII. ESSAY QUESTIONS

     A. Compare and contrast Latin American independence movements and African or
        Asian decolonization in the 1950s and 1960s.

     B. How did the Indian independence movement change between 1850 and 1947?

     C. Compare and contrast the role of Great Britain in the independence of Latin
        America with the American influence on decolonization in the 1940s and 1950s.

     D. Compare and contrast the role of women in decolonization with their influence
        in any 20th revolution.

     E. Compare and contrast the methods of achieving colonial independence.

     F. Compare and contrast Palestinian/Israeli and Indian paths to independence.

     G. Compare and contrast the emancipation of the serfs or slaves or the women’s
        rights movement with decolonization.

     H. Compare and contrast 20th century African and Asian with 19th century
        European nationalism and nationalist ideologies.


                                          295
     CHAPTER 34: AFRICA AND ASIA IN
       THE ERA OF INDEPENDENCE
              Pages 830 – 857


I.      SUMMARY

        A. The Challenges of Independence

           In the early decades of independence, the existence of nation-states carved out of
           the colonial empires was challenged by internal rivalries, and in some cases, civil
           wars between different ethnic, religious, and social groups. Economic growth was
           hampered by unprecedented rates of population growth with rapid and often
           extreme urbanization, changes in the international market, and the continuing
           underdevelopment of most of the states. While some groups benefited, women
           continued to be disadvantaged in nearly all aspects of their lives.

        B. Paths to Economic Growth and Social Justice

           Leaders of newly independent African and Asian nations had to deliver on their
           promises of social reform and economic prosperity. Different leaders adopted
           different approaches, and some tried one approach after another. Basic strategies
           included one party authoritarian rule with frequent coups and revolutions often by
           the military. Governments nationalized foreign assets and attempted land reforms
           in a combination of socialist and nationalist policies. And while the states attempted
           to develop what resources their states possessed, often it was development for some
           but not all of the people. Consequently, states fall into categories largely based on
           their development and stability. The first tier includes nations like India and
           Thailand, but very few African nations. Nations of this group have adequate
           resources, are relatively stabile, and have made serious attempts to control
           population. The second tier of nations such as Nigeria, South Africa, Pakistan, and
           Iran has resources, but has been hampered by revolutions or internal conflicts. The
           third group of nations is too poor and too beset with troubles to remain viable.

        C. Conclusion: The Post-Colonial Experience in Historical Perspective

           Although the years for the nations that emerged from the colonial empires have
           been filled by economic and political crises and social turmoil, it is important to
           view recent history in perspective. Most nations have only existed for decades. They
           came to independence with severe handicaps, many of which were a legacy of their
           colonial past. There have been boundary disputes and wars. Governments are
           unstable and often lack widespread popular support. These nations’ ascent to
           development have been burdened by excessive populations that have overwhelmed
           limited resources that developing nations often export to earn the capital needed to
           buy food and nations. The challenge for the coming generations will be to find
           genuinely viable solutions to the problems that have stunted political and economic
           development.


                                              296
II.    CHAPTER REVIEW

       A. What problems confronted the newly independent ex-colonial states?

       B. How has ethnicity threatened many African and Asian states?

       C. What demographics-related problems threatened African and Asian states?

       D. Why is the environment endangered in many African and Asian states?

       E. What achievements and disappointments have women faced in these states?

       F. How have international economic conditions impacted development?

       G. What political patterns have governments and politics followed in these states?

       H. What role has the military played in post-colonial politics? With what results?

       I. What different paths have Egypt, Iran, India, and South Africa taken?


III.   VOCABULARY

       A. “Artificial Nations”

       B. Demographic transition

       C. Primate cities

       D. Religious revivalism

       E. Primary products

       F. Neo-Colonialism

       G. Conditionalities

       H. Green Revolution

       I. Iranian Revolution

       J. Globalization

       K. Apartheid

       L. Separatism, ethnic nationalism



                                            297
IV.   MAP EXERCISES: The Colonial Legacy of Africa (Pages 686 and 835)

      A. Ruling Languages (Page 686)

         Colonial powers used their mother languages to rule. Native social elites, colonial
         officials, and schools within the colonies learned and used the colonial languages.
         Because most of the newly independent nations were multi-national and multi-
         cultural, these languages often have become the only widely-spoken tongue.

