Folk Culture and the Public Domain

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					                                            Folk Culture and the Public Domain

                                               “Folklore comes early and stays late in    us. But it was hard to guess and some-
                                                                the lives of all of us”   times it turned out that I was in the
                                                                        Barry Toelken     wrong place at the wrong time and
                                                                                          missed something I’d wanted to see.
                                               The venue for the American Folklore
                                            Society’s (AFS) annual meeting was not          The main goal of the annual gathering
                                            chosen by accident. Anyone interested in      was to hold discussions among folk-
                                            the cultural roots of the American            lorists, present research, and generate
                                            Continent knows Albuquerque and its sur-      new ideas. I will outline a few of the ses-
                                            roundings. This picturesque city in New       sions I attended and highlight some of
                                            Mexico is located in a green valley not far   the main differences and similarities
                                            from a low range of cliffs where the          between approaches in American folk-
                                            Pueblo Indians used to find refuge.           loristics and Ukrainian folklore studies.
                                            According to one legend, the word
             Olena Boriak                   “pueblo” comes from the Spanish word for         American folklorists tend to view mod-
                                            “town». This is what the early settlers       ern folklore in its many varieties and as
        Senior Research Fellow              called the local people who lived in the      influenced by new social, political and
     at the Centre for Ukrainian            multi-storied adobe brick buildings of        economic contexts (including gender
       Folklore and Ethnology,              New Mexico and Arizona.                       folklore, ethnic folklore and professional
 Maxym Rylskyi Institute of Art Studies,                                                  use of folklore) and consider it to be
       Folklore and Ethnology,                 When Europeans and the Pueblo Indians      “everyday life.” The field of American
          National Academy                  first met, the Indians belonged to 8 lin-     research is exceptionally wide with sever-
        of Sciences of Ukraine              guistic groups and lived in large communi-    al schools of thought and distinct
                                            ties1:16. Spaniards who worked their way      approaches towards observing and study-
      2001-2002 Fulbright Scholar           along the Rio Grande first arrived in 1540.   ing material. “It is a dynamic field of
      at the University of Virginia         The town got its name in 1760 from its        inquiry. Not only do approaches and
                                            founder — Viceroy of New Spain Duke de        methods change as perceptions change,
 Research Field: Cultural Anthropology /    Albuquerque. For nearly a century and a       but the very content of the subject
             Women Studies                  half it remained a small village until the    expands as studies reveal new kinships
                                            railroad came to town in 1877. Since then     and forms.2:7”
              Project Title:
“The Ritual and Mythology of the Midwife:
        A Woman’s Place and Role
                                            In Ukraine, we are just beginning to look at
         in Traditional Society”
                                            contemporary trends
                                            the “Burque” (or Wild Town) which resi-          In Ukraine folklore studies have a tradi-
                                            dents called Albuquerque began turning        tional, descriptive nature which histori-
                                            into a large academic and technological       cally has focused only on verbal narrative.
                                            center in the American southwest.             Ukrainian folklore studies today are still
                                            Kirtland air base and the U.S. Department     examining past phenomena with in a lim-
                                            of Energy’s National Laboratory are both      ited set of categories for recording those
                                            located here but the average American citi-   phenomena. In Ukraine, we are just
                                            zen associates the town with its annual air   beginning to look at contemporary trends.
                                            balloon festival.
