Air Pollution

					Air Pollution

What are we breathing?
Danger in the air we breathe
                  At rest, human beings
                   breathe in and out at every
                   4 seconds, …
                  16 times in a minute…and
                  960 times an hour …or…
                  8.5 million times of air intake
                   in a year.
                  This adds up to I million
                   gallons a year (4 million
                   liters) of oxygen-related air
                   in a year
Layers of the atmosphere
The world’s polluted cities – nitrogen
                       Nitrogen dioxide is a
                       brownish gas with
                       a chocking odor
                       produced from the
                       reaction between
                       smokes from cars
                       and coal burning
                       plants and oxygen in
                       the air
Natural sources of air pollution
 Ash and smoke from lightning-triggered
  forest fires
 Ash and dust from volcanic eruptions

 Salt spray from sea waves

 Methane from decaying organic matter

 Pollen from plants

 Dust from windstorms
    AIR POLLUTION: sources and types
   Stationary Sources – smokestacks, power
    generating plants & smelters
   Mobile sources – automobiles, boats, trains,
    satellites, rockets etc.
1. Primary pollutants: emitted directly into the air

2. Secondary pollutants: existing pollutants react
    with air to form new compounds
Smokestacks: Stationary sources of air
Automobiles – mobile sources of air
Common atmospheric Pollution Sources and their Pollutants

Category                     Source             Emitting pollutants
Agriculture        Open burning                 Suspended particulate matter, carbon
                                                monoxide, volatile organic compounds

Mining and         Coal mining; crude oil and   Suspended particulate matter, sulphur
                                                dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, volatile
quarrying          gas production; stone        organic compounds

Power generation   Electricity; gas; steam      Suspended particulate matter, sulphur
                                                dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon
                                                monoxide, volatile organic
                                                compounds, sulphur trioxide, lead

Transport          Combustion engines           Suspended particulate matter, sulphur
                                                dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon
                                                monoxide, volatile organic
                                                compounds, lead

Community          Municipal incinerators       Suspended particulate matter, sulphur
                                                dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, carbon
service                                         monoxide, volatile organic
                                                compounds, lead
Air pollution: major impacts
    Air Pollution: regional and global

   Acid rain
   Photochemical Smog
   Industrial Smog
   Greenhouse effect and global warming
   Depletion of stratospheric ozone
   Eutrophication
Acid rain formation

 Sulphur dioxide + nitrogen dioxide + water + oxidants = acid rain
Acid Rain: effects on stone work

                  How acid rain affects
                  stone work

                 The picture on the left
                 was taken in 1908
                 and the one on the
                 right was taken in
Ecological impacts of pH
Acid Rain – effects on forests

                   The effect of acid
                   rain on forests
Trees damaged by acid rain
Coal burning plants: sources of
industrial smog
Causes of photochemical smog
                 Ozone, the main
                 component of
                 photochemical smog,
                 forms in the
                 atmosphere over cities
                 on Sunny summer days
                 This is due to the action
                 of UV-rays on the
                 nitrogen dioxide (N02)
                 produced by traffic,
                 besides other gases
                 and dust.
Sources of Indoor air pollution
Indoor air pollutants…2
Air pollution sources in the home
Cooking and air indoor pollution

                  The food preparation
                   process is a major source
                   of health risks to women
                   and children in poor
                   developing countries

Health effects of biomass burning
                 Traditional wood
                 stoves are a major
                 source of concentrated
                 pollutants including:
                 Respirable particulate
                 matter, carbon
                 monoxide, nitrogen
                 oxides, formaldehyde,
                 benzene and
Indoor particulate matter concentration
in selected developing countries
Carbon monoxide from biofuel
Common health effects of fuelwood
Common health effects of air
indoor pollution
Effects of biomass combustion
Smoke from burning Kuwaiti oilfields

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