         1. Based on the map on 835, which modern nations probably use:
            a. English?
            b. French?
            c. Portuguese?

         2. How might language use affect other cultural traditions and institutions
            transferred to the ex-colonies?

      B. Map 34.4: The Middle East (Page 849)
         1. The acronym PATIO meaning Persians, Arabs, Turks, Israelis, and Others
            best explains the Middle East. What culture and languages would each have?


         2. Drawing Conclusions: Cause and Effect
            a. Iran and Iraq have large or predominant Shi’ite populations. How would
               this affect diplomatic relations with the rest of the region?

            b. Turkey abandoned the Arabic script and secularized the state in the
               1920s. How might this affect Turkey’s relations to the region?

            c. The Persian Gulf states are oil-rich. How might this affect their domestic
               and international policies?

            d. Egypt, Lebanon, Iraq, and Syria have large Christian populations, while
               Iraq, Turkey, and Lebanon have sizeable ethnic minorities. How might
               this affect domestic politics?

            e. Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Yemen are politically radical, Saudi Arabia is
               conservative, and Egypt, Jordan, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab
               Emirates, and Oman are moderate. How might this affect international
               alliances and domestic politics?

            f. Israel is largely Jewish and occupies Jerusalem, the third holiest city in
               Islam and the home of Christianity. The country is a regional power and
               allied to the US. How might this affect regional international relations?




                                            298
V.     PHOTO ESSAY: Challenges (Pages 830, 836, 838, 839, 841, 847, and 848)
       The newly independent nations have faced many problems. According to the
       photographs, what problems have plagued nations in the post-colonial era?

       1. Political?

       2. Economic?

       3. Religious?

       4. Social?

       5. Environmental?


VI.    DOCUMENT ANALYSIS: Cultural Creativity (Page 844)
       A. Document Analysis
          1. Who wrote each? (Attribution includes biographical references)

           2. What were the authors’ points of view?

           3. How reliable are the documents? Why?

           4. What were the intents or purposes behind the documents?

           5. Who were the intended audiences?

           6. What are the documents’ tones?

       B. Comparison
          1. How is the neo-colonial struggle evident in these literary selections?

          2. Are the problems Western in cause or do they predate Western arrival?

          3. How do the problems mirror situations in American society?


VII.   STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Graph 34.3 – Populations (Page 839)

       A. What does the graph describe?

       B. The graph uses two colors. What do they represent?

       C. What trends characterize the change over time of the populations?

       D. Which region(s) have had the greatest population growth?


                                             299
VIII. MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

    1. One dominant feature of post-colonial Asian and African nations was the
       A. Cold War rivalry between the U.S. and U.S.S.R.
       B. constant warfare between neighboring states over borders.
       C. class struggles and ethnic tensions that produced political instability.
       D. rise of socialist ideologies, which were blended with nationalist policies.
       E. persistence of European and Western economic controls.

    2. The boundaries of many contemporary states, especially African nations,
       A. are representative of ethnic realities in the region or continent.
       B. generally conform to elements of physical geography such as rivers.
       C. have been rearranged since independence.
       D. are subject to frequent change.
       E. were set by colonial rivalries irrespective of ethnic or cultural realities.

    3. In order to rule their colonies, Europeans frequently
       A. established a parliamentary system and allowed their subjects to vote.
       B. used one group to rule and played groups off against each other.
       C. brought in foreign bureaucrats.
       D. failed to utilize traditional native elites.
       E. encouraged land reform and industrialization.

    4. All of these modern African problems resulted from or were exacerbated by
       European colonial policies EXCEPT:
       A. intertribal warfare based on linguistic, cultural, and religious differences.
       B. wars of independence and secession by excluded ethnic groups.
       C. lack of loyalties to the nation-state.
       D. widespread reliance on the military and generals to rule nations.
       E. privileged economic and social elites ruling without mass support.

