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					FALL/WINTER 2008                                                                                                                                                VOLUME 12, NUMBER 3




                                                                                                                                                   Bruce Carlisle, Gulf of Maine visionary
                                                                                                                                                   from Massachusetts.      Story Page 8

                                                                                                                                                  Collaboration turns
 INSIDE                                                                                                                                           dangerous debris
                                                                                                                                                  into power
                                                                                                                                                  by Catherine Coletti


                                                                                                                                                  T   o the unknowing observer, it might
                                                                                                                                                      look just like any dumpster. But
                                                                                                                                                  history is being made here at the Yan-
                                                                                                                                                  kee Fishermen’s Cooperative in Sea-
                                                                                                                                                  brook, New Hampshire.
                                                                                                                                                      A recently formed partnership of
                                                                                                                                                  the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Con-
                                                                                                                                                  servation, University of New Hamp-
                                                                                                                                                  shire (UNH) and the Waste Manage-
                                                                                                                                                  ment company not only keeps marine
 Energy:                                                                                                                                          debris out of the ocean – it goes a step
 This issue is primarily de-
                                                                                                                                                  further to use it as an energy source.
 voted to the energy available
                                                                                                                                                      Marine debris is one of the biggest
 in the Gulf of Maine.
                                                                                                                                                  problems facing marine life, which can
                                                                                                                                                  be killed or hurt through entangle-
 Fish tagging technologies
                                                                                                                                                  ment and ingestion. It is estimated
 Where do the fish go?
                                                                                                                                                  that thousands of fish, marine mam-
 ...................... 3
                                                                                                                                                  mals and birds are impacted by debris
                                                                                                                                                  annually.
 Book Review:                                                                                                                                         For the first time in New Hamp-
 The Muscongus Bay Atlas                                                                                                                          shire, fishermen have a place to dis-
 unique and available for all                                                                                                                     pose of damaged fishing gear, such as
 ...................... 4                                                                                                                         nets, rope and line, and most of what
                                                                                                                                                  ends up here is taken by Waste Man-
 Sharing the
 Ocean
                                                                                       PHOTO COurTesy Of THe NaTural resOurCes COuNCil Of MaiNe                      See Debris Pages 11
                                                The stetson project in Washington County, Maine.
 Stories of
 Science, Politics,
 and Ownership from
 America’s Oldest Industry                      Harnessing the Gulf’s winds, tides                                                                  A kilowatt (KW) is 1 thousand
 ...................... 5                                                                                                                           watts; a megawatt (MW) is 1

 Visionaries:
                                                for reliable energy independence                                                                    million watts; a gigawatt (GW)
                                                                                                                                                    is 1 billion watts; a terawatt
 Those who work
 to protect the                                 By Melissa Waterman                                                                                 (TW) is 1 trillion watts. To


                                                I
 Gulf of Maine                                                                                                                                      put these figures in perspec-
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8-9     n an era of volatile oil prices and growing concerns about future en-
                                                                                                                                                    tive, an incandescent lightbulb
                                                  ergy supplies, government and business alike are casting their eyes
 New institute says wind                                                                                                                            consumes between 25 to 100
 power best for Maine                           and their dollars toward the sea as a source of much needed energy.                                 watts of electrical energy and
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10       From tidal power plants in Nova            which borders these states makes logi-               compact fluorescent bulbs
                                                Scotia and New Brunswick to proposed           cal sense, Musial said. “They can’t be
 Spiraling fuel                                 offshore wind farms from Maine to              served by land-based renewable energy                consume between 5 to 30 watts.
 costs, world                                   Massachusetts, the latent energy-pro-          sources alone. We need to find ways to               According to the Maine Public
 financial woes                                 ducing possibilities from the Gulf of          generate energy where people live,” he               Utilities Commission, the aver-
 inflict ‘perfect                               Maine have become the focus of state           explained.
 storm’ on GOM                                  and provincial interest. Those who can                                                              age Maine household consumes
 lobstermen                                     tap that energy may find substantial re-       Wind Power                                           6,000 KW hours of electricity
 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12   wards.                                              Offshore wind farms in the GOM                  each year. A KW hour is 1,000
                                                    According to Professor Habib               could be one way to meet that need.
 Editor’s Notes . . . . . . . 2                 Dagher, director of the Advanced Struc-             Musial said offshore wind farms                 watts consumed per hour. The
                                                tures and Composites Laboratory at the         benefit from greater and more constant               six New England states gener-
 Around the Gulf . . . . . 5                    University of Maine, the Gulf of Maine         wind velocities and are far enough from              ally use approximately 27,000
                                                contains 100 gigawatts (GW) of wind            shore that many people say they have
 Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . 9                                                                                                                 MW per day in the summer
                                                energy potential, equivalent to approxi-       little aesthetic impact on coastal land-
                     …and more                  mately 10 percent of the United States’        owners, although a Massachusetts proj-               months, when air conditioner
                                                energy needs for a year.                       ect has generated much opposition for                use is prevalent.
                                                    “You can think of the winds off the
                                                coast of Maine as a seasonal crop that                                    See Energy Pages 6-7
                                                can help heat the state,” Dagher said.
                                                    Walter Musial, senior engineer at

    DONATE                                      the National Renewable Energy Labora-
                                                tories in Golden, Colorado, also thinks
                                                the Gulf of Maine (GOM) is capable of
           to help the                          supplying New England’s electricity                                  Gulf of Maine

  Gulf of Maine                                 needs in the future.
                                                    In a presentation at the Power of the
                                                                                                                     Council on the
                                                                                                                     Marine Environment


      TiMes
                                                                                                    56 Green st.
                                                Gulf conference in Northport, Maine, in             Thomaston, Me
                                                June, he noted it is the 22 densely pop-            04861 usa
  For information on                            ulated states on the east, west and Gulf            PRINTED MATTER

   how, see page 2                              of Mexico coasts which use 78 percent
                                                of the 3,500 TW hours of electricity
                                                consumed each year in the U.S.
                                                    Drawing energy from the ocean
Page 2                                                                           Gulf of Maine Times                                                      FALL/WINTER 2008

                                                        Editor’s Notes
                 Gulf of Maine Times
                 Volume 12, No. 3, fall/Winter 2008
                                                      The many parts of the Gulf of Maine — the power
 The Gulf of Maine Times welcomes and                 and energy, the fishermen and fish, the visionaries
 values comments and suggestions from
 our community of readers.                                The Gulf of Maine is an ecosystem beyond compare.         Gulf, but of the residents who populate its perimeter and
                                                      In this issue of the Gulf of Maine Times, you will learn of   rely on its resources for their livelihoods.
 Editor
 Nancy Griffin
                                                      many of the efforts being made around the Gulf to har-             Two books examined in this issue look at different as-
                                                      ness the renewable energy sources available in the power      pects of areas of the Gulf, but both take into consideration
 Assistant Editor                                     of the Gulf’s winds and tides.                                the variety of uses we expect from our coasts and consider
 Catherine Coletti                                        There’s also a report on a New Hampshire project          both the human impacts and the impacts on humans.
                                                      that turns dangerous marine debris into energy, ridding            Meanwhile, scientists continue to study and learn
 Editorial Advisor                                    the ocean of a hazard to sea life while recycling the trash   more about the various fish stocks that provide both food
 Theresa Torrent-ellis                                into a much-needed commodity.                                 and commercial value and indicators for the health of the
 Maine Coastal Program,                                   The lobster harvesters who live around the Gulf could     Gulf and other regions. Tagging systems that track the
 Maine state Planning Office
                                                      have used an alternative energy source this year, as sky-     movements of fish are surprising scientists with unex-
 Editorial Board
                                                      rocketing fuel costs affected all the basic fishing needs     pected information such as the ‘haddock highway.’
 Caroline Canning                                     that must be transported to them -- from bait to the salt          Last but far from least, are the people who never cease
 environment Canada                                   that preserves it -- and the necessities that are made from   to work on behalf of the Gulf of Maine, the Gulf of Maine
                                                      petroleum products, such as totes.                            Council’s Visionaries. This year’s array of outstanding
 anne Donovan                                             This year’s energy and economic crises were stark re-     winners, like their predecessors, have contributed in their
 Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone                 minders that our ecosystem is an integrated one, not just     unique ways — as volunteers, mentors, organizers, scien-
 Management                                           made up of the flora and fauna that live in and around the    tists and stewards.
                                                                                                                                                                — Nancy Griffin
 Jane spavold Tims
 Department of environment

 Contributors
 lee Bumsted
 Melissa Waterman
 rebecca Zeiber
                                                               Help Support the Gulf of Maine Times
 Layout
 Michelle Muise
 http://www.popgraphics.net

 The Gulf of Maine Times, a project of
 the Gulf of Maine Council’s Outreach
 Committee, is made possible through
 support of the Gulf of Maine Council on
 the Marine environment and the Na-
 tional Oceanic and atmospheric admin-
 istration. The views expressed herein
 are those of the author(s) and do not
 necessarily reflect the views of NOaa or
 any of its sub-agencies, the Gulf of Maine