                                                                                             Of course many topics discussed by the
                                              More than 700 scholars including four       American folklorists community are stud-
                                            international scholarship recipients from     ied in Ukraine as well. However, many
                                            Mexico, Slovenia, Russia and Ukraine,         more topics in American folkloristics are
                                            university teachers and students took         still outside Ukrainian areas of study and
                                            part in the conference. It was physically     have not been addressed yet. American
                                            impossible to attend all the sessions and     folkloristics encompasses a much wider
                                            visit each event because many of them         range of features than in Ukraine, includes
                                            were scheduled at the same time. We had       many additional categories and has signif-
                                            to choose from the program what we            icantly more researchers. For example, the
                                            thought would be the most interesting for     American Folklife Center in the Library of

Congress defines folklore as “traditional        gious observances not required by law or         regularly run into problems like perform-
cultural expressions” (TCEs) or as “expres-      theology)2:9-10.                                 ance using audio and video recordings and
sions of folklore.” Specifically, “... this is                                                    the irreversible commercialization of this
a wide range of creative symbolic forms             The AFS meeting’s plenary sessions            formerly academic area. This is where
such as custom, belief, technical skill, lan-    raised many issues which are relevant to         museums, archives, and libraries that pre-
guage, literature, art, architecture, music,     Ukrainian folkloristics as well. Making          serve texts and audio-video records play a
play, dance, drama, ritual, pageantry,           resources open and accessible to the pub-        crucial role in protecting and defending
handicraft2:9.” What makes these folklore        lic was one of them. The session “World          intellectual property.
is that they “are mainly learned orally, by
imitation or in performance, and are gen-
erally maintained without benefit of for-
                                                 Who should own the Intellectual Property
mal instruction or institutional direction
                                                 rights on national cultural heritage?
                                                 Perspectives on Intellectual Property              This session included an annual awards
   American folklore in its modern context       Rights and Folklore” addressed the               ceremony held by the American
has a very broad meaning and is divided          importance of Intellectual Property (IP)         Committee of Folklorists. The naming of
into several forms (the term “Traditional        in folkloristics, specifically legal conflicts   Edward D. “Sandy” Ives* from the
Knowledge and Folklore” is also common-          of interest, inadequate legislation in an        University of Maine as the recipient of the
ly used). These “genres” and categories          information society dependent on modern          Kenneth Goldstein award (1927-1995) was
are used together interactively to               information technology such as digitali-         very well-received. The award recognizes
describe many different kinds of expres-         zation, the Internet, etc. Many of the           significant contributions to new folklore
sion happening at once. They include:            questions raised are rhetorical. Who             programs and projects and acknowledges
                                                 should own the Intellectual Property (IP)        sponsorship of organizations which sup-
  1. Verbal folklore includes genres like        rights on national cultural heritage? How        port teaching and research in folklore.
epics, ballads, lyric songs (lullabies, love     is protecting IP related to protecting cul-
songs), myths (stories of sacred or uni-         tural differences? What is the relation-            The “American Folklore Society Fellows’
versal import which people, cultures, reli-      ship between the preservation of cultural        Invited Plenary Address” focused on the
gions, and nations believe in), legends          heritage and the protection of IP of “tra-       presentation by Barre Toelken, professor
(stories of local import which people            ditional cultural expressions” (TCEs)?           of English and History at Utah State
believe actually happened but they                                                                University where he directs the American
learned about from someone else), mem-              The key speaker at this plenary session       Studies graduate program and the Folklore
orates (culturally based first-person            was Wend Wendland from the World                 program. Toelken is internationally recog-
accounts and interpretations of striking         Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)        nized for his research in Native American
incidents), folktales and jokes, (fictional      which recently developed a guide for pro-        culture 3, 4, 5 and ballad studies6. His
stories which embody cultural values),           tecting “genetic resources, technical            book “The Dynamics of Folklore” (1996)2
proverbs, riddles, rhymes, chants,               skills and folklore” (        is recognized as the most comprehensive
charms, insults, retorts, taunts, teases,        ip/en/studies). The main problem he              study of American folklore and has
toasts, tongue twisters, greeting and            addressed was how to achieve balance             become a textbook for folklore courses in
leave-taking formulas, names and nam-            between preserving traditional cultures          American universities. The respect which
ing, auto-graph-book verses, limericks,          and stimulating new creations which              Toelken enjoys among the folklore com-
epitaphs and many others;                        derive from traditional resources as well        munity was obvious and I regretted that
                                                 as from the latest results of economic           he is so little known in Ukraine. In char-
  2. Material folklore, which we call “eth-      growth. He stressed that when technical          acterizing folklore “artifacts,” Toelken
nology” in Ukraine, includes vernacular          skills (in the broad sense) become more          includes “text” — the end product of folk
buildings (designed and made not by pro-         in demand, copyright law (for example            performance, that is expressed in words
fessional architects), dress/clothing,           use of brands is especially good for iden-       (ballads, stories (retellings) sayings) or
homemade tools, toys, tombstones,                tifying indigenous cultural objects)             through material objects (quilts, huts,
foods, costumes, stitchery, embroidery,          should help folklorists protect their pro-       fireplaces), music (fiddles), or physical
braiding, woven items, quilts, decorations       fessional finds.                                 movements (dance, gestures), or cultural-
(Christmas trees, birthday party d?cor),                                                          ly-based thoughts and behaviors (native
musical instruments, etc., all of which are         On the one hand, modern society is ask-       beliefs and rituals)2:4.