    5. Most problems affecting the modern states in post-colonial Africa and Asia can
       be traced to
       A. overpopulation.
       B. industrialization.
       C. continuing neo-colonialism.
       D. linguistic, cultural, and religious differences.
       E. international warfare.

    6. Inability to limit population growth in Africa and Asia is BEST attributed to
       A. lack of family planning and birth control programs.
       B. international demand for labor.
       C. cultural values and social traditions which block changes.
       D. European and Western successes in eliminating diseases, famine, and war.
       E. lack of educated elites and resources to implement programs.




                                           300
7. The most destabilizing aspect of the 20th century demographic transition in
   Africa and Asia has been the
   A. rapid growth of the older segment of the population especially the elderly.
   B. international migration by productive populations to richer nations.
   C. decrease in poverty.
   D. increase of the productive portion of the population, especially those between
      15 and 50.
   E. extreme urbanization with its accompanying urban problems with its drain
      on most national resources.

8. Which statement BEST describes women’s situation in post-colonial Africa and
   Asia?
   A. While women have legal equality, they are rarely afforded equal opportunity
      for jobs, education, and in politics.
   B. Upper class educated women have established rights and exercise
      considerable power.
   C. Women’s life spans in the developing world are longer than their male
      counterparts.
   D. Women are allowed to vote and encouraged to participate in the political
      process.
   E. As religious and cultural traditions erode, and secularism spreads, women
      are acquiring rights.

9. In the contemporary world economic system, ex-colonial Asian and African
   nations have
   A. developed industrialized, free market economies.
   B. built considerable infrastructures to support industry and commerce.
   C. attracted foreign developmental capital and industries from wealthier
       nations.
   D. remained largely sources for exportable raw minerals and cash crops.
   E. relied on tourism to develop.

10. A problem affecting development in ex-colonial states has been the
    A. lack of resources to trade.
    B. antiquated economic structures.
    C. lack of an entrepreneurial middle class.
    D. lack of funds to invest or to develop their nations.
    E. widespread corruption amongst officials and the ruling elites.

11. The style of government MOST favored in ex-colonial African and Asian states
    can be BEST described as a(n)
    A. one-party communist dictatorship.
    B. authoritarian military dictatorship.
    C. blend between socialism, democracy, and nationalism.
    D. traditional constitutional monarchies.
    E. largely democracies with elected executives and legislatures.



                                     301
12. The army has become an important institution in many nations since 1950 for all
    of these reasons EXCEPT
    A. army units are usually disciplined and loyal to officers.
    B. it has a monopoly of force and power within society.
    C. soldiers and officers are often more educated and technically trained.
    D. the army is less susceptible to religious and ethnic rivalries.
    E. no other local or native institutions survived the colonial era.

13. The role of the Egyptian military and its leaders in their country’s development
    since independence most closely parallels the
    A. military in Latin America during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s.
    B. Red Army under the communists in the Russian Civil War.
    C. fascist armies of Franco and Mussolini in 1930s Italy and Spain.
    D. Indian National Congress Party of Nehru and Gandhi.
    E. depoliticized, neutral militaries in the US and Western Europe.

14. India differs from other ex-colonial 20th century nations such as Pakistan, Egypt,
    Burma and Nigeria in that
    A. its army constantly intervenes in national politics.
    B. it has avoided overpopulation.
    C. it preserved civilian and democratic rule of law and government since
       independence.
    D. it has failed to develop an important industrial and business sector.
    E. it avoided sectarian religious strife.

15. During the last decades of the 20th century, the event which has most determined
    Iranian development has been the
    A. autocratic reign Reza Pahlavi or the shah.
    B. Iranian religious revolution of the ayatollahs.
    C. alliance with the United States.
    D. war with Iraq.
    E. discovery and development of oil.