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FALL/WINTER 2008                                                                                       Gulf of Maine Times                                                                            Page 3


Fish tagging technologies help solve a mystery
Where do the fish go? Some go down the ‘haddock highway’
by Rebecca Zeiber


T   he movements of fish can be ex-
    tremely difficult to track in the
vast ocean waters, but years of col-
laboration between fishermen and
scientists have helped to improve
fisheries stock assessment models
and tracking technologies.
    Various fish tagging initiatives
have led to much-needed improve-
ments in fisheries stock assessment
models and tagging technologies, ex-
perts say.
    The 2008 Northeast Regional
Tagging Symposium, held last fall
at the University of New Hampshire
(UNH) in Durham, attracted ap-
proximately 140 people. Attendees,
including commercial and recre-
ational fishermen, fishery biologists
and managers, and university faculty
and students, learned about how fish
tagging data is used for stock assess-
ments and for evaluating closed areas
for commercial fishing.
    Molly Lutcavage, director of
the Large Pelagics Research Center
(LPRC) at UNH, one of the sympo-
sium’s two keynote speakers, offered
a presentation on bluefin tuna move-
ments in the Atlantic.
    Electronic tags, particularly pop-
up satellite tags, have been essential
in determining the movements of
bluefin tuna, she said. The tags esti-
mate geolocations of the fish based
on the angle of the sunlight. Overall,
these tags have provided a wealth of                                                                                                                                                      PHOTO: reBeCCa ZeiBer

information regarding the migration                        Dr. Molly lutcavage.
patterns of this species.
    Some of the more recent findings                       and associated thermal gradients of                                “Without electronic tags, there            Keynote speaker David Welch
from the electronic tags show that                         juvenile bluefin tunas.                                       would be no way we’d figure out blue-      from the Kintama Research Corpo-
bluefin seem to be homing to a forage                          Fish as young as three to five                            fin tunas have such diverse dispersal      ration in British Colombia, Canada,
ground near Nova Scotia, Lutcavage                         years old have been found crossing                            patterns,” Lutcavage said.                 spoke about the Pacific Ocean Shelf
pointed out. In addition, the LPRC                         the Atlantic, something that had pre-                              Others speakers told of the use of    Tracking (POST) array, a highly ad-
recently began a program called “Tag                       viously thought to be associated only                         tagging studies in locations closed to     vanced fish tracking system. POST
a Tiny” to learn about the movements                       with the adults.                                              commercial fishing. In particular, re-     relies on a number of wireless plat-
                                                                                                                         searchers wanted to learn if fish used     forms deployed in the waters near
                                                                                                                         these closed areas as a “safe zone” by     Vancouver Island, along the coast
                                                                                                                         staying inside the boundaries.             of Alaska and into some rivers of
      The Gulf of Maine Times                                2007-2008 Members                                                While some closed areas seemed        the western United States. The plat-
       is made possible in part            Gulf of Maine Council on the Marine Environment
           by a grant from:                                                                                              to lack an obvious pattern of fish         forms are receivers for the tag signals
                                         Jim abraham, Director General atlantic
                                         environment Canada
                                                                                  George D. lapointe, Commissioner
                                                                                  Maine Department of Marine re-         movement, areas such as the Western        inserted in fish such as salmon and
                                         Dartmouth, Nova scotia                   sources
                                                                                  augusta, Maine
                                                                                                                         Gulf of Maine closure area seemed to       dogfish. As fish with tags swim near
                                         John a. annala, Director
                                                                                  John M. MacDonald, Vice President
                                                                                                                         have areas where fish stayed inside        the receivers, the date, time and tag
                                         Gulf of Maine research institute
                                         Portland, Maine                          energy Delivery & Generation           the closed areas.                          number are recorded.
  for general information about the                                               Manchester, New Hampshire
  Gulf of Maine Council, please call:    Priscilla M. Brooks, Director
                                                                                                                              In particular, one researcher de-          “It’s like a fish EZ Pass,” Welch
                                                                                  Claribel McBane
                                         Marine resources Project                 Marine fisheries                       scribed a “haddock highway” where          said. “This is a tracking system that’s
         Michele L. Tremblay             Conservation law foundation
  Gulf of Maine Council Coordinator      Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                  New Hampshire fish and Game
                                                                                  Department
                                                                                                                         this species would travel along a route    so good, we can learn exactly how
           (603) 796-2615                Thomas s. Burack, Commissioner
                                                                                  Durham, New Hampshire                  in the closed area and would turn          many fish from a certain release are
    To speak with someone in your
                                         New Hampshire Department of
                                         environmental services
                                                                                  leslie-ann McGee, Director             around once it reached the boundary,       moving through a particular area.”
                                                                                  Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone
  jurisdiction about the Gulf of Maine   Concord, New Hampshire                   Management                             only to travel the same route back.             The Pacific populations of eco-
           Council and related           ron Chisholm, Minister
                                                                                  Boston, Massachusetts
                                                                                                                              Tom Nies from the New Eng-            nomically valuable fish including
          activities, please call:       Nova scotia fisheries and aquaculture
                                         Halifax, Nova scotia
                                                                                  Marvin Moriarty, regional Director
                                                                                  u.s. fish and Wildlife service         land Fishery Management Council            black cod and salmon are expected to
                 Maine                                                            Hadley, Massachusetts                  weighed in with his perspective on         benefit from these technologies. The
            elizabeth Hertz              rick Doucet, Minister
         state Planning Office           New Brunswick Department of              Michael Murphy
                                                                                  acting regional Director
                                                                                                                         why data from tagging studies are          POST array data have already had
            (207) 287-8935
                                         fisheries
                                         fredericton, New Brunswick               Oceans and Habitat Branch              important in determining fishery           huge impacts on improved popula-
                                                                                  Department of fisheries and Oceans
                                         Martha freeman, Director                 Bedford institute of Oceanography      management plans.                          tion models thanks to detailed infor-
           Massachusetts
              Julia Knisel
                                         Maine state Planning Office              Dartmouth, Nova scotia                      “Tagging studies are helping to       mation on the fish movements.
                                         augusta, Maine
        Office of Coastal Zone
                                                                                  Mark Parent, Minister
                                                                                  Nova scotia Department of
                                                                                                                         get at the root of the situation, and           “When you can do experiments
             Management                  Carolyn Gravel, Manager
                                         environmental affairs
                                                                                  environment and labour                 the answers they provide will only         like this directly in the ocean, it helps
            (617) 626-1191                                                        Halifax, Nova scotia
                                         shipping federation of Canada                                                   help improve our understanding of          to move science forward much faster
                                         Montréal, Quebec                         stephen Perkins, Director
         New Brunswick                                                            Office of ecosystem Protection         the fish populations,” Nies said.          than more traditional studies,” Welch
        Jane spavold Tims                roland Haché, Minister
                                         New Brunswick Department of
                                                                                  u.s. environmental Protection agency
                                                                                  Boston, Massachusetts                       Other speakers discussed how fish     added.
     Department of environment
          (506) 457-4846
                                         environment
                                         fredericton, New Brunswick               Jennifer smith, Manager                species are being tracked to improve            The symposium was funded
                                                                                  Gis/Conservation Planning
                                                                                  WWf-Canada atlantic Program
                                                                                                                         their stock assessments. Using mark-       by the National Oceanic and Ato-
                                         W. Donald Hudson, President
         New Hampshire                   The Chewonki foundation                  Halifax, Nova scotia                   recapture studies with simple tags, re-    mospheric Administration’s NOAA
             Ted Diers
    Department of environmental
                                         Wiscasset, Maine                         lee sochasky, executive Director       searchers have learned about the mor-      Fisheries, NH Sea Grant, the North-
                                                                                  st. Croix international Waterway
             services                    Byron James, Deputy Minister             Commission                             tality rates and movements of striped      east Consortium and several fish tag
                                         Department of agriculture and
          (603) 559-0027                 aquaculture
                                                                                  Calais, Maine                          bass, yellowfin tuna and Atlantic cod      manufacturers. A publication based
            Nova Scotia
                                         fredericton, New Brunswick               robert l. stephenson, Director
                                                                                  DfO st. andrews Biological station
                                                                                                                         in the western Atlantic Ocean. Thanks      on the symposium will be available
           Justin Huston                 Patricia a. Kurkul
                                         regional administrator
                                                                                  st. andrews, New Brunswick             to years of tagging efforts by fishermen   early next year. For more informa-
     Nova scotia Department of           National Oceanic and atmospheric         Greg Thompson                          and researchers, fishery managers will     tion on its availability, keep an eye on
     fisheries and aquaculture           administration/ National Marine          fundy North fishermen’s
          (902) 424-2996                 fisheries service                        association                            be able to develop more accurate pop-      www.seagrant.unh.edu.
                                         Gloucester, Massachusetts                Dipper Harbour, New Brunswick
                                                                                                                         ulation estimates to protect and en-
                                                                                                                         hance stocks of various species.
Page 4                                                                     Gulf of Maine Times                                                                 FALL/WINTER 2008