learned by example within an ongoing             ing that information be accessible and that
tradition shared by people with some-            technical skills, folklore, musical and other       Barre Toelken is without a doubt a leg-
thing in common;                                 archives should be available in the public       end in American folklore. He told a story
                                                 domain. At the same time, folklorists,           from personal experience about being
  3. Customary folklore which includes           museum docents and archivists are owners         treated for pneumonia as a child growing
shared popular beliefs that are not trans-       of significant valuables and each piece of       up with a Navajo tribe who had adopted
mitted by formal systems of science or           information, each sample has a unique            him more than 40 years ago. He became
religion (“superstitions”), vernacular           value. But, who exactly owns the informa-        personally involved in the ritual healing
medical practices (folk medicine),               tion which has been collected and                ceremony conducted for his benefit called
dances, instrumental music, gestures,            processed by folklorists, museum docents,        “The Red Antway.” The ritual singing
pranks, games, traditional work “canons,”        and archivists, information which was            “hataali” accompanied treatment using
celebrations (festivals/birthday/wed-            transformed from the raw and unprocessed         different plants. According to Toelken,
ding/anniversary/funeral/holiday/reli-           data of the original source? Folklorists         the main part in this event was the

                       “hozho.” This term represents concepts           cialists in ethnography. An entire session
                       like beauty, stability, balance and harmo-       was devoted to this topic and included
                       ny. The patient and future professor was         practical recommendations for teaching
                       cured and to this day can’t explain the          folklore and fieldwork training methods.
                       reason for his fast recovery.
                                                                           A common problem echoed during this
                                                                        panel was the legitimacy of data collected
     Different cultures have different ways                             in the field. This idea was discussed at
                                                                        length in Kenneth DeShane’s presenta-
     of decoding experience and of                                      tion “Insider Ethnography as Liminal and
                                                                        Hybrid». The researcher warned against
     interpreting life events                                           using expressions such as “those who
                                                                        write culture” when referring to ethnog-
                          This and other experiences led the            raphers-fieldworkers and that the posi-
                       researcher to conclude that one’s under-         tion “inside” is deceiving because the
                       standing of the world is determined in           researcher is actually constructing and
                       part both by experience and culture, but         creating culture. He asked the audience
                       different cultures have different ways of        whether getting maximally close to the
                       decoding experience and of interpreting          “native” language, gesture and pose
                       life events. “What seems supernatural to         without using a tape recorder as opposed
                       one group is quite natural to another.           to observing from outside is in fact con-
                       One of the important aspects of intercul-        vincing evidence of submersion by the
                       tural exploration, especially in terms of        researcher in a foreign culture.
                       the “supernatural,” is exposure to other
                       ways of organizing information and thus             The speaker suggested the answer to
                       to stretching the limits of our under-           this question in the title of his presenta-
                       standing.”8:46-59 According to Toelken, folk-    tion. He also warned against the danger
                       lorists help nurture the hope that cultural      of romanticizing certain cultural ele-
                       diversity is neither a virtual political exer-   ments while recording the culture’s
                       cise nor a science but rather an extraordi-      uniqueness and the sometimes subcon-
                       nary and under-appreciated enabler for           scious desire to return to past roots as in
                       understanding humanity.9:201, 207; 10            the case of researching African diaspora.