16. All of these developments are examples of late 20th century religious revivalism
    and sectarian nationalism EXCEPT the
    A. rise of fundamentalist movements across the Muslim and Hindu worlds.
    B. victory of extremely xenophobic nationalist parties in many nations.
    C. incidents of ethnic cleansing and genocide in many nations.
    D. founding of anti-colonial independence movements.
    E. rise of the religious radical right in the United States.




                                      302
      17. The apartheid program in South Africa could BEST be compared to
          A. the Nazi Holocaust against the Jews.
          B. the Israeli treatment of the Palestinians on the West Bank.
          C. segregation, “Jim Crow” and “separate but equal” laws in the United States.
          D. Gandhi’s satyagraha campaign in India.
          E. immigration restrictions on foreign workers in Western Europe.


IX.   ESSAY QUESTIONS

      A. Compare and contrast gender roles in Africa and Asia with one: Latin America,
         the Western world, or East Asia.

      B. Compare and contrast post-colonial politics and economics of Africa with the
         newly independent Latin American states of the 1820s.

      C. Compare and contrast 20th century economic development in Africa with either
         Latin America or East Asia.

      D. How has Africa changed from 1000 to 2000 C.E.?

      E. Compare and contrast 20th century roles of the military in African and Latin
         American societies.

      F. Compare and contrast the demographic shift of 20th century Africa and Asia
         with the Neolithic Revolutions or the Industrial Revolution.

      G. Compare and contrast African and Asian nationalisms with 19th century
         Western nationalism.

      H. Compare and contrast the Iranian Revolution of the 1980s with any one of these
         revolutions: Russia, 1917; Mexico, 1910; Cuba, 1958, or China, 1911.

      I. Compare and contrast social reforms and developments in post-colonial Africa
         and 1920s Soviet Russia.

      J. Compare 20th century developments in any two of these nations: Iran, Egypt,
         India, South Africa, Argentina, Brazil, or Mexico.

      K. Compare and contrast the legacies of colonialism in any two regions: Latin
         America, Africa, and Asia.

      L. How has the Muslim world changed between 1000 and 2000 C.E.?

      M. How has India changed from 1000 and 2000 C.E.?




                                          303
CHAPTER 35: WAR AND REVOLUTION
     IN CHINA AND VIETNAM
          Pages 858 - 885


I.   SUMMARY

     A. The Struggle of China
        The abdication of the last Manchu emperor in 1912 marked the end of a century
        long struggle by the Qing Dynasty to protect Chinese civilization from foreign
        invaders and revolutionary threats from within. The fall of Qing opened the way
        for an extended struggle over which leader or movement would be able to capture
        the mandate to rule. The loose alliances of students, mid-level politicians, secret
        societies, and regional military commanders quickly splintered into several hostile
        camps for the right to rule China. Both internal factors and foreign influences
        paved the way for the ultimate victory of the Chinese Communist party.

     B. Mao’s China and Beyond
        In 1949 the communists faced the formidable task of governing a vast nation in
        ruins. But the Chinese communists claimed a unified nation from which foreign
        aggressors and internal rivals had been expelled. This allowed the communists to
        move directly to the tasks of social reform and economic development. This
        included land reforms, mass literacy campaigns, and the mobilization of young
        people, both male and female, who enjoyed opportunities to rise in the party ranks.
        While much was achieved, there were many mistakes and set backs.

     C. Colonialism and Revolution in Vietnam
        Like most of the peoples in former colonies, the Vietnamese came under French
        colonial rule in the 19th century. But because of the cultural and social similarities
        with Confucian China, the struggle for national independence in Vietnam
        resembled the struggle in China. The Vietnamese were also shocked by the sudden
        and forcible intrusion of Western influences into their sheltered worlds. Because
        the traditional Vietnamese bureaucracy, Confucian elites, and emperor could not
        resist French colonialism, a violent revolution against traditional institutions and
        European colonial influences led to the rise of a new social and political order.

