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dEMocratic GovErnancE


									dEMocratic GovErnancE
providinG an EnaBLinG EnvironMEnt

                          d    emocratic governance plays a key role in
                               achieving the MdGs; in reducing rates of
                          poverty; in managing and preventing conflict;
                                                                              in terms of gender equality, in 2009, undp
                                                                              supported special measures in 59 countries
                                                                              to increase the representation of women at
                          and in tackling climate change. as a result,        all levels of government, including training
                          demand in this area claims the largest share        for women candidates on leadership and
                          of undp’s expenditures. indeed, democratic          campaign management. in Malawi, undp,
                          governance is central to the achievement of         with support from norway, partnered with the
                          the MdGs, as it provides the ‘enabling environ-     Government and the One UN team on a parity
                          ment’ for the realization of the MdGs and, in       campaign that increased the percentage of
                          particular, the elimination of poverty. undp’s      women in office in the May 2009 election from
                          work in this area focuses on support for the        14 to 22 percent.
                          expansion of people’s opportunities to par-
                          ticipate in political decision-making; making       ElECtorAl suPPort
                          democratic institutions more accountable            in 2009, undp supported elections in
                          and responsive to citizens; and promoting           35 countries through technical, advisory and
                          the principles of democratic governance —           financial assistance. Since most donor funds
                          in particular anti-corruption efforts, gender       target electoral events, undp launched a
                          equality and human rights.                          three-year, $50 million fund to help countries
                               not only does undp support an election         improve their electoral laws, processes and
                          somewhere in the world on average every             institutions and to enhance the participation
                          two weeks, it also works to strengthen one out      of women in electoral processes.
                          of every three parliaments and helps a num-              the 2009 parliamentary election in
                          ber of countries in ensuring that laws work for     lebanon was the fairest in that country’s
                          everyone. undp works closely with national          recent history, thanks in part to a undp pro-
                          stakeholders and key institutions, such as min-     gramme of technical support to the electoral
                                                                              process. that support included setting up a
undp suppOrt tO dEmOcrAtic gOvErnAncE                                         system for voter identification and registration
                                                                              that resulted in an additional 300,000 voter
 countries receiving undp support in 2009                          132
                                                                              identification cards being issued in record
                                                                              time by the Government.
 percentage of undp democratic governance projects that con-                       undp also worked with the Government
 tribute to gender equality                                        78%
                                                                              to run a public awareness campaign, estab-
 countries receiving undp electoral support in 2009                 35        lish a hotline for people to call with election
                                                                              questions and provide a series of training
 countries receiving undp support to their parliaments              54
                                                                              sessions on electoral coverage for members
                                                                              of the media. the programme made a special
                                                                              effort to reach out to Lebanon’s marginalized
                          istries, the judiciary, parliaments and electoral   populations, particularly women, by promot-
                          commissions, developing their ability to bring      ing their participation. in one highly con-
                          about lasting and effective change.                 tested district, Zahle, 60 percent of registered
                               in addition, for governments to be more        women voted as opposed to 56 percent of
                          effective, people must have a say in the deci-      registered men.
                          sions that affect their lives. State institutions        in the democratic republic of the Congo
                          like the judiciary and the police force must be     (drc), a undp elections programme is sup-
                          capable of responding to people’s needs and         porting the congolese independent Electoral
                          adhering to international standards on cor-         commission — put in place during a transi-
                          ruption, human rights and gender equality.          tional political period — in organizing local

                          16 undp in action 2009/2010
elections. undp is also supporting the estab-           undp continues to work on a national
lishment of a new, permanent electoral com-         level worldwide to strengthen women’s prop-
mission in preparation for the next presiden-       erty, inheritance and land rights, examine how
tial elections, scheduled for 2011. in 2009, the    informal law can be brought closer to inter-
commission was able to update drc’s voter           national norms and standards and improve
registry system in the capital city of Kinshasa,    women’s legal rights and access to justice.
a process that is being continued in the rest of        undp is supporting the Government of            Locally elected officials
the country. additionally, the programme has        Morocco as it implements its groundbreaking         take literacy classes in
procured over $24 million worth of electoral        Family code, which was passed in 2004 and           Burkina Faso through a
material, including software upgrades, voter        promises women greater equality and protec-         UNDP democratic gov-
cards, solar panels and generators for registra-    tion of their human rights within marriage          ernance programme.
tion efforts in the field and civic education
     Finally, with logistical assistance from the
un’s peacekeeping mission in drc, undp
contributed to the training and payment of
electoral workers and the deployment of
equipment throughout a country the size of
Western Europe. undp is also providing cru-
cial support to the parliament as well as the
provincial assemblies in the form of informa-
tion technology equipment and training on
resource mobilization, the internal workings
of democracies and the promotion of women
in government.