                       Toelken’s presentation was accompanied           In the panel devoted to fieldwork and
                       by slides which he took during nearly 50         ethnography, the presenter from Slovenia
                       years of field research among the Indians.       Mojca Ramsak stressed the importance of
                       These generated considerable interest            keeping regular field diaries especially
                       among the audience and I saw that the            when recording life stories. This presen-
                       field chores of ethnologists are the same        tation reminded me of Ukrainian ethnog-
                       everywhere.                                      rapher Ludmyla Shevchenko who 80 years
                                                                        ago argued for keeping careful records of
                          Several panels and sessions addressed         personal impressions.
                       issues that are also critical to Ukraine’s
                       folklorists during this period of economic          Related to this theme was a panel titled
                       and social transformation. The panel             “Suspect Objects: Forms of Ambivalence
                       “Fieldwork and Ethnography” was one of           in Folklore Studies.” In his presentation
                       several having the word fieldwork in its         about taxidermy and ethnographic “nega-
                       title. Contemporary methods for identify-        tive capability” John Dost reviewed the
                       ing and recording materials found in the         popularity of taxidermy which was out-
                       field were discussed in many different           lawed in the 1970s. This was a fashion
                       contexts. But the undisputed predomi-            trend in interior design which displayed
                       nant theme was the plea for more video           animal parts (headless dogs, deer heads

                       Taxidermy was outlawed in the 1970s
                       recordings, databases and use of comput-         with blood streaks) or unusual composi-
                       er systems. I noticed that American folk-        tions (a tiger with skyscrapers on its
                       lorists are very fastidious about collect-       back, a monkey holding a deck of cards at
                       ing empirical materials. Required profes-        the poker table, a squirrel with roses,
                       sional qualities of a field researcher           etc.). None of the slides of these stuffed
                       include competency, ability to maintain          animals were aesthetically pleasing.
                       confidentiality and ability to carry out         What made this presentation interesting
                       certain civic responsibilities. It was           wasn’t the shocking display itself (this
                       emphasized that nurturing these habits           was the general reaction of the audience)
                       was the main objective of teachers — spe-        but the folklorist’s analysis of his own

feelings and behavior during observation.    “supertechnology” is often used when           so only a few of his scenes were included
This was a case of researcher and inter-     discussing the modern function of folk-        in the video. What the audience sees is
viewee having different attitudes towards    lore. Russel Frank examined photographs        a masterfully filmed presentation of sto-
the object of study (in this case moral      found on the Internet which had been           ries told by the storyteller with actors
and aesthetic positions) even though         altered by computer technology, as well        and archive materials all artistically and
some argued that taxidermy is just anoth-    as different jokes and tricks. The Internet    graphically reproducing a folklore envi-
er form of hunting. Dorst elaborated on      was described as a multi-purpose tool for      ronment, the typical appliances, house-
the concept of “negative capability», the    conducting interviews by e-mail, as an         hold tools, costumes, etc. The results of
ability of the researcher to remain unaf-    alternative to tedious and lengthy field       using mass media to reinterpret tradi-
fected throughout the research, to remain    research and, according to Larry Ellis, as a   tional heritage were something even the
unbiased and to not show emotion.            source of the many genealogical Websites       project’s creators didn’t expect to
                                             which often disseminate family legends.        achieve.
   A roundtable and special meeting were     Mobile phones, video cameras, and web-
held on the role of archives and the         based communities were given by                  This is the result of romanticizing the
responsibility of archivists who become      Jonathan Lohman as examples of new             storyteller and the ancient and tradi-
keepers of traditions. During the panel      technologies for holding festivals and car-    tional world closest to the real world of
titled “Creating Community Connections:      nivals, using New Orleans Mardi Gras as        the time in which he lived and which he
Bringing Folklore Archives to the Public”    an example. The Internet as an informa-        recreated in his stories. This ideal
Kristi Bell told about her experience set-   tion exchange tool was a recurring             world, however, when put on a pedestal
ting up an exhibition of archived folklore   theme. Stephen Drazhev’s project intro-        seems too subjective. There is a danger
materials. She suggested that these          duced an IT program called “Folk Fantasy”      of having created something “foreign».