     D. Conclusions: Revolutions in China and Vietnam
        China and Vietnam underwent revolutionary transformations in the 20th century.
        Monarchies and colonial regimes were replaced with Communist parties, which
        ruled in the name of the workers and peasants. Whole social classes were
        eliminated. Mass oriented schooling and simplified scripts were designed to
        promote literacy. Women greatly improved their social standing. And while
        Communism has replaced Confucianism as the predominate philosophy, the new
        society is a more syncretic blend of the two.


                                            304
II.    CHAPTER REVIEW

       A. What groups struggled to control China between 1911 and 1920?

       B. What was the May 4th Movement and what happened to it?

       C. What led to the rise of the Chinese Communist Party?

       D. How did Chinese Communism differ from Communism in the Soviet Union?

       E. What was the Guomindang and what did it advocate?

       F. Why did the Chinese communists win the Chinese Civil War?

       G. What policies did the People’s Republic of China pursue? With what results?

       H. What was the role of women in the Chinese Revolution and the P.R.C.?

       I. How did Mao Zedong maintain his control of the P.R.C.?

       J. How did the P.R.C. change after Mao’s death?

       K. How did France come to rule Indochina and with what results?

       L. How did France lose its colonies in Indochina?

       M. How did the Vietnamese communists come to lead the independence movement?

       N. What wars did the Vietnam fight in order to gain its independence?

       O. How has Vietnam developed since the reunification of Vietnam in 1975?


III.   VOCABULARY

       A. May 4th Movement

       B. Guomindang (Nationalist Party)

       C. Whampoa Military Academy

       D. Mao Zedong

       E. Long March

       F. People’s Republic of China



                                           305
      G. People’s Liberation Army

      H. Mass line

      I. Great Leap Forward; Cultural Revolution

      J. Pragmatists

      K. Deng Xiao Ping

      L. Red Guard

      M. Gang of Four

      N. Nguyen Dynasty

      O. Vietnamese Nationalist Party

      P. Communist Party of Vietnam

      Q. Vietminh; Vietcong

      R. Vo Nguyen Giap; Ho Chi Minh

      S. Republic of Vietnam; People’s Democratic Republic of Vietnam

      T. Diem Regime

      U. First and Second Indochina Wars


IV.   PHOTO ESSAY: War and Revolution (Pages 858, 863, 864, 866, 867, 871, 875, 883,
      and 884)

      A. War
         1. What sides fought in both nations and what did they hope to achieve?

         2. To what social groups did the Communists appeal?

      B. Revolution
         1. What were the goals of the revolutions?

         2. How did the attempt to achieve these goals?

         3. What is the relationship between war and revolution?




                                          306
V.     MAP EXERCISES: Map 35.1 – China in the Civil War (Page 861)
       A. 1930
          1. What groups controlled lands in China?
          2. Who was the Nationalists’ chief opposition?
          3. Why might it be said that no one ruled China?

       B. 1949
          1. What was the Chinese power base like in 1935? 1945?
          2. Why would Communists choose the route they took during the Long March?
          3. What lands did the Nationalists rule in 1949?


VI.    DOCUMENT ANALYSIS: Women in Revolutionary Struggle (Page 873)

       A. Document Analysis
          1. Who wrote each document? (Attribution includes biographical references)

          2. What are the authors’ points of view?

          3. How reliable are the documents? Why?

          4. What were the intents or purposes behind the documents?

          5. Who were the intended audiences?

          6. What are the documents’ tones?

       B. Analysis
          1. What traditional roles did women have in Vietnam and China?

          2. How do women plan to acquire equality with men?

          3. How do these plans fit into the larger revolutionary struggle?

          4. Comment: Women had to fight two revolutions – one against imperialists
             and another against men.


VII.   MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

       1. 20th century China and Vietnam share which struggle with Algeria and Mexico?
          A. All had communist revolutions.
          B. The United States invaded all four nations.
          C. All fought revolutionary wars against imperialism and colonialism.
          D. All have successfully industrialized and modernized despite many problems.
          E. All were on the losing side in World War II.