JustiCE And huMAn rights
Law and order is a serious problem adversely
affecting individual safety, national security
and economic growth in many developing              and divorce. in 2009, undp — along with
countries. in bangladesh, an ongoing joint          uniFEM and unicEF — began supporting five
undp and government police reform pro-              model tribunals in major cities in Morocco
gramme has led to the establishment of the          to ensure that the new, progressive family
country’s first ever victim Support centre, in      code is implemented and enforced. a total
the capital city of dhaka. in 2009, the centre      of 90 judges and 25 clerks received training
assisted 270 crime victims seeking support.         in human and child rights, the importance
the centre is staffed by police officers and        of considering gender in their work and the
civil Society organization representatives who      social psychology of the family. thanks to the
have been specially trained to provide medi-        success of integrating social workers within
cal, legal and counselling services as well as      the five pilot sites, the Ministry of Justice has
short-term accommodations when needed.              decided to recruit additional social workers
      More importantly, however, the centre         across all regions of Morocco.
resulted from the creation of a crucial and
strategic partnership between the Bangladesh        suPPorting inClusivE And EffECtivE
police force and 10 leading nGos, bridging a        loCAl govErnAnCE
traditional divide between victims’ support         a undp-supported programme through the
groups and the police. over the long term,          Ministry of Panchayati Raj (rural self-gover-
undp’s police reform programme in Bangla-           nance) in india aims to empower women and
desh is supporting the police’s ability to          include them in the political process, includ-
contribute to a safer and more secure envi-         ing locally elected women representatives.
ronment based on respect for the rule of law,       over the past five years, the programme has
human rights and equitable access to justice,       provided more than 100,000 women commu-
with a special focus on the poor, the marginal-     nity representatives in 12 states with leader-
ized and women and children.                        ship training, access to valuable face-to-face
                                                    17 dEMocratic GovErnancE
                     sessions with district officials and support for     for women leaders, many of whom were
                     their election campaigns. additionally, the          newly elected following a significant change
                     programme financed a public awareness-rais-          in indian law concerning gender and local
                     ing campaign on the importance of elected            governance.
                     women officials. in 2009, over 10,000 women               in georgia, undp, in partnership with
                     benefited from these undp-supported ini-             the Government — and with funds from
                     tiatives. put together, this has resulted in a       the united States agency for international
                     significantly more enabling environment              development and the united Kingdom

 unifEM: ProMoting EquAlity through south-south CooPErAtion

                     When a distraught mother discovered that             used to train security forces in burundi, fiji,
                     her 14 year-old daughter had been repeat-            kenya and tanzania.
                     edly raped by her guardian, desperately-                  the rwanda defense Forces have also
                     needed help was provided by an officer at the        been invited by the international conference
                     Gender desk at the rwandan national police           on the Great Lakes region, which comprises
                     Headquarters. the officer, who had been              11 african nations, to train other countries’
                     trained in dealing with victims of sexual vio-       defense forces to prevent and respond to
                     lence, arranged for the girl’s free medical treat-   gender-based violence as well as how to
                     ment in order to preserve critical evidence.         involve women in peacekeeping operations.
                          the Gender desk was established five            the training modules have also been shared
                     years ago with joint support from undp               with the un’s department of peacekeeping
                     and uniFEM — a undp-affiliated fund — to             operations’ teams that are responsible for
                     improve the police response to cases of sexual       women’s protection and the un’s peacekeep-
                     and gender-based violence. a specifically            ing police forces in darfur.
                     designated interview room allows women to                 in 2009, gender desks based on the
                     speak in confidence with a trained police offi-      rwandan model were established in South
                     cer, and incidents can be reported through a         Sudan, nigeria, tanzania and uganda with
                     nationwide toll-free hotline. Motorcycles, pro-      uniFEM support. the tanzania Female police