Mapping Muscongus Bay —
unique and available for all
By Nancy Griffin                             The Muscongus Bay Atlas 2008
                                             by Jennifer Atkinson and Stephen Engle
A    new publication that maps the
     coastal marine areas of Muscon-
gus Bay offers specific information
                                             Quebec-Labrador Foundation, Ipswich,
                                             Massachusetts
about this one bay area, but also of-        50 pp, $15
fers a framework for people in other
estuaries, communities and organi-
zations to do the same.
     The introduction states, “The At-       GIS director for QLF, produced the
las is for anyone who has an interest        Muscongus Bay Atlas 2008, but the
in learning more about Muscongus             acknowledgments include a long list
Bay. It is also for people who like          of fishermen, environmentalists, sci-
maps.”                                       entists, municipalities, academic and
     The Muscongus Bay Atlas 2008            historical groups.
was produced by the Quebec-Labra-                 The Atlas is “an experiment. In all
dor Foundation/Atlantic Center for           our searches, we found nothing like
the Environment in Ipswich, Mas-             it,” Atkinson said. “While a lot of GIS
sachusetts, which has a Marine Pro-          data changes, it’s the digital library
gram based in Waldoboro, Maine,              that underlies the Atlas that is the
directed by Jennifer Atkinson.               true power behind it. We can update
                                             that much more frequently than the
                                             published maps.” Two other marine
     “The Atlas is for                       regions have already inquired about
     anyone who has                          producing similar resources.
       an interest in                             Set up as one page of data describ-
                                             ing the map that appears opposite it,
      learning more                          the Atlas covers commercial fisher-
    about Muscongus                          ies, with special maps for the lobster
    Bay. It is also for                      fishery, geology, the ocean floor and
                                             land terrain, kayaking areas, water-
     people who like                         sheds, sea level rise predictions, sail-
          maps.”                             ing areas, soils, population and hous-
                                             ing growth, working waterfronts and
                                             more.
     A quote from the introduction                “This collection of maps gets us...
to the Atlas explains why the project        into new possibilities for using maps
was conceived:                               and digital data in local decision-
     “Although located at the midpoint       making,” wrote Atkinson in the Atlas.
of Maine’s long coastline, Muscongus         “It is a launching point from which
Bay is not all that well known to many       we can begin to visualize and discuss
                                                                                                                                                     COurTesy Of sTePHeN T. eNGle, Qlf
in New England... often overshad-            our common issues and resources.”
                                                                                          a poster promoting the Muscongus Bay atlas.
owed by... Penobscot Bay to the east              The huge file is available in sev-
and the... Damariscotta River Estu-          eral formats -- to view or download
ary to the west. Those who live here         online in its entirety, in sections or       Atmospheric Administration, the               Maine State Planning Office, Mar-
(close to 23,000 year round), how-           just images. Print copies cost $15 in        Birch Cove Fund of the Maine Com-             shall Dodge Memorial Fund of the
ever, are passionate about its beauty,       bookstores, plus $5 S&H ordered by           munity Foundation, Davis Conserva-            Maine Community Foundation, The
its ‘out of the way’ location, and its       mail.                                        tion Foundation, Jessie B. Cox Chari-         French Foundation and University
traditional, rural character.”                    Besides QLF, the Atlas was              table Trust, Knox County Fund of              of Maine Cooperative Extension for
     Atkinson and Stephen T. Engle,          funded by the National Oceanic and           the Maine Community Foundation,               Knox & Lincoln Counties.

 Wind Energy in the the Gulf




                                                                                                                                                                  PHOTO: DaViD COlVille
 Wind turbine in Grand etang, inverness County Cape Breton. This is one of Nova scotia Power’s Vestra (0.66MW) turbines that has been in service since 2002.
FALL/WINTER 2008                                                              Gulf of Maine Times                                                                                Page 5


Fishermen protecting fish
is not a paradox
Book Review                                    ter of this book to the work of NAMA
                                               and an extensive survey it conducted.
Sharing the Ocean:                             The nonprofit organization promotes
                                               community-based management of
Stories of Science, Politics,                  the fishery in which fishermen join
                                               scientists, environmentalists, and
and Ownership from                             policy makers in collaborating on
America’s Oldest Industry                      regulations.
                                                    NAMA’s Fleet Visioning Project
Reviewed by Lee Bumsted                        looked for common threads in the re-
                                               plies to a survey distributed to New

W      hile it may seem paradoxical to
       assert that commercial fisher-
men are some of the best people to
                                               England groundfish permit holders,
                                               researchers, marine business people
                                               and managers. Respondents were
manage and protect the New England             asked their vision of the future of the
inshore fishery, that is precisely what        groundfish fleet, why it is important
Michael Crocker does in Sharing the            to them, and how they could help.
Ocean: Stories of Science, Politics,           Survey results were shared at region-
and Ownership from America’s Old-              al workshops, sent to participants
est Industry.                                  and fishery managers, and published
     He makes a persuasive case that           online at www.namanet.org.
inshore fishermen, with their detailed              The final segment of Sharing the
knowledge of local ecosystems and a            Ocean makes compelling reading,
desire to conserve the resource they           and is the section most accessible
harvest, should have a greater role in         to general readers. It consists of 31
determining fishing regulations.               short narratives gathered from the
     Various management plans to               Fleet Visioning Project. In their own
stem the decline of the New England            words, stakeholders tell why they
groundfish population have been                want to help the local fishery suc-
tried over the past 30 years. Crocker          ceed. Their stories are paired with
summarizes these regulations and               full-page color portraits by Rebecca
chronicles some of the missteps tak-           Hale, a studio photographer for Na-            Sharing the Ocean: Stories of Science, Politics, and Ownership
en by well-intentioned federal regu-           tional Geographic.                             from America’s Oldest Industry
lators and environmentalists.                       Howdy Houghton from Bar Har-              By Michael Crocker, Photography by Rebecca Hale
     He describes how quotas on the            bor, Maine is one of the many fisher-
                                               men profiled. He said: “....we need            Tilbury House, Publishers, Gardiner, Maine and Northwest Atlantic Marine Alliance,
amount of fish taken and days-at-sea                                                          Windham, Maine
limits have disproportionately hurt            to consider just how dependent our
fishermen working on smaller vessels           communities are on fisheries as a              160pp., $20.00, paperback, ISBN 978-0-8848-306-9 (2008)
with limited ranges. These fishermen           food source and take care of the fish.
often hail from rural coastal ports, so        We must use wise local stewardship
their loss of income or livelihood radi-       to maintain healthy local seafood              observation: “If we lose our fishing           bring alive the values of those in-
ates out to their communities as well.         ecosystems for future generations,             industry, or allow it to consolidate           volved in the inshore fishery. They
     Crocker worked as the communi-            and for cultural, economic, and local          unduly, we lose a big chunk of our             also support Crocker’s thesis that lo-
cations director for the Northwest At-         seafood security.”                             soul -- as individuals, communities,           cal commercial fishermen have much
lantic Marine Alliance (NAMA) from                  Jennifer Brewer, a geographer             states, and society at large.”                 to contribute to solving the fishery
2001 to 2006, and he devotes a chap-           in New Harbor, Maine, offered this                 These narratives and portraits             management dilemma.


  Around the Gulf




                                                                                                                                                                     PHOTO: reBeCCa ZeiBer
at about 7:30 a.m. on a cool October morning, ray Konisky (front) of The Nature Conservancy, and Krystin Ward (back), research technician at the Jackson estuarine laboratory, released
about 3,000 juvenile oysters into the Oyster river in Durham, New Hampshire as part of the Oyster Conservationist project. The oyster conservationists are volunteers who raise baby
oysters off of their own docks on Great Bay, which has 200 miles of tidal shoreline and is framed by five N.H. towns. Once the oysters are big enough, they are collected and “planted” to
help restore declining populations. Besides being a food source for humans and animals, oysters are natural water purifiers and help filter increasing pollutant loads in Great Bay.
Page 6                                                                 Gulf of Maine Times                                                                   FALL/WINTER 2008