kinds of exhibits not only “revive and       which helps folklorists convert written,       A famous scene from the film which the
bring to life” sometimes unique materials    sound and material objects (“tangible”         audience especially liked shows a group
but also significantly impact visitors and   expressions) collections in national and       of women standing in a circle, kneading
society. A very popular session “Archive     regional educational archives by compil-       and plucking white sheep wool with their
and Museum” called for making folklore       ing resources into a single database and       hands. They resemble a working commu-
and photo archives more accessible, espe-    by exchanging information through the          nity slowly weaving a new story and a
cially to students.                          Internet.                                      new substance which reflects their feel-
                                                                                            ings, their impressions, and their hopes.
Results of a cross-cultural analysis of                                                       Another popular theme found in many
American funeral rituals                                                                    of the presentations examined how folk-
                                                                                            lore functions under modern conditions.
                                                                                            One tendency is to use festivals, not only
  A panel addressing transformation of          Empiricism was also a frequent topic,       to preserve the living spirit of folklore
traditions included a discussion of “Neo-    although facts were rarely discussed in        but also to attract public attention, to
Paganism” as a phenomenon of modern          their pure form. Jacqueline Thursby pre-       give folklore a new breath. Those who
times. Adam Andrews reviewed the caus-       sented results of a cross-cultural analysis    attended these presentations realized
es of the rise and fall of new religious     of modern American funeral rituals,            that there is a fine line between com-
movements emphasizing the tendency of        mourning songs, memorial banquets and          mercializing these activities and, the
new religions to become institutionalized    food rituals. Similar themes were dis-         more important issue, keeping traditions
and absorbed into existing religions.        cussed in Shane Rasmussen’s presenta-          “alive” today and supporting their
Hillary Colter shared examples from a        tion “Arbitrary Traditionality: Cultural       longevity.
popular television program which fea-
tured stories of people’s experiences with
death and the afterlife as an example of
                                             Folklore festivals and pageants
the close relationship between mass-
media and folklore. In this example, the
                                             preserve cultural heritage
TV “psychic” and his audience used           Authenticity and Modern Mainstream                For example, a long-standing tradition
telecommunications which allowed spiri-      American Deathways” in which he criti-         of German immigrants to Pennsylvania
tualism to create its own on-line audience   cized the American funeral industry. He        revolves on pre-Lenten celebrations.
and the feeling that “the spirit moves       argued that as a result of commercializa-      The community rents a hall and every-
everything». Daniel Wojcik highlighted       tion and the standardization of funeral        body together makes apple butter with
the new views of cosmologies on morality,    services, American burial rituals only         cinnamon in huge kettles. This annual
death and the soul, using for his argu-      partly allow grieving relatives of the         communal “food project” served to
ment human cloning. He examined these        deceased to exercise very personal and         establish ethnic identity in the commu-
in the context of mythological views on      much needed traditions.                        nity and was very popular. It has not
human creation, stories about “ancient                                                      been held in the last few years. There
astronauts,” eschatological legends and        Several sections were devoted to             were many other examples of folklore
UFOs. Modern superhero of literature         videos, most of which were for sale as         festivals and pageants which served to
Harry Potter was also mentioned.             teaching materials. I attended a show-         preserve cultural heritage. These
Participants argued that we are witness-     ing called “The Last Storyteller” which        include donkey races in the northern
ing how the supernatural is becoming the     featured a storyteller from Ireland. The       region of Piedmond, Italy and snow fes-
“supertechnological.” The term               storyteller died soon after filming began      tivals with ice sculptures (which repre-

                      sent the combination of social relations        An interesting section titled “Cultural
                      with political events); traditional festi-   Circulation” addressed the active migra-
                      vals in the American Midwest featuring       tion of people and different types of per-
                      professional musicians from Jamaica and      formances, artifacts, ideas, etc. It was
                      the modern fad for displays with fire        suggested that these had become
                      torches (“The Flame Dance”) which            detached from their homeland-identified
                      included dances from dramatic scenes in      sources and were becoming cultural
                      Japanese mythology using fire (pyrogen-      hybrids of different influences, frag-
                      ics) on the stage. Modern technology         ments, or different kinds of fetishes.
