# Determine Number of compartment by liwenting

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```									Starship

Hull Values

Determine Number of compartment

Draw a side, top and, if necessary, a front view