                      Energy continued from Page 1       COurTesy Of THe NOVa sCOTia DeParTMeNT Of eNerGy
                                                     The Nova scotia Wind atlas has been developed
    its visibility. He adds they can be located      for the Nova scotia Department of energy by the
    near demand centers, such as Portland or         universite de Moncton and the applied Geomat-
    Boston.                                          ics research Group. it was created to help iden-
         “You can build them big,” he said. “You     tify Nova scotia’s wind resource and to stimulate
    can’t ship the big wind turbine towers on        its use. Maps have been created to show the wind
    land because they won’t fit [in one piece]       resource at 30m, 50m, and 80m above ground
    under the interstate system’s bridges.”          level. This Wind resource Map shows the annu-
         At 60 to 80 meters (197 to 262 feet) of     al average wind speeds at a height of 80m in the
    water depth in the Gulf of Maine, the mean       Digby to yarmouth area of Nova scotia. interac-
    wind speeds are 21 miles per hour (MPH)          tive online access to the Wind atlas is available at
    or more than 9.5 meters per second, a ve-        www.nswindatlas.ca
    locity that Musial called “outstanding.”
    Unlike the offshore turbines, most current
    commercial turbine models, such as those         from wind power by 2015 and 3,000 MW
    produced by Siemans of Germany or Vestas         by 2020. By 2020, 300 MW of that elec-
    of Denmark, are designed for shallow water       tricity should be drawn from offshore wind
    depths where they are fixed to the seabed.       projects.
         Offshore turbines must float above deep          Currently the state has several land
    waters, but also must have a system that         wind farms installed or in the construction
    keeps them anchored in one place in order        stages, including Mars Hill (28 turbines
    to withstand storms. Currently one of the        generating 42 MW of electricity), Kibby
    world’s deepwater offshore systems, called       Mountain (44 turbines potentially generat-
    the Talisman Field, operates in Scotland.        ing 130 MW) and Stetson Ridge (potentially
    Its turbines are the largest in the world,       generating 57 MW).
    with individual wind blades of 61.5 meters            Former independent governor Angus
    (201 feet) in length.                            King jumped into the wind world when he
         No offshore wind towers currently pull      founded Independence Wind in 2007. In
    power from the sky in the GOM. The 41 ex-        2008 King said in a speech at Bowdoin Col-
    isting wind turbines that feed electricity to    lege that the Gulf could be a “Saudi Arabia
    Nova Scotia Power are all land-based. The        of wind” in terms of its potential for power
    Nova Scotia Department of Energy recently        generation. He called for a Manhattan Proj-
    set up a new online wind atlas (http://www.      ect-style endeavor to create a $15 billion net-
    nswindatlas.ca) developed with the Univer-       work of offshore wind turbines that would
    sity of Moncton and Nova Scotia Commu-           feed into the New England grid system.
    nity College, which shows that some of the            In September, a Massachusetts-based
    province’s peninsulas in the Gulf have defi-     company called Blue H came calling in
    nite wind energy potential.                      Maine with plans for an offshore wind farm
         The maps, drawing on Google satellite       employing 90 turbines that could produce
    images, show wind speeds based on veloc-         up to 450 MW of electricity, although the
    ity at 30, 50 and 80 meters (32, 54 and 87       company identified no specific Maine site.
    yards) above ground. The department pre-         Blue H set up a successful demonstration
    dicts the number of wind turbines in the         turbine in waters off Italy and plans to be-
    province will grow to more than 300 by the       gin construction of a full-scale project there
    year 2013, although it is unclear if any of      in 2009.                                               turbines generating more than 400 MW of              based company, ann
    those new facilities will be offshore.                The company also has filed an applica-            electricity.                                         2001 to construct a w
         In Maine this past February the Gover-      tion with the U.S. Minerals Management                      The Massachusetts wind project that             Wind comprised of 130
    nor’s Task Force on Wind Power Develop-          Service to lease submerged Massachusetts               has generated years of controversy, while            tween four and 11 mi
    ment released its report on wind power po-       lands, approximately 23 miles (37 km)                  not in the Gulf of Maine, does illustrate the        coast in federal water
    tential for the state. The task force, which     from Martha’s Vineyard and 45 miles (72                difficulties of siting large-scale energy facil-     258 feet tall (78.6 me
    included both land and state waters in its       km) from New Bedford, for a similar dem-               ities, even non-polluting ones, within sight         surface to the center
    study, concluded the state should aim to         onstration project. The company says, if               of the shore.                                        blades will reach 440
    generate at least 2,000 MW of electricity        successful, the facility would include 120                  Energy Management Inc., a Boston-               above the water. The co
                                                                                                                                                                 posed wind farm woul
                                                                                                                                                                 of 170 MW of electrici
                                                                                                                                                                 be transported throug
                                                                                                                                                                 km) of transmission ca
                                                                                                                                                                 West Yarmouth.
                                                                                                                                                                     Objections to the
                                                                                                                                                                 began in 2001 and ha
                                                                                                                                                                 Homeowners on Nant
                                                                                                                                                                 southern shore of Cape
                                                                                                                                                                 ator Ted Kennedy, ob
                                                                                                                                                                 impacts of the turbine
                                                                                                                                                                 ing, navigation and th
                                                                                                                                                                 ment, possible polluti
                                                                                                                                                                 themselves and a num
                                                                                                                                                                 impacts.
                                                                                                                                                                     Culminating many
                                                                                                                                                                 gling, the final decisio
                                                                                                                                                                 environmental impac
                                                                                                                                                                 which is required unde
                                                                                                                                                                 al Environmental Pro
                                                                                                                                                                 by the end of 2008.
                                                                                                                                                                 Tidal Power
                                                                                                                                                                      Maine, New Bruns
                                                                                                                                                                 share more than a pe
                                                                                                                                                                 border on the Bay of F
                                                                                                                                                                 ment through which m
                                                                                                                                                                 tons of water flows eac
                                                                                                                                                                      The Bay of Fundy
                                                                                                                                                                 50 feet (15.2 meters) at
                                                                                                                                                                 the bay is generally U
                                                                                                                                                                 significantly near its
                                                                                                                                                                 The incoming tide ga
                                                                                                                                                                 at it moves inward, res
                                                                                                                                                                 tidal bore, or standing
                                                                                                                                                                 Minas Basin.
                                                                                                                                                                      A blast of many b
                                                                COurTesy Of THe eNerGy effiCieNCy aND reNeWaBle eNerGy OffiCe Of THe DeParTMeNT Of eNerGy.
          FALL/WINTER 2008                                                       Gulf of Maine Times                                                                            Page 7




         COurTesy Of ?????




nounced its plans in
wind farm called Cape
 0 turbines located be-
 iles off the Cape Cod
rs. The towers will be
 eters) from the water
 r of the blades. The
0 feet (146.6 meters)
  ompany says the pro-
 ld produce an average
  ity. The power would
  gh eight miles (12.8
 able coming ashore at

   proposed wind farm
  ave not ebbed since.
  tucket and along the
  e Cod, including Sen-
  bjected to the visual                                                                                                   PHOTO COurTesy Of THe NaTural resOurCes COuNCil Of MaiNe
  es, the effect on fish-
 he undersea environ-
                             moving water holds a lot of energy, a fact      current running at least four knots, accord-     development of tidal energy.” One of the
 ion from the turbines
                             that hasn’t gone unnoticed in Maine or          ing to Mark Cote, chairman of the Maine          center’s goals is to generate electricity for
mber of other potential
                             the provinces. Back in 1982, a small tidal      Maritime Academy (MMA) engineering de-           the campus and even send excess power to
                             dam was built in Annapolis, Nova Scotia, to     partment, located in Castine, Maine.             the local power grid.
y years of legal wran-
                             capture some of the Bay’s tidal energy. The         In 2007 the MMA filed an application             In the Maritime provinces, Nova Scotia
on on the company’s
                             mechanism is charmingly low-tech.               with the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory          has vowed to draw nearly 20 percent of the
 ct statement (EIS),
                                 The dam lies across the tidal marsh. On     Commission (FERC) for a tidal energy de-         province’s electricity supply from renew-
 er the federal Nation-
                             the high tide the gates of the dam close to     vice evaluation center on its campus. MMA        able sources by 2013. In 2008, Clean Cur-
otection Act, was due
                             impound the water. Vents at the bottom          serves as the host institution for a consor-     rent, Nova Scotia Power and Minas Basin
                             of the dam release the water past turbines      tium of public agencies and three private        Power and Pulp Company began working
                             that turn to generate electricity. Even af-     companies – Maine-based Cianbro Corpo-           jointly on a project to demonstrate tidal
                             ter more than two decades, the Annapolis        ration, Marinus Power and OceanWorks             devices in the Bay of Fundy. Minas Basin
swick and Nova Scotia
                             turbine still generates 20 MW of electricity    International. The proposed center would         Pulp and Power Corporation is construct-
enchant for fog. They
                             per year, enough to power approximately         take advantage of the vigorous tides of the      ing the infrastructure that would allow all
Fundy, a great embay-
                             4,500 homes.                                    Bagaduce River to test new tidal energy          the tidal turbines to connect to the existing
more than 115 billion
                                 During the past two decades, tidal en-      equipment.                                       power grid.
 ch day.
                             ergy devices have advanced considerably             Cote said tidal energy is absolutely suit-       Funds for the project come from a $4.7
  tidal range can reach
                             in design and efficiency. The device of the     ed to Maine and to the school’s engineering      million (Canadian) grant from the Nova
t its eastern edge since
                             moment is a tidal turbine. A tidal turbine is   program.                                         Scotian Ecotrust for Clean Air and Climate
U-shaped and tapers
                             much like a windmill.                               “The center would create a facility to       Change program, a $3 million loan from
   northern terminus.
                                 The moving tide rotates a series of         test and evaluate tidal energy devices de-       EnCana Corporation’s Environmental In-
ains greater strength
                             blades, the blades then spin a generator        signed by U.S. and international compa-          novation Fund and contributions from each
 sulting in a renowned
                             that produces electricity. Tidal turbines can   nies,” he said. “MMA students and faculty        of the successful developers. Nova Scotia’s
 g wave, found in the
                             be arrayed underwater in rows, similar to       would be involved in research and educa-         Department of the Environment is also
                             turbines in a terrestrial wind farm. The key    tional opportunities at the proposed center,                                  See Energy Page 10
billion gallons of fast-
                             requirement, however, is a strong coastal       which is intended to facilitate and advance
Page 8                                                                  Gulf of Maine Times                                                                 FALL/WINTER 2008