                      allows for alternatives to gasoline like
                      white gas and special textiles. This            Traditional dance was also a very popu-
                      technologically “renewed” use of fire        lar section. Costume and dress codes as
                      and dangerous-looking stage tricks kept      objects of ethnological study were exam-
                      the audience in a state of tension and       ined in 3 sessions. An ethnic dance cos-
                      definitely in touch with their instincts.    tume for the stage was presented by
                                                                   Susan Eleuterio. Issues included the cos-
Struggles of Afro-American families to                             tume’s role in creating and preserving cul-
                                                                   tural identity, spiritual and physical influ-
overcome slavery, segregation, language                            ences on the audience of style, color, dec-
                                                                   oration, etc. Decoration as part of gar-
appropriation and urbanization                                     ments worn in liturgical dance choirs was
                                                                   studied by Robert Evanchuk. Carol Branch
                        American folklorists argued that their     pointed out that fashion and costume
                      goal was to “create” performances and        aren’t only the calling card of the wearer
                      discussed different ways to develop such     but also a system of non-verbal communi-
                      projects. A favorite topic was the new       cation between the performer and the
                      musical style “Musica Mediterranea”          audience, a dialogue in which the “speak-
                      which combines the music and lan-            ers” understand and feel each other bet-
                      guages of different Mediterranean cul-       ter. Suzanne Waldenberger examined the
                      tures with elements of Anglo-American        symbolic function of clothing worn during
                      pop music. The presentation examined         ceremonies of transition from childhood
                      the unusual popularity of this musical       to womanhood for Hispanic girls, includ-
                      style in Italy and in other countries as a   ing the traditional quinceanera ceremony
                      phenomenon of the globalization trend.       for Latinas. Its special features are the
                                                                   tailoring, color and decoration of girls’
                         Several sessions were devoted to          dresses which remind us of a princess or
                      studying subcultures. The study of a         Barbie doll. Consequently, transition is
                      small surfing community in Huntington        marked not by religious ceremony but by
                      Beach, California, was presented by the      the dress of its members.
                      folklorist Deborah Gallinger in her pres-
                      entation “Surfing and Spirituality:             The social semiotics of clothing and its
                      Exploring the Vernacular.” Margaret          cross-cultural characteristics were exam-
                      Yokom related the experience of setting      ined by Paul Jordan-Smith, including an
                      up a special “Traditions Committee” at a     analysis of the changes in traditional
                      college whose goal was to celebrate and      dress in Afghanistan following the defeat
                      develop existing university traditions       of the Taliban. He suggested that foreign-
                      and to support those already being prac-     ers use even clothing as tools for spread-
                      ticed by student groups.                     ing ideology. The topic of food and cook-
                                                                   ing was a broad one. In the section “Food
                         Cultural diversity and cultural toler-    and Ideology” Mario Montano presented
                      ance have always been issues for the US      food stereotypes as markers of class, race
                      which is very ethnically diverse and         and age. Lucy Long discussed the cultural
                      where the interests of native Americans      politics of “the family meal” and Diane Tye
                      clashed with those who came to settle        examined special food preparation meth-
                      these lands. Last year’s meeting of          ods in terms of gender roles.
                      American folklorists was no exception.