                     vided by uniFEM and undp, allow for the fast         network, working in collaboration with the
                     dispatch of officers, especially in rural areas.     police academy and the Women’s Legal aid
                          across africa today, an increasing number       centre, established gender desks at 30 police
                     of law enforcement institutions are sharing          stations.
The number of        successes in order to improve their response              nigerian police in two states have
countries in which   to violence against women. Much of this origi-       adopted official registers in police stations
UNIFEM-supported     nates with the widely recognized work that           to keep track of cases of violence against
Gender Desks have    began in rwanda in 2004 to establish gender          women. these stations are linked to state and
been or are in the   desks in police stations and to provide train-       community level committees (including gov-
process of being     ing curricula for police and defense forces,         ernment doctors and hospitals and human
established.         supported by uniFEM and undp.                        rights lawyers) who have been trained and
                          over the past two years, police officers        equipped to provide appropriate responses to
                     from burundi, somalia and South sudan have           victims of gender-based violence.
                     travelled to rwanda for study tours with the              uniFEM focuses its activities on one over-
                     rwandan police and are now adapting what             arching goal: to support the implementation
                     they learned. the national police of nigeria         at the national level of existing international
                     have now invited rwandan police to train             commitments to advance gender equal-
                     their forces on preventing sexual and gender-        ity. uniFEM’s efforts on the ground work to
                     based violence and response. Manuals and             advance the internationally agreed MdGs and
                     curricula developed by both the rwanda               other development objectives. taking innova-
                     national police and the rwanda defense               tion to a national or regional scale is critical to
                     Forces with support from uniFEM have been            achieving the MdGs.

                     18 undp in action 2009/2010
department for international development                                  the congress of Paraguay to conduct a self-
— has accomplished a civil registration reform                            assessment survey and develop indicators for
project that is considered a national success.                            monitoring the effects of democratic gover-
the programme supported the standardiza-                                  nance. the results offer a database of evidence
tion of old archives through a digitization                               that are shaping public policy, helping the
process and the improvement of the physi-                                 Government to differentiate policy impacts
cal and technical infrastructure of the civil                             on various demographic groups, including
registration agency. this modernization                                   women and the poor.
process has resulted in a rehabilitated agency                                E-governance, a term that refers to the
that is now seen as one that provides quality                             provision of public services via the internet,
service to citizens in a prompt and friendly                              has tremendous potential as a way to further
manner.                                                                   good governance and democratic participa-
                                                                          tion, especially in remote and rural areas.
PubliC AdMinistrAtion rEforM And                                          a unique undp-supported e-governance
Anti-CorruPtion                                                           programme in bhutan is contributing to the

undp recognizes that minimizing corruption
is a critical component of reducing poverty
and bringing about gains in human develop-
ment. undp’s emphasis on long-term sys-
temic changes and the human dimensions of          The number of countries in 2009 benefiting from UNDP’s
development, coupled with its impartiality,        technical support for action aimed at forming anti-corruption
underscore its unique contributions in pro-        policies and organizations, as well as improving the participa-
moting good governance and public account-         tion of civil society and the media.
ability and transparency. in 2009, 112 countries
benefited from undp’s technical support                                   Government’s pledge to provide 80 percent
for action aimed at forming anti-corruption                               of the rural population with access to online
policies and organizations, as well as improv-                            public services by 2013. the programme
ing the participation of civil society and                                has been piloted in Bhutan’s department of
the media.                                                                Forestry and allows regular citizens and gov-
     undp also organized a number of anti-                                ernment officials the ability to interface with
corruption training activities initiated from                             government offices via the internet.
a South-South point of view, a development                                     For example, people in rural areas can
approach that calls for the exchange of knowl-                            now apply online at community informa-
edge and experience between developing                                    tion centres for permits or for necessities like
countries. For example, in 2009, undp and                                 firewood and fencing poles without having
the Media institute of Southern africa (MiSa)                             to travel to district headquarters; they can
produced a training workshop for regional                                 then track the status of their applications
journalists on the investigation and reporting                            and receive permits from local offices. as a
of corruption, held in Johannesburg, south                                result, the time for processing most permits
Africa. the training brought together 20 sen-                             and clearances has been reduced from weeks
ior journalists from 11 african countries in                              to less than a day, bringing about greater
addition to trainers from the philippine centre                           transparency, efficiency and accountability in
for investigative Journalism. nearly all the                              public service delivery at the local level. the
participants rated the training they received                             Government now plans to provide e-gover-
as “excellent,” and undp is working with MiSa                             nance services nationwide and to expand it to
to develop a manual that will allow it to con-                            include 33 additional public services.
duct similar training in asia and Latin america.
Going forward, MiSa will also partner with
undp country offices in order to run similar
training on a national level across the region.
     in 2009, undp also provided 16 coun-
tries with technical and financial support to
strengthen country-led assessments of gover-
nance reforms. For example, undp supported
                                                   19 dEMocratic GovErnancE
up cLoSE: indonESia
               a dEcadE oF ELEctoraL Support

                       F   or more than a decade, UNDP has been
                           working closely with Indonesia in its
                       shift to a system of democratic governance.
                                                                             The 2004 election was viewed by many
                                                                        international observers as one of the most
                                                                        successful elections ever run in a transi-
                       This support began as financial and logisti-     tional democracy. A year later, Indonesia
                       cal support for free and fair elections and,     began a new initiative that would change
                       over the years, has transformed into policy      the landscape of electoral politics there,
                       support for the building of sustainable          with the introduction of a local election
                       electoral institutions, giving Indonesia the     for governors, mayors and district heads.
                       ability to run its electoral cycle indepen-      Doing this would complete Indonesia’s
                       dently from beginning to end.                    transition to popular elections for all legis-
                            Indonesia is the world’s third largest      lative and executive positions throughout
                       democracy. When the democratization              the country.
                       process began in 1998, one of the most                While holding these new local elec-
                       urgent priorities for the Government was         tions was a complicated process, it was
                       to hold a free and fair election, so it turned   especially challenging in the special auton-
                       to UNDP for technical assistance. In part-       omous province of Aceh, where a history
indonEsiA fACts
                       nership with government agencies, civil          of separatism and conflict threatened the
25% women in
                       society organizations and a number of            area’s stability. The Independent Election
  regional House of
                       donors such as Denmark, Japan and The            Commission in Aceh requested UNDP’s
                       Netherlands, UNDP helped to launch a             technical assistance in the management of
92% literacy rate
                       massive programme of technical electoral         the local elections. With support from the
17% people below the
                       assistance.                                      European Union, The Netherlands and
  national poverty
                            The programme focused on electoral          Spain, UNDP’s elections support programme
                       management, voters’ education and elec-          in Aceh provided significant assistance to
                       tion monitoring. However, since this was         the ultimately successful elections, result-
                       the first democratic election to be held in      ing in a new era of peace for its people.
                       Indonesia since 1955, UNDP also provided              Four years later, the Government of
                       logistical support, from the printing of bal-    Indonesia again requested UNDP assistance
                       lot papers and the procurement of indel-         for the legislative and presidential elec-
                       ible ink to assisting in vote tabulation. In     tions, scheduled for 2009. By that point,
                       addition, it coordinated $60 million in          Indonesia had made great strides since its
                       donor support to the elections.                  first election a decade previously. UNDP
                            The 1999 election was a resounding          shifted its support away from technical
                       success. UNDP’s support had helped to            assistance for specific elections and toward
                       usher in a new democratic era in Indone-         building up electoral systems and institu-
                       sia. In recognition of this fact, in 2004, the   tions. Thus UNDP adopted a new approach
                       Government requested UNDP’s electoral            based on the electoral cycle, meaning its
                       assistance once again for the country’s          electoral support programme would not
                       first direct presidential election and first     end with the election.
                       election for a new parliamentary chamber              With support from the Governments of
                       called the House of Regional Representa-         Australia, Canada, The Netherlands, Spain
                       tives. Although UNDP still provided logis-       and the United Kingdom, UNDP estab-
                       tical and aid-coordination assistance as         lished a long-term multi-donor programme
                       in the previous election, it began to focus      aiming to make Indonesia completely self-
                       more on providing technical support to           sufficient. While the programme provided
                       the Indonesian Election Commission,              support to the 2009 elections in the usual
                       which directly managed the elections.            areas of technical assistance, civic educa-

                       20 undp in action 2009/2010
A woman votes in           tion and aid coordination, it also stepped     This will ensure that voter education is
April 2009 legislative     up support to Indonesian institutions like     continuous and not tied to electoral agen-
elections in Indonesia.    the National Planning Agency in order          das or calendars.
UNDP has been pro-         to create a permanent aid coordination             This programme of long-term electoral
viding electoral support   centre.                                        support was developed jointly with the
in the country for more        The programme is currently assisting       Government to ensure that the institutions
than a decade.             the General Election Commission in the         and mechanisms established with UNDP
                           establishment of an Electoral Resource         support are fully managed and funded
                           and Information Centre, which can be           through Indonesia’s national budget. This
                           accessed by local election commissions         final programme of electoral support thus
                           and the general public. It is setting up an    crowns UNDP’s decade-long efforts and
                           internationally recognized training curricu-   provides a viable exit strategy, guarantee-
                           lum for election workers and is establish-     ing that Indonesia, its Government and its
                           ing a national civic education centre with     people are equipped and ready for a future
                           branches in all 33 of Indonesia’s provinces.   of democratic governance.

                                                 21 dEMocratic GovErnancE

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