Visionaries work to protect the Gulf of Maine
E    ach year, members of the Gulf
     of Maine Council on the Marine
Environment (GOMC) honor people
in the three states and two provinces
who have used their talents, energy
and commitment to improve the
marine environment of the Gulf of
Maine.
     This year, at the June meeting in
Salem, Mass., the GOMC presented
three special awards, as well as the
10 Visionary Awards to people from
Massachusetts, New Hampshire,
Maine, New Brunswick and Nova
Scotia and 13 Distinguished Service
Awards to GOM contractors and con-
sultants Recipients are identified by
the positions they held at the time the
awards were presented.
     Bruce Carlisle, assistant di-
rector of the Massachusetts Office of
Coastal Zone Management (CZM),
was awarded the Susan Snow-Cotter
Leadership Award, bestowed on one
person from the region who shows
outstanding leadership or exception-
al mentoring in the watershed.
     Snow-Cotter, director, had ap-
pointed him assistant director at
the agency, and when she died, he
stepped into her role and guided the
CZM through a year described as “ex-
traordinarily trying times.”
     Starting as a CZM intern in 1993,
Carlisle became coastal nonpoint co-
ordinator in 1997, then director of the
Massachusetts Wetlands Restoration
Program, which was moved into the
coastal program to protect it in a dif-
ficult political period. Later, Snow-
Cotter appointed him CZM assistant
director.
     Carlisle received the award for
his willingness and ability to assume
leadership roles, for helping ensure
the continuity of the state’s coastal
programs, earning the respect of his
peers around the country, and for
mentoring others along the way.
     The Longard Volunteer Award
is given annually in memory of Art
Longard, a founding member of the
GOMC and long-time Working Group
member to an individual who has
shown great commitment to volun-
teer programs dedicated to environ-
mental protection and sustainability
of natural resources.
     Longard award winner, Lawry
Reid of Massachusetts, made sig-
nificant contributions to the conser-
vation and management of local re-
sources in the watershed by founding
the 30-member Straits Pond Water-
shed Association in 2000 and serving
as its president.
     Straits Pond is a critically im-                                                                                         PHOTOs: NaTuresOurCe COMMuNiCaTiONs | NaTuresOurCe.NeT
paired 100-acre coastal salt pond in      Top left: lawry reid, right: John Kachmar. second row, left: John Terry, right: fred Whoriskey and Jane spavold Tims. Third row, left: Bob
Hull, part of the Weir River Estuary,     sweeney, center: David Delaney, right: David Keeley
a state-designated area of critical en-
vironmental concern.
     His association helped establish     marine protection by businesses, en-               Susan Foote, Seabrook Plan-               ardship of the Gulf of Maine through
a $2.5 million culvert reconstruc-        vironmental organizations, or indi-           ning Board and Seabrook Con-                   projects which include mapping and
tion and tide gate management proj-       viduals who are making a difference           servation Commission: For her                  controlling invasive species, cleaning
ect to restore critical estuarine fish    to the health of the Gulf.                    tireless work in managing and pro-             up marine debris, supporting habi-
and invertebrate habitat, provide                                                       tecting Seabrook’s critical resourc-           tat restoration of fish, environmental
improvements to intertidal habitat,       New Hampshire                                 es—fresh water wetlands, tidal wet-            justice, low carbon diets and more.
and improve habitat and forage area           Dr. David M. Burdick of the               lands, wildlife habitat, and beaches           While Terry lives in Maine, his im-
for wading and diving birds. The as-      Jackson Estuarine Laboratory:                 and dunes, as well as her dedication           pact is felt throughout the Gulf.
sociation also conducts education,        For his efforts in salt marsh restora-        to the preservation and maintenance                 Evan Richert: For his extraor-
outreach and coordination, seasonal       tion, marine and estuarine education,         of conservation lands in connection            dinary leadership as director of the
water quality monitoring, and annual      and promotion of the function and ser-        with the development of commercial,            Maine State Planning Office for Gov-
pond clean-ups.                           vices that wetlands and coastal habi-         industrial and residential projects.           ernor Angus King, as chair of the Gulf
                                          tats provide. He has freely given time                                                       of Maine Ocean Observing System,
Visionary Awards                          as a volunteer and provided profes-           Maine                                          and as director of The Gulf of Maine
     The annual Gulf of Maine Vision-     sional services to solving environmen-            John Terry, Gulf of Maine                  Area program. Richert is credited
ary Awards are given in each of the       tal issues, improving environmental           Institute: For his efforts to inspire          with changing the way people think
five jurisdictions to recognize innova-   quality, and working toward long term         youth and adults to act in partner-            about marine science and ecosystem-
tion, creativity, and commitment to       sustainability of these systems.              ship to support environmental stew-            based management at the regional
FALL/WINTER 2008                                                   Gulf of Maine Times                                                                          Page 9
                                                                                                                                 ture and coastal management. Dr.
                                                                                                                                 Charles coordinates the university’s
                                                                                                                                 Fisheries and Coastal Seminar Se-
                                                                                                                                 ries, is involved in a wide range of
                                                                                                                                 community service and has been ex-
                                                                                                                                 tensively published. For much of the
                                                                                                                                 1990s, he served on Canada’s Fisher-
                                                                                                                                 ies Resource Conservation Council,
                                                                                                                                 and currently is national director of
                                                                                                                                 the Ocean Management Research
                                                                                                                                 Network.
                                                                                                                                     Union of Nova Scotia Mu-
                                                                                                                                 nicipalities): For demonstrating
                                                                                                                                 leadership and commitment to sus-
                                                                                                                                 tainability by establishing a Munici-
                                                                                                                                 pal Sustainability Office in January
                                                                                                                                 2007. The office helps municipalities
                                                                                                                                 in Nova Scotia become more sustain-
                                                                                                                                 able by facilitating the sharing of
                                                                                                                                 information and expertise on envi-
                                                                                                                                 ronmental best practices. An online
                                                                                                                                 sustainability guide provides the 55
                                                                                                                                 municipalities with timely and prac-
                                                                                                                                 tical information on energy efficien-
                                                                                                                                 cy, renewable energy, adaptation to
                                                                                                                                 climate change and environmental
                                                                                                                                 sustainability as it relates to munici-
                                                                                                                                 pal governments and communities.
                                                                                                                                 Distinguished Service Awards
                                                                                                                                      Distinguished Service Awards are
                                                                                                                                 given by the GOMC to recognize the
                                                                                                                                 dedication and commitment of its
                                                                                                                                 contractors, consultants, or anyone
                                                                                                                                 involved with the organization, who
                                                                                                                                 are instrumental in protecting the
                                                                                                                                 Gulf’s resources.
                                                                                                                                      This year, a special Distinguished
                                                                                                                                 Service Award honored Patricia
                                                                                                                                 Rae Hinch, of the Nova Scotia De-
                                                                                                                                 partment of Environment and La-
                                                                                                                                 bour, who has served tirelessly as a
                                                                                                                                 Working Group member, including
                                                                                                                                 several years as chair, since nearly
                                                                                                                                 the council’s inception.
                                                                                         PHOTOs: NaTuresOurCe COMMuNiCaTiONs          During one of those years, she
                                                                                                           NaTuresOurCe.NeT
                                                                                                                                 also absorbed the role of council
                                                                                 The snow-Cotter family celebrates his
                                                                                                                                 coordinator while also providing
                                                                                 award with Bruce Carlisle, right. Middle row,
                                                                                                                                 leadership as Working Group chair.
                                                                                 from left: Michele Tremblay, Christine Til-
                                                                                                                                 In giving her the award, the coun-
                                                                                 berg, Cindy Krum, Bottom: Meg Gresh, left,
                                                                                                                                 cil said, “It would be challenging to
                                                                                 leslie-ann McGee.
                                                                                                                                 find someone who believes in, cares
                                                                                                                                 for, and promotes more the Coun-
                                                                                                                                 cil’s mission and goals. Patricia Rae
                                                                                 his international research program.             Hinch has truly worked tirelessly to
                                                                                 As director of the Invasive Tracers,            create an international conservation
                                                                                 which brings together biologists and            legacy.”
                                                                                 volunteers to monitor GOM areas for                  The Distinguished Service Awards
                                                                                 native and invasive species, for the            were presented to: Jim Cradock,
                                                                                 last three years Delaney has recruited          systems administrator, data archi-
                                                                                 and supervised approximately 1000               tect and programmer; Sara Ellis,
                                                                                 people to monitor more than 60 sites            GOMMI coordinator; Meg Gresh,
                                                                                 from New Jersey to Canada.                      administrative assistant; Lori Hal-
                                                                                      Edward Thomas, Esquire:                    lett, finance assistant; Karin Han-
                                                                                 For his extensive pro bono public               sen, outreach committee education
                                                                                 assistance to the Massachusetts Of-             and marketing coordinator; Steve
                                                                                 fice of Coastal Zone Management                 Jones, Gulfwatch coordinator; Jon
                                                                                 StormSmarts Coast Program. His                  Kachmar, habitat restoration part-
and national level, and is recognized    the development of improved sonic                                                       nership coordinator; David Keeley,
as a national leader in advocating       tracking systems—in cooperation         dedication and expertise has signifi-
                                                                                 cantly bolstered the program’s abil-            policy and development coordinator;
sustained funding for ocean observa-     with an engineering firm, Vemco Ltd,                                                    Cynthia Krum, executive director,
tions and research.                      Halifax—to follow the movements         ity to promote coastal community
                                                                                 resiliency through the No Adverse               US Gulf of Maine Association; Pe-
                                         of Atlantic salmon in rivers and the                                                    ter Taylor, science translator and
New Brunswick                            ocean. The worldwide leading-edge       Impact Approach. His enthusiasm
                                                                                 is exceeded only by his commitment              web producer; Christine Tilberg,
    Sweeney International Man-           technology has tracked smolt more                                                       ESIP program manager; Michele L.
agement Corporation: For com-            than 1000 km (621 miles) at sea, and    to the preservation and protection of
                                                                                 the coastal residents, businesses, and          Tremblay, council coordinator and
mitment to work with its clients to      tracked salmon for several months                                                       Lori Valigra, editor, Gulf of Maine
ensure long-term environmental           after their release from sea cages in   environmental resources of the area.
                                                                                                                                 Times.
sustainability, under the leadership     Cobscook Bay into the Gulf of Maine.    Nova Scotia
of Bob Sweeney. Depending on the         He has spoken on his work to meet-
client’s particular needs, SIM Corp.     ings of ICES (International Council         Dr. Tony Charles, Saint
provides a full range of professional    for the Exploration of the Seas) and    Mary’s University: For his teach-
services to the aquaculture industry     many other organizations and uni-       ing and research on interdisciplinary
by conducting pre-site assessments       versities. Dr. Whoriskey also directs   aspects of natural resource manage-