                                           307
2. The social system ended by revolutions in 20th century Vietnam and China was
   A. Confucian.
   B. Western.
   C. capitalist.
   D. Muslim.
   E. Buddhist.
3. The 1911 collapse of the Manchu Dynasty in China led to the
   A. victory of the Communist Communist Party.
   B. invasion of the country by Japan.
   C. immediate civil war between rival aristocratic families.
   D. rise of rival military commanders and alliances of warlords.
   E. rise of student and university-led parties to dominate Chinese politics.
4. Chinese communist differed from their Russian (Soviet) counterparts in that the
   A. Russian intellectuals led a revolution while the Chinese relied on merchants.
   B. Russians used military leaders while the Chinese had student leaders.
   C. Chinese used elections to win power, while the Russians relied on violence.
   D. Chinese tolerated their emperor while the Russians overthrew their tsar.
   E. Chinese relied on the peasants, while the Russians relied on the workers.
5. The first leaders of the Chinese Communist party were all of these EXCEPT:
   A. urbanized.
   B. workers.
   C. intellectuals.
   D. students.
   E. peasants.
6. The early Chinese Nationalist Party of Chiang Kai Shek
   A. received support and training from the Soviet Union and Bolsheviks.
   B. looked to Japan for support.
   C. forged an alliance with Western missionaries, traders, and educators.
   D. sought to revolutionize the peasants as their basis for support.
   E. supported a restoration of the emperor and a new dynasty.
7. Post-1911 policies of the Nationalist Party and the traditional Chinese elites
   A. favored foreign intervention to stabilize the country.
   B. were ineffective because neither had any power or support.
   C. favored Western-style democracies and politics.
   D. alienated and enraged the peasants by failure to support land reform.
   E. were dominated by extremists.
8. Communists victories in Vietnam and China most resembled the revolution in
   A. Haiti (1794) where slaves revolted.
   B. Iran (1979) that ousted the shah and established a religious regime.
   C. Mexico (1910) with its peasant rebellions and many-sided civil war.
   D. France (1789) led by the urban bourgeoisie and workers.
   E. Kenya and the 1950s Mau Mau terror campaign to gain independence.



                                      308
9. Nationalists lost influence in China, while the Communists gained it because the
   A. Nationalists allied with Japan against the Allies in World War II.
   B. Communists had the support of the USSR and Stalin.
   C. Nationalists were bankrupt, while the Communists always had support.
   D. Communists used the Confucian system abandoned by the Nationalists.
   E. Communists fought the Japanese, who invaded China, while the Nationalists
      frequently fought the Communists and not the Japanese.

10. In order to win the Chinese civil war, the Communists did all of these EXCEPT:
    A. relocate its power base from the south to the north of China.
    B. fight a war against domestic and foreign enemies.
    C. abandon workers and the urban intelligentsia in favor of peasant support.
    D. ally with the U.S. and U.S.S.R.
    E. rely on guerrilla activities.

11. In the communist China, as with all communist states, political power rests with
    A. the army and generals.
    B. the communist party and party cadres.
    C. the peasant communes and village elders.
    D. urban workers and intelligentsia.
    E. technocrats and bureaucrats.

12. During the Cold War, the People’s Republic of China
    A. initially supported the U.S.S.R., but ended the alliance because of disputes.
    B. was allied with the Communists under Russia’s leadership until 1989.
    C. remained neutral.
    D. avoided a permanent alliance with the U.S.S.R. but fought the U.S. in
       Vietnam and Korea.
    E. led the non-aligned bloc along with India, Egypt, and Yugoslavia.

13. The key economic and social goal of the People’s Republic of China was the
    A. creation of an educated bureaucracy.
    B. destruction of the exploitative landowning class.
    C. establishment of a profitable middle class and agricultural sector.
    D. rapid industrialization.
    E. distribution of land to the peasants.

14. Mao Zedong’s most successful policy and the one which drastically attacked the
    Confucian and Neo-Confucian tradition of China was
    A. land redistribution to the peasants.
    B. creation of an educated, technocratic bureaucracy.
    C. encouragement of innovation and experimentation in the arts.
    D. support for an entrepreneurial middle class.
    E. enfranchisement, education, recruitment, and liberation of women.