                      A documentary titled “Truth I Ever Told”       Different genres of folklore were pre-
                      was dedicated to the struggles of Afro-      sented, including legends, stories,
                      American families in their efforts to        beliefs, songs, children’s and academic
                      overcome slavery, segregation, language      folklore (academics talking about them-
                      appropriation and urbanization. The          selves!) and humor. The issue of perform-
                      video is based on about 30 hours of          ance as an enabling event was a recurring
                      interview footage with four generations      theme, especially in its preserving
                      of an Indian farming community in Texas.     authenticity and legitimacy. A meeting

                    was led by specialists on legends and on                    My impressions are subjective and
                    beliefs. The scholars stressed that the                  fragmented so 1 can’t pretend to have
                    former work mostly with texts (and con-                  grasped the whole of what went on in
                    texts) while the latter examine ways in                  Albuquerque. But this experience was
                    which folk discourse is materialized                     important for understanding contempo-
                    (there was also a somatic analysis of sev-               rary approaches in American folkloristcs
                    eral beliefs). Nevertheless, despite the                 and implications for developing the
                    differences in approaches, participants                  study of folklore in 4kraine. Toelken
                    argued that it is important to combine                   argued that the one element all folklore
                    research in these areas.                                 has in common is constant change “All
                                                                             folklore participates in a distinctive,
                      Special meetings focused on traditional                dynamic process. 7onstant change,
                    cultures of Native Americans, on African                 variation within a tradition . . . (is) a
                    and Afro-American and /atin-American                     defining feature that grows out of con-
                    folklore as well as on folklore of 0uropean              text, attitude, cultural tastes, and the
                    countries (0ngland, 1reland, 1taly,                      like.2:7” 1 hope that this sentiment will
                    2ermany, 3ussia, 3umania, 4kraine,                       serve as an added inspiration for my
                    Scotland, etc.), oral history, etc.                      colleagues in 4kraine.

                                                                                                                              0nd Notes5
                                                                                                                              6. 7olin 2. 7alloway, 8irst Peoples5 A Documentary
                                                                                                                                 Survey of American 1ndian History
                                                                                                                         39      (Boston, New York5 Bedford/St. Martin’s, 6999).
                                                                                                                              2. Barre Toelken, The Dynamics of 8olklore, rev. ed.
                                                                                                                                 (/ogan, 4T5 4tah State 4niversity Press, 6996).
                                                                                                                              3. Toelken, The Anguish of Snails5 Native American
                                                                                                                                 8olklore in the 0est
                                                                                                                                 (/ogan, 4T5 4tah State 4niversity Press, 2003).
                                                                                                                              4. /arry 0vers and Barre Toelken, eds., Native
                                                                                                                                 American Oral Traditions5 7ollaboration and
                                                                                                                                 (/ogan, 4T5 4tah State 4niversity Press, 2006).
                                                                                                                              5. Barre Toelken, Morning Dew and 3oses5 Nuance,
                                                                                                                                 Metaphor, and Meaning in 8olksongs
                                                                                                                                 (4rbana5 4niversity of 1llinois Press, 6995).
                                                                                                                              6. Toelken, Ballads (New York5 Holt, 3inehart and
                                                                                                                                 0inston, 6969). Audio 3ecording.
                                                                                                                              7. Toelken, The Dynamics of 8olklore.
                                                                                                                              8. Toelken, The Moccasin Telegraph and Other
                                                                                                                                 1mprobabilities5 A Personal 0ssay, in Out of
                                                                                                                                 8olklore and the Supernatural, ed. Barbara 0alker
                                                                                                                                 (/ogan, 4T5 4tah State 4niversity Press, 6995).
                                                                                                                              9. Barre Toelken, “The Yellowman Tapes, 6966-6997,”
                                                                                                                                 Journal of American 8olklore 66 (6998).
                                                                                                                              60. Barre Toelken, Healing /ogics5 7ulture and
                                                                                                                                Medicine in Modern Health Belief Systems, ed.
                                                                                                                                0rika Brady
                                                                                                                                (/ogan, 4T5 4tah State 4niversity Press, 2006).
Dolls at the fair

                       * 0dward D. 1ves is founder of the Northeast
                    Archives of 8olklore and Oral History and the
                    Northeast 8olklore Society. He received his MA in
                    Medieval /iterature (old ballads) at 7olumbia
                    4niversity in6950 and began teaching at the
                    4niversity of Maine. During his tenure he studied
                    Maine folksongs and completed a PhD in folklore at
                    the 4niversity of 1ndiana in 6962. He retired after 44
                    years of teaching at the 4niversity of Main.


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