                                                                                                                                    SigN up
for finfish aquaculture growers, pro-    field courses for McGill University     ment, notably in fisheries, aquacul-
viding recommendations on the suit-      students.
ability and sustainability of proposed
                                         Massachusetts
                                                                                   Calendar
sites, and conducting annual moni-
toring programs. Bob Sweeney also             David G. Delaney: For mix-         December 2-4                                          to get the
serves on the Steering Committee for     ing research and outreach in creative
the South West New Brunswick Bay         and innovative ways. Delaney works
                                                                                    Gulf of Maine Working Group                   Gulf of Maine Times
of Fundy Marine Resource Planning        to increase public awareness of envi-   meeting, Halifax, Nova scotia, Tuesday
Initiative.                              ronmental problems. He brings inner     and Wednesday, followed by Gulf of                electronically at:
    Dr. Frederick G. Whoriskey,          city youth to marine environments to    Maine Council on the Marine environ-             http://www.gulfofmaine.org/times
Atlantic Salmon Federation: For          conduct hands-on learning as part of    ment meeting, Thursday.
Page 10                                                                    Gulf of Maine Times                                                        FALL/WINTER 2008

          Energy continued from Page 7      Harbour Passage and Western Pas-                 Several private companies have         nental shelf lease sales. Congress had
                                            sage in Passamaquoddy Bay, an area           announced their intentions to lo-          previously passed a Congressional
providing $300,000 for environmen-          near Chignecto Bay and one off Cape          cate tidal turbines in Maine and New       ban on offshore oil exploration in the
tal and permitting work.                    Spencer near Saint John.                     Hampshire tidal waters. Maine Tidal        form of a rider in the annual federal
     In May of this year, New Bruns-            Irving Oil, in partnership with the      Energy Company, a subsidiary of            appropriations bill.
wick offered leases on 11 submerged         Huntsman Marine Science Center,              Oceana Energy of Washington, D.C.,              Flash forward to 2008. President
land sites in the Bay of Fundy to           won the rights to the sites. Current-        received a preliminary permit from         Bush lifted Reagan’s executive order
businesses and organizations that           ly the public-private partnership is         FERC in June to study developing a         in July. Congress lifted its 27-year
would conduct up to two years of            testing the strength of the daily tidal      tidal power project in the Kennebec        ban when it passed the federal ap-
research on the sites’ tidal energy         currents through an array of floating        River just north of Bath.                  propriations bill in September. Cur-
potential. The leases include Head          sampling devices.                                In 2007, FERC gave the compa-          rently both Canada and the United
                                                                                         ny permission to spend three years         States have agreed to a moratorium
                                                                                         studying sites on the Penobscot River      on Georges Bank exploration until
                                                                                         near Bucksport and Verona Island to        2012.
  New institute says wind power best for Maine                                           determine if the area is suitable for an        The U.S. energy bill passed in
                                                                                         array of submerged tidal generators.       September by the House and Senate

