1. Republic: a government in which citizens rule through officials they have
2. The Articles of Confederation created a situation in which each state's
government was equal with the national government. This created gridlock
because no one respected the national government.
3. There were no branches--only the Continental Congress.
4. Each state had one vote.
5. There was an enormous national debt from the war.
6. A Constitutional Convention was held in May 1787 in Philadelphia. They
wanted to improve the Articles of Confederation. However, after much thought
and debate, the Articles were scrapped and they started over.
7. The new document written was the Constitution.
1. Those who supported the Constitution were known as Federalists. They wanted a
strong central government. Supporters included: James Madison, John Jay, and
2. James Madison was the primary author of the Constitution.
3. Those who opposed the Constitution were known as Anti-Federalists. They favored
stronger states' rights. Supporters included: Patrick Henry, Samuel Adams, and Thomas
4. There were two plans for the government set up by the Constitution.
a. New Jersey Plan- one house (unicameral) favoring small states
b. Virginia Plan- two houses (bicameral) favoring big states
c. Connecticut Plan (Great Compromise) was the plan that was
adopted. It created the House of Representatives (based on
population) and the Senate (two senators per state).
5. The Federalist Papers were written to convince people to ratify the Constitution.
They were written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay.
1. Three branches of government were set up by the Constitution:
A. Legislative: Senate and House of Representatives:
They make the laws.
B. Executive: President of the United States
He/She executes the laws.
C. Judicial: Supreme Court and federal courts
They interpret laws and actions.
2. There are 7 Articles (Sections) in the Constitution:
A. Article I: Legislative Branch
B. Article II: Executive Branch
C. Article III: Judicial Branch
D. Article IV: Relations with States
E. Article V: Amending the Constitution
F. Article VI: General Provisions
G. Article VII: Ratification of the Constitution
1. Changes or Additions to the Constitution are
2. The Constitution was ratified because of a compromise.
Anti-Federalist agreed to approve it if a bill of rights was added.
This was a guarantee of personal liberties.
3. The Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments.
George Mason is the father of the Bill of Rights.
4. All together, there have been 27 amendments to
Bill of Rights
1. Freedom of: speech, press, religion, petition and
2. Right to bear arms; establishment of a militia
3. No quartering of troops
4. No unreasonable search and seizure (warrant or
5. Right to due process; no double jeopardy or self-
6. Right to trial by jury, speedy trial, confront witnesses, and
7. Civil trial by jury
8. No excessive bail or cruel/unusual punishment
9. Protection of rights not specifically mentioned
10. Powers not given to the United States go to the states
1. John Marshall, as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court,
established the idea of Judicial Review in Marbury v.
2. Judicial Review is process by which the Supreme Court
reviews laws and actions to determine if they are
3. Precedent--the first time something happens.
1. George Washington took office as president in 1789.
He set up the first Cabinet:
Sec.of State: Thomas Jefferson
Sec. of Treasury: Alexander Hamilton
Attorney General: Edmund Randolph
Sec. War: Henry Knox
2. The Judiciary Act of 1789 set up the Supreme Court and the Federal court system.
The first Chief Justice was John Jay.
1. George Washington served two terms as
2. He refused to serve longer.
3. In a farewell address that was published
in many newspapers, he gave advice about
the running of the country.
4. Among the things he warned about were:
dangers of political parties and permanent
alliances with European countries.
1. The Great Compromise or the Connecticut Plan proposed
two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. The
House was based on population while each state got two
2. The 3/5 Compromise involved counting the South's slaves in
determining representation in the House of Representatives.
Northern states did not believe slaves should count as "whole"
people, so they conceded to count them as 3/5 of a person.
1. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson differed in their interpretation of
Hamilton was a loose constructivist. He believed that the gov't could do almost
anything as long it was not prohibited specifically.
Jefferson was a strict constructivist. He believed that the gov't could only do
what was specified in the Constitution.
2. The two party system started with Jefferson and Hamilton.
Jefferson: Democratic-Republican Party
Hamilton: Federalist Party
1. Hamilton wanted to free the new country of the war debt. He wanted to help
states with their war debts and establish a national bank.
2. Jefferson did not think a national bank was constitutional because the
Constitution did not establish one. Hamilton made the argument that it was legal
because it was not prohibited.
3. Southern states did not like the idea of the government paying off the states
debts because they had already paid off their debt and did not want to pay off the
Northern states' debt.
4. A compromise was made. The Southern states agreed to the debt plan and the
national bank in exchange for the moving of the Capitol from NY to the District of
Columbia across the river from Virginia.
5. Britain and France go to war. Jefferson wants to side with France. Hamilton
wants to side with Britain.
1. George Washington serves two terms as president. He is succeeded by John Adams, his vice-president.
2. The Federalists are fearful of the Democratic-Republicans. The D-R's appeal to immigrants,
so the Federalists want to stop this.
3. The Federalists pass the Alien and Sedition Acts. This makes it more difficult for the
immigrants to get involved in politics by:
a. extending the time it took to become a citizen
b. those who spoke out against the gov't could be jailed, fined, or deported
4. Virginia and Kentucky opposed the Alien and Sedition Acts and initialized the
concept of nullification. Nullification was the concept that a state could declare a federal law
null and void if it violates or exceeds the powers granted by the Constitution.
5. The tide of power in the government swung from the North to the South. Jefferson and the 2 presidents
after him were from Virginia. The Federalists did not appeal to the "common man"
as much as the D-R's.
1. In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson purchases the
Louisiana Territory from France.
2. Napoleon sells Louisiana because of the Haitian
Revolution led by Toussaint L'Ouverture. He needed the
cash to fight the British.
3. Jefferson buys the LA Territory for $15 million--about 3
cents an acre.
4. This is a bold move for Jefferson because the
5. Doubles the size of the U.S.
Constitution did not prescribe for land purchase.
6. Lewis and Clark with the help of Sacagewea explore
the new territory.
The Louisiana Territory