                                      309
     15. In contrast to the other developing nations, the People’s Republic of China
         A. industrialized more rapidly.
         B. developed a powerful economy, which supported its large population.
         C. established and maintained a democratic regime.
         D. relied excessively on military control of the government.
         E. controlled its population and avoided demographic problems.

     16. In Vietnam around 1946, the Communists emerged as the leaders for national
         independence because
         A. of their alliance with the United States against Japan.
         B. they defeated the Japanese invasion of Vietnam.
         C. the Japanese occupation of Vietnam discredited France, while the pro-Axis
            French collaborators destroyed the conservative pro-independence parties.
         D. the Chinese Communists occupied and liberated Vietnam from France.
         E. of their acceptance of French terms for gradual independence.

     17. In Vietnam, the communists defeated the South Vietnamese government and its
         American allies for all of these reasons EXCEPT:
         A. China invaded Vietnam to assist the communists against the Americans.
         B. the communists won the support of the peasants and the countryside.
         C. the Americans lost the will to continue an otherwise unpopular war.
         D. the South Vietnamese government was corrupt, ineffective, and unpopular.
         E. North Vietnam has a long tradition of resistance against foreign invaders.


VIII. ESSAY QUESTIONS

     A. Compare and contrast the Chinese and Vietnamese communist revolutions with
        one of these: the Russian Revolution, Mexican Revolution, Cuban Revolution, or
        Iranian Revolution.

     B. How has China changed (politically, socially, economically, internationally,
        culturally or gender-wise) between 1000 C.E. and 2000 C.E.?

     C. Compare and contrast the role of women in the Chinese Revolution with the role
        of women in 20th century Western Europe or the United States?

     D. Compare and contrast industrial development in Communist China with similar
        developments in any one of these: (1) the European 19th century Industrial
        Revolution, (2) Latin American economic developments in the 20th century; (3)
        developments in the USSR; or (4) 20th century developments in India.

     E. Compare and contrast the Vietnamese struggle for independence with the
        campaign against apartheid in South Africa.




                                          310
             MULTIPLE CHOICE ANSWERS

UNIT VI                    8. C
                           9. E
1. E                       10. B
2. B                       11. D
3. C                       12. A
4. A                       13. E
5. D                       14. C
6. A                       15. D
7. C                       16. B
8. E                       17. E
9. D
10. B
                           CHAPTER 30

CHAPTER 28                 1. B
                           2. C
1. A                       3. D
2. D                       4. A
3. E                       5. E
4. B                       6. A
5. C                       7. B
6. A                       8. C
7. C                       9. D
8. D                       10. C
9. B                       11. B
10. E                      12. A
11. B                      13. C
12. D                      14. E
13. E                      15. B
14. D                      16. D
15. A                      17. A
16. C
17. D
                           CHAPTER 31

CHAPTER 29                 1.   B
                           2.   A
1.   C                     3.   D
2.   E                     4.   E
3.   A                     5.   C
4.   D                     6.   D
5.   A                     7.   C
6.   D                     8.   E
7.   B                     9.   B



                     311
10. C              14. E
11. A              15. E
12. D              16. A
13. E              17. B
14. B
15. D
16. A              CHAPTER 34
17. C
                   1. C
                   2. E
CHAPTER 32         3. B
                   4. D
1. E               5. A
2. B               6. C
3. B               7. E
4. C               8. A
5. E               9. D
6. D               10. E
7. A               11. B
8. B               12. E
9. E               13. A
10. C              14. C
11. B              15. B
12. C              16. D
13. E              17. C
14. D
15. A
16. C              CHAPTER 35
17. C
                   1. C
                   2. A
CHAPTER 33         3. D
                   4. E
1. C               5. B
2. E               6. A
3. A               7. D
4. B               8. C
5. D               9. E
6. E               10. D
7. C               11. B
8. E               12. A
9. A               13. D
10. D              14. E
11. D              15. B
12. B              16. C
13. C              17. A



             312

				
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