  T   he Ocean Energy Institute, a re-      $3 to $4 per installed watt, a high-             Ocean Renewable Power Com-             included a moratorium on oil and gas
      search facility first envisioned      er cost than the $2.50 per installed         pany (ORPC), a Miami, Florida firm,        exploration on Georges Bank while
  two years ago by energy banking           watt produced by land-based wind             tested its pilot tidal turbines at two     opening other sections of the Atlantic
  expert Matthew Simmons, a part-           turbines.                                    locations in Eastport this spring.         coast to drilling.
  time resident of Rockport, Maine,              “But one of the benefits of off-        Working with students at the Wash-              The Canadian and Nova Scotian
  says wind power makes the most            shore is that it is not in people’s          ington County Community College            moratorium legislation requires pro-
  economic sense for Maine.                 faces,” Hart noted. He said the              Marine Technology Center, company          vincial and federal governments to
       The nascent institute is con-        institute would like to test an off-         president Chris Sauer and his team         decide by 2010 whether another ex-
  centrating on devising ways to har-       shore turbine array off Mt. Desert           created a demonstration turbine gen-       tensive review process is necessary to
  ness the wind power of the Gulf           Rock in concert with the university          erator unit that hangs 300 feet down       assess the status of Georges Bank be-
  of Maine rather than other energy         and Statoil Hydro of Norway.                 into the water column from a station-      fore deciding on whether to rescind
  sources, such as tidal and thermal             “Then we would like to accel-           ary barge.                                 or continue the moratorium.
  energy.                                   erate as much as possible with a                 The $1.2 million device, (U.S.)             Reports from Canada’s federal
        George Hart is the chief tech-      commercial project in eight or nine          which can generate 32 KW in a              Department of Fisheries and Oceans
  nical officer (and sole employee) of      years,” he said.                             6-knot tidal current, was completed        show haddock stocks on Georges
  the institute, which remains a vir-            With George Hagerman, an                and installed in December, 2007. In        Bank have rebounded from an abso-
  tual rather than bricks-and-mortar        offshore wind expert with the Cen-           April it began producing limited elec-     lute low in the early 1990s to a 50-
  facility.                                 ter for Energy and the Global En-            trical power. The company predicts         year high. The relative strength of the
       “If Matt Simmons is at all right     vironment at Virginia Tech, now              the turbines eventually will send 250      high-value stocks could influence the
  about the kind of prices facing           on retainer to the institute, Hart is        KW into the local power grid.              moratorium decision-making pro-
  us, we have a bad time coming in          promoting the concept of offshore                In a presentation at the Power         cess.
  Maine,” Hart said. Simmons pre-           wind farms among leaders in the              of the Gulf conference Sauer noted,             The question that can’t be an-
  dicted this past spring that oil prices   research and political realms of             “Expertise in maritime trades is key       swered definitively by any players
  would reach $300 a barrel because         Maine.                                       to success [of the company]. We have       on either side of the international
  the world has passed through the               “Bob Kennedy [University of             been blown away by the capabilities        boundary is just how much oil lies in
  era of peak oil production.               Maine president] and I met with              of the people in Washington County.        the Gulf of Maine and whether it ex-
       Hart received his Ph.D. from         Angus King last February and                 Initiatives [like his project] are com-    ists in easily accessible reservoirs. The
  the University of Maine in the            showed him the cost numbers,”                ing and with the high price of oil, they   U.S. uses approximately 6.6 billion
  1970s, and later worked in Wash-          Hart said. “I’ve talked to Don Per-          are coming even sooner.”                   barrels of oil each year, according to
  ington, D.C. at the Naval Research        kins [president of the Gulf of Maine             The New Hampshire Tidal Ener-          the Energy Information Administra-
  Laboratory and the Missile Defense        Research Institute], George Baker            gy Company, also owned by Oceana           tion (EIA), part of the federal Depart-
  Agency. Upon joining the institute,       and Philip Conkling at the Island            Energy, received its preliminary per-      ment of Energy. Identified reserves
  Hart undertook a study of Maine’s         Institute, Dylan Voorhees and Pete           mit from FERC in 2007 to study the         of oil within the U.S. total 21 billion
  business and residential energy           Didisheim at the Natural Resources           potential for tidal power in the Pis-      barrels which lie within the onshore
  needs.                                    Council of Maine, and Habib Dagh-            cataqua River, shared by Maine and         and offshore areas of Texas, Alaska,
       “I did a financial energy audit of   er at the University of Maine [di-           New Hampshire. A rival company, the        California and Louisiana.
  the state’s energy needs in terms of      rector of the Advanced Engineered            Underwater Electric Kite (UEK) Cor-             The U.S. Minerals Management
  transportation, heating, etc.,” Hart      Wood Composites Center].”                    poration, plans to do the same. Each       Service states there are at least 18
  said. “Then turned to what would               Producing renewable energy              company predicts that their respec-        billion barrels of oil “reserves” wait-
  make most sense for Maine given           for Maine people at a reasonable             tive turbines placed appropriately in      ing to be recovered from submerged
  the resources we have here.”              cost is not the institute’s only goal.       the Piscataqua River could generate        lands currently off-limits to explora-
       Hart found that back in 1998              “It makes sense to make the             between 40 to 100 MW of power.             tion (the U.S. east coast, western side
  Maine families spent 15 percent of        turbine blades here with advanced                                                       of Florida, and northwest coast). The
                                                                                         Offshore Oil and Gas                       U.S. Geological Survey says there are
  their household budget on health          composite technology,” Hart said.
  costs and 7 percent on energy. By         “The blades are strongest if they                And of course, there’s always the      approximately 18 billion barrels of
  the winter of 2008, those costs had       are made in one piece [not sepa-             traditional source of energy, oil and      “undiscovered conventionally recov-
  increased to 30 percent for health        rated for ease of transport].”               natural gas. The specter has once          erable resources” in the off-limits ar-
  and 22 percent for energy.                     He envisions using space at             again raised its head of opening the       eas of the outer continental shelf.
       “That leaves only about half         Maine’s Brunswick Naval Air Sta-             Gulf of Maine, specifically Georges             The two terms mean different
  the budget for things we call ‘living’    tion, currently being decommis-              Bank which is shared by the U.S. and       things. “Reserves” are oil deposits
  such as mortgage, food, clothing          sioned, for construction of the              Canada, to oil and gas exploration.        that have actually been found; “re-
  and other things,” Hart explained.        blades, as well as drawing on the                Offshore oil and gas were hot          sources” means geological structures
  In 10 years, he predicts 35 percent       expertise of Bath Iron Works and             topics in New England and the Mari-        where oil is likely to be found.
  of a family’s income will be spent        Cianbro Corporation to make the              times back in the 1970s and 1980s.              A report issued in 2007 by the
  on health costs and a full 45 per-        steel turbine towers.                        Late in 1979, 13 oil companies paid        EIA said that “access to the Pacific,
  cent on energy costs.                          “The key to this is that Maine          more than $816 million (U.S.) for          Atlantic, and eastern Gulf regions
       “Twenty percent for everything       has all these waterfront assets that         5-year leases to drill for oil and gas     would not have a significant impact
  else? That just won’t work,” he           aren’t being fully used compared to          approximately 130 to 170 miles ( 209       on domestic crude oil and natural
  added.                                    one hundred years ago,” said Hart.           to 273 km) off Cape Cod. Ultimately        gas production or prices before 2030.
       To reduce energy costs, Maine        He cites the space at the Naval Air          only five companies actually drilled       Leasing would begin no sooner than
  needs to draw on its available re-        Station as an example. “You need             eight wells in the Georges Bank area.      2012, and production would not be
  sources, Hart argues, and one of          some place to store and stage the                In 1982 Shell and Tenneco struck       expected to start before 2017.”
  those resources is offshore wind.         turbines when you have to wait for           the same natural gas pocket about               Many experts still debate wheth-
       “Offshore wind dominates by          the weather or some other factor.            145 miles (233 km) out to sea, but         er the global moment of peak oil has
  a factor of 50 to 100 what you can        The Air Station is worth its weight          later that year the oil companies all      come and gone. Coal, oil and natural
  get from thermal or tidal power,”         in gold as a place to keep inven-            announced they were pulling out            gas are finite in quantity and thus we
  Hart said. As an added bonus, Gulf        tory.”                                       of Georges Bank saying none of the         can expect the price paid for their
  winds increase in intensity during             While the Ocean Energy insti-           exploratory wells found significant        use to increase, as it has done in the
  the winter months, a time of year         tute is still in its infancy, its aims are   amounts of oil.                            past year. Yet the energy that may be
  when Maine residents use the most         grand. “The real impact in Maine                 In 1983, two other oil companies       harnessed from the ocean’s tides and
  energy.                                   [of the Institute’s endeavors] will          said they would return to Georges          winds is not finite.
       Thus the Ocean Energy Insti-         be job creation and saving the $5            Bank to drill wells to tap the natural          Experts all agree it seems inevi-
  tute has turned its attention to de-      billion which Maine residents and            gas deposits. The Conservation Law         table that as the cost of traditional
  veloping large-scale offshore wind        businesses spend each year on oil,”          Foundation filed suit in federal court     energy grows, more and more busi-
  farms in the Gulf to provide electri-     Hart said.                                   to prevent a second 5-year lease sale.     nesses and governments will turn
  cal power to Maine. Hart estimates                                                     The organization won the case. Presi-      entrepreneurial eyes to the energy
  that electricity can be generated at                                        --MW       dent Reagan later issued an executive      potential of the Gulf of Maine.
                                                                                         order banning further outer conti-
FALL/WINTER 2008                                                         Gulf of Maine Times                                                                           Page 11

           Debris continued from Page 1

agement to a waste-to-energy plant
in North Andover, Massachusetts,
where it’s burned to generate elec-
tricity.
     Appropriately dubbed the marine
debris to energy project, so far 3.38
tons (3 metric tons) of debris have
been collected since last April. What
cannot be processed at the plant,
such as certain metals, is separated
out and recycled or disposed of by
Waste Management.
     “The cool thing about the project
is that it’s a cooperation between us
and the fishermen. It’s a non-con-
frontational relationship,” said Blue
Ocean Society for Marine Conserva-
tion Director Jen Kennedy.
     The goal of the project is to get as
much lost and damaged fishing gear
as possible out of the water, where it
poses a serious navigational hazard
to fishermen and life-threatening risk
to marine wildlife. Fishermen often
encounter this derelict gear at sea.
Prior to the project they had nowhere
to put it if they pulled it up.
     What may be surprising to those
not familiar with commercial fishing
is the sheer size of the gear. For in-
stance, gill nets, which have vertically
placed panels of 100 feet plus (30.4
meters), end up ripping out and get-
ting into the marine environment.
     “The reason I got involved with the                                                                                                                  PHOTO: CaTHeriNe COleTTi
project is that I wanted to work with       Marine debris from New Hampshire is collected by Waste Management and transported to a waste-to-energy plant for conversion to elec-
the industry to mitigate impacts of         tricity.
gear,” said Ken La Valley commercial
fisheries specialist at the New Hamp-       Canadian waters.                            al Cleanup Day data cards in New                ners are currently looking for addi-
shire Sea Grant, who approached the             Atlantic Large Whale Disen-             Hampshire than in Florida.                      tional grant funding to continue.
Yankee Fishermen’s Co-op about col-         tanglement Network members work                 The missing link: fishermen.                    Fishermen at the Yankee Co-op
lecting used and abandoned fishing          together to free whales from the life-          Jambeck and Kennedy part-                   say they are happy to finally have a
gear onsite.                                threatening gear. However this pro-         nered with La Valley, who has served            place to dispose of damaged gear and
     Fishermen also have the unique         cess is extremely dangerous for hu-         as a point of contact to fishermen              derelict gear found at sea. However,
opportunity to enter the specific lati-     mans and not all reported wildlife is       throughout the project. Then, enter             curbing general dumping on nights
tudinal and longitudinal location of        able to be rescued or even relocated.       Waste Management, which donated                 and weekends when co-op members
where they find the gear at sea using           During the summer of 2007, Dr.          both the dumpster and removal ser-              are not there, remains a challenge.
a website that was created as part of       Jenna Jambeck of UNH and Ken-               vices, and Wheelabrator Technolo-               La Valley is hoping the new lockable
this project.                               nedy worked together on a survey            gies, a subsidiary of Waste Manage-             dumpster lid will do the trick.
     Wave action often causes long          to analyze where debris was com-            ment that makes its business turning                Another part of the project is
lines, nets and bulky gear to mesh          ing from with the goal of developing        trash into energy.                              monofilament bins placed at five
together, creating a mass that lies in      improved outreach and prevention                This A-team received a grant                locations throughout the seacoast,
wait to ensnare a fishing boat or un-       strategies. Jambeck was surprised           from the National Oceanic and At-               targeted to recreational fishermen.
suspecting marine mammal. In 2007,          by the high amounts of ocean-based          mospheric Administration’s (NOAA)               Monofilment takes 600 years to
the Provincetown Center for Coastal         debris recorded in New Hampshire,           Marine Debris Grants Program to                 break down in the environment, and
Studies confirmed 30 cases of en-           noting that more ocean-based debris         conduct the project. The project has            in the meantime can continue to kill
tangled whales in Northeast U.S. and        was recorded on International Coast-        funding through February and part-              and injure plenty of marine wildlife.
                                                                                                                                        CSI Debris
                                                                                                                                            Nobody knows for sure how
                                                                                                                                        much derelict fishing gear lies be-
                                                                                                                                        neath, but La Valley predicts that
                                                                                                                                        it must be an astounding amount
                                                                                                                                        based on the day he spent out map-
                                                                                                                                        ping it using a multi-beamed sonar
                                                                                                                                        in Portsmouth Harbor.
                                                                                                                                            Where it all comes from is now
                                                                                                                                        being recorded into a database into
                                                                                                                                        which anyone can enter data via a
                                                                                                                                        website that is quickly becoming the
                                                                                                                                        data collection point for marine de-
                                                                                                                                        bris reporting. Further website de-
                                                                                                                                        velopment is underway, and users
                                                                                                                                        will soon be able to generate reports
                                                                                                                                        and maps detailing what types of
                                                                                                                                        debris have been found where. The
                                                                                                                                        educational possibilities are endless.
                                                                                                                                        For instance, teachers will be able to
                                                                                                                                        take students on a cleanup and see
                                                                                                                                        the results on a map.
                                                                                                                                            Massachusetts is doing a similar
                                                                                                                                        campaign called “fishing for energy.”
                                                                                                                                        Other projects outside the region are
                                                                                                                                        happening on the West Coast. Ken-
                                                                                                                                        nedy hopes that this project will be-
                                                                                                                                        come a model for others in the Gulf
                                                                                                                                        of Maine region.
                                                                                                                                            To learn more, go to the New
                                                                                                             PHOTO: CaTHeriNe COleTTi
                                                                                                                                        Hampshire Marine Debris to En-
from left: Jenna Jambeck, university of New Hampshire; David Goethel, commercial fisherman; Congresswoman Carol shea-Porter; Jen        ergy Project Web site at www.
Kennedy, Blue Ocean society for Marine Conservation; rob Morin, Waste Management; alan Davis, Waste Management, and Ken la              nhmarinedebris.org.
Valley, university of New Hampshire Cooperative extension.
Page 12                                                                        Gulf of Maine Times                                                                  FALL/WINTER 2008




