The Cold War by suchenfz

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									The Cold War



      1945-1990
         Objective
To understand the causes of the Cold
War
To understand the nature of the Cold
War
To understand postwar international
order
To understand how the Cold War ended
Causes of the Cold War
The end of World War II
   Soviet troops occupied Eastern Europe (except
    Yugoslavia)
   Germany divided into four zones: US, British,
    French, and Soviet
   Yalta Conference
        Stalin promised to allow free elections in countries
         occupied by Soviet troops
        Stalin had no intention of keeping his promises
   United States and Soviet Union emerged as the
    two “superpowers” after World War II
Causes of the Cold War
Soviet motivations
 Desire to spread communism and destroy
  capitalism
 Security reasons
     Russia twice invaded by Germany in 30 years
     Soviets want a secure border to prevent future
      invasions
Causes of the Cold War
United States follows policy of
containment
 Wartime alliance with Soviet Union
  collapses after 1945
 Concern that communism would spread
  from Eastern Europe to Western Europe
 The United States tries to prevent
  communism to spread
             The Cold War
The Truman Doctrine (1947)
 Greece and Turkey fight guerrilla war
  against communists
 Britain no longer able to protect Greek and
  Turkish governments
        Asks United States for assistance
   President Harry Truman declares that the
    US will “help any country fight against
    outside aggression”
              The Cold War
United States becomes involved in
international affairs
   To prevent mistakes after World War I
   US joins United Nations formed in 1945
   US forms North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    (1949)
        First permanent alliance for the United States
        Defense alliance between US and Western Europe
        To prevent Soviet Union from spreading influence
         westward
        Soviet Union forms Warsaw Pact in response
               The Cold War
The Marshall Plan
   Western Europe destroyed by war
        Industries, infrastructure, economy
   Western European nations could not recover
    alone
        Need US economic assistance
   Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposes
    European Recovery Program (Marshall Plan)
        Massive US economic assistance toward European
         recovery
        Eastern Europe invited to take part but USSR stops them
   Marshall Plan helps Western Europe recover
        Also helps US economy by providing markets for US
         goods
              The Cold War
Disagreement over Germany
   Germany divided and occupied by the Allies after
    World War II
        Future government to be decided by Allies
   Soviets want Germany permanently weakened
   US and Britain wanted Germany to recover and to
    rearm against future Soviet aggression
   Germany emerged as two countries in 1949
        Federal Republic of Germany (West)
        German Democratic Republic (East)
   Berlin Airlift (1949)
        Soviets unsuccessfully try to drive US, British, and
         French out of West Berlin
         The Cold War
Confrontations in Berlin
 Divided among the Allies in 1945
 Berlin Airlift showed Soviet Union could not
  force Allies out
East Germans leave East Berlin for
West Berlin
   East German government builds Berlin
    Wall in 1961
              The Cold War
Soviet domination of Eastern Europe
   Soviet troops refuse to leave Eastern Europe
   Only Yugoslavia under Josef Tito stands up to
    Stalin because it was not occupied by Soviet
    troops
   Communists come to power with Soviet help
        Manipulation of elections
        Elimination of opponents
   Communists confiscate private property and
    impose censorship
        Do everything Soviets tell them
             The Cold War
Changes in Soviet leadership
   Stalin dies in 1953
   Nikita Khrushchev becomes premier in 1956
        Tries to introduce reforms but unsuccessful
        Removed in 1964
   Leonid Brezhnev becomes premier in 1964
        Communist hard-liner
        Did not allow any reforms for Soviet Union and Eastern
         Europe
        Dies in 1982
   Gorbachev becomes premier in 1985
        Allows reforms
        Last Soviet leader
              The Cold War
Threat of nuclear warfare
   World War II ends with atom bombs dropped over
    Hiroshima and Nagasaki by US in 1945
   Introduction of atom bombs change nature of
    warfare
   Soviet Union explodes first atom bomb in 1949
        US no longer holds monopoly on nuclear weapons
   US and Soviet Union engage in nuclear arms
    race, increasing threat of nuclear war
            The Cold War
The Cold War expands beyond Europe
   China
     Fighting civil war between Nationalists (US
      supported) and Communists (Soviet supported)
      between 1945 and 1949
     Communists under Mao Zedong gain control of
      China in 1949; shocks US
     Nationalists retreat to Taiwan where they are
      protected by US
         The Cold War
The Korean War
 Korea ruled by Japan between 1910 an
  1945
 Korea divided into communist North and
  and anti-communist South in 1945
 North Korean forces invade South Korea in
  1950
     US troops drive North Koreans back by 1953
     Status quo maintained to today
          The Cold War
Cuba (1959)
 Fidel Castro overthrows US-backed
  dictatorship
 Castro ultimately sides with Soviets
 Cuban Missile Crisis
     Soviet Union discovered to be installing
      missiles in Cuba
     Kennedy demands Soviets to take out missiles;
      closest b oth countries got to nuclear war
              The Cold War
End of Colonialism
   World War II ends European power
        Britain and France no longer major world powers
   Colonies in Asia and Africa gain independence
    between 1945 and 1975
        Mostly peaceful transition to independence
        Vietnam and Algeria main exceptions
   US and Soviet Union compete for influence in
    newly independent nations
              The Cold War
European Integration (1951-Present)
   Western European nations begin integrating
    economies
        European Coal and Steel Community an attempt to share
         coal resources
   European Economic Community formed in 1957
        Goal to create Common Market
        By France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands,
         Luxembourg
        Continues to expand to include most of Western Europe
        Becomes European Union in 1992
             The Cold War
The Vietnam War
   Vietnam a former French colony
   France attempts retake Vietnam between 1945
    and 1954 and fails
   Vietnam divided into communist north and anti-
    communist south
   US spends 20 years protecting South Vietnam
    against Communist guerrillas
        Lyndon Johnson escalates US involvement in 1965
        “Domino Theory”—if Vietnam becomes communist, other
         countries could become communist
        South Vietnam falls to communists in 1975
        Major blow to American military and society
              The Cold War
Changes in Western society
   Most affluent society in history
   Rise in middle class
   Major population growth
   Western Europe develops welfare states
   Religion plays less of a role in Europe and US
        Catholic Church makes reforms in Vatican II
   More opportunities for women
   Popular culture spreads around the world
               The Cold War
Challenge to Soviet domination
   Hungary (1956)
        Hungarians demonstrate against communist rule
        Demand Soviets withdraw troops from Hungary
        Uprising put down by Soviet tanks
   Czechoslovakia (1968)
        “Prague Spring”
             Czechs wanted to make domestic reforms
        Soviet tanks put down Prague Spring
   Brezhnev Doctrine stated that no country in the
    Warsaw Pact may leave
           The Cold War
Middle East
   US replaces Britain as major power in the Middle
    East
   State of Israel created in 1948; seen as
    “catastrophe” for Arabs who wanted to create Arab
    state in Palestine
   US backs Israel, while Soviets back Arab states
   Oil plays major role in Middle Eastern politics
                     Détente
Period of decreased tensions between US
and Soviet Union
   Nuclear arms agreements reached during 1960s
    and 1970s
   US recognizes People’s Republic of China as
    legitimate government of China
        Split between Soviet Union and China during 1960s
        Nixon hoped friendship with China would weaken Soviet
         Union

								
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