     Spiraling fuel costs, world financial woes
     inflict ‘perfect storm’ on GOM lobstermen




                                                                                                                                                                      PHOTO: NaNCy GriffiN
Port Clyde, in one of Maine’s largest lobster fishing areas, looks peaceful at sunset. But many harvesters worried their businesses might not survive the winter.



L   obstermen around the Gulf of
    Maine can usually predict to some
degree the kind of economic season
                                               cert with precedent-setting oil prices
                                               above $130 per barrel. Diesel quickly
                                               nudged its way upward above $4 (US)
                                                                                                tions manager for the Spruce Head
                                                                                                Fishermen’s Co-op in Spruce Head,
                                                                                                Maine.
                                                                                                                                                     Many lobsters from Maine and
                                                                                                                                               Canada ship to Europe for Christmas
                                                                                                                                               sales. European consumers have long
they’ll have by the number of lobsters         per gallon, more than twice the price                “It’s hard,” he said, “it’s going          purchased environmentally-respon-
they catch.                                    of one year ago.                                 up every year.” A member of the co-            sible products and a state-appointed
    If their catches are high, their               As the cost of oil increased, be-            op who did not wish his name used              Maine committee is investigating the
price may drop a little. If lobsters are       sides diesel fuel, each of the basic             added, “In August I fished four days           possibility of certification from the
scarce, prices are higher.                     items lobstermen need rose in price              and brought in $1,200.54 worth of              Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)
    But this season, all the usual             — bait, plastic lobster totes, bait bar-         lobsters. My expenses were $1,200.             for the lobster industry.
predictors were turned upside-down             rels and rubber bands.                           And then I had to pay my sternman                    In October, Maine’s governor
when harvesters faced what one                     Herring, the preferred bait of               $200.”                                         called together a group of state fi-
Maine lobsterman described as “the             many Gulf of Maine lobstermen,                       Also due to rising fuel costs, the         nancial agencies, banks and lobster
perfect storm” of events affecting the         nearly doubled in price. In the U.S.             cost of salt to preserve the bait rose.        industry representatives to try to fig-
industry — a combination of high fuel          this was partly due to restrictions im-          Lobster prices failed to rise and then,        ure how to help fishermen who may
prices, the lowest prices for lobster in       posed by the New England Fisheries               in October, plummeted.                         otherwise lose their businesses.
two decades, a global economic melt-           Management Council on mid-water                      As the world’s financial systems                 One Maine lobsterman said, “It’s
down that lowered domestic and for-            trawlers fishing for herring from                retracted and stock markets tum-               not just ‘will you lose your boat?’ now,
eign demand, and plenty of lobsters.           June to the end of September, mean-              bled, Canadian processors with lines           it’s ‘will you lose your bedroom?’”
    “It’s a perfect storm,” said David         ing fewer pounds of herring available            of credit with Icelandic banks found                 Because the Canadian lobster
Cousens, president of the Maine Lob-           for bait.                                        those short-term credit sources                fishery in Nova Scotia and New
stermen’s Association. “We’ve never                The combination of scarcity and              closed to them.                                Brunswick operates under sequential
seen anything like it before.”                 increased fuel costs led to a price of               As a consequence, the Barry                seasonal openings with limits on the
    Starting in May and June, diesel           $40-$45 per tote (1.5 bushels), ac-              Group, Ocean Choice Internation-               number of traps per lobsterman, the
prices shot through the roof in con-           cording to Robert Thompson, opera-               al and Clearwater Fine Foods Inc.,             fishery is perhaps more efficient in
                                                                                                among others, stopped buying U.S.              its use of fuel and materials, but that
                                                                                                lobsters at the height of the fall sea-        fact doesn’t mean Canadian lobster-
                                                                                                son. Other markets for processed or            men were unaffected by spiraling fuel
                                                                                                frozen lobster, such as resorts, cruise        costs.
                                                                                                ships, or restaurants, also cut back                 Nova Scotia lobsterman Wayne
                                                                                                on their purchases as a result of the          Spinney said harvesters in his lobster
                                                                                                financial meltdown.                            fishing area 34 spent an average of
                                                                                                    Cousens believes that with higher          $17,000 (Canadian) during last year’s
                                                                                                prices for all things related to oil, lob-     6-month season, an unprecedented
                                                                                                stermen are facing a hole from which           amount and nearly double the usual
                                                                                                they cannot climb out.                         fuel expenditure for most boats.
                                                                                                    He argues it makes no sense in                   While diesel fuel prices had
                                                                                                a time of rising expenses for Maine            dropped just before the start of the
                                                                                                harvesters to fish hard in the summer          next 6-month season in late Novem-
                                                                                                months in the U.S. for a poor quality          ber, the combined economic prob-
                                                                                                lobster that fetches a low price from          lems warned of disaster.
                                                                                                the buyers.                                          “My buyer told me he’ll be done
                                                                                                    “Shedders are a lousy product,”            buying by December 20,” said Spin-
                                                                                                Cousens said of lobsters which re-             ney. “Others are telling fishermen
                                                                                                cently molted and are usually caught           they might as well tie up after a
                                                                                                in summer. “They are soft, they die            week.”
                                                                                                easily. You get a high rate of shrink-               While buyers in his area, north
                                                                                                age shipping them.”                            of Yarmouth, were not affected by
                                                                                                    Shrinkage refers to the pounds of          the Icelandic bank crisis, local banks
                                                                                                lobsters that die while being stored or        warned they wanted the lobsters to
                                                                                                shipped.                                       keep moving.
                                                                                                    “Set maybe fifty traps during the                “No one’s holding right now,” said
                                                                                                summer, to sell to the tourists,” he           Spinney. His buyer told Spinney if he
                                                                                                said. “Then go back to your normal             wanted a place to keep his lobsters, to
                                                                         PHOTO: NaNCy GriffiN   trap limit in September and fish until         use his facility. “But I can’t afford to
Vinalhaven, an island in Maine’s Penobscot Bay, is home to many lobster fishermen and           December. Leave the lobsters on the            hold lobsters. I’ve got bills.”
lobster buyers. The economic problems of the world reached into the smallest fishing vil-       bottom and then catch a good hard
lages this season.                                                                              product next April.”                                                       -- MW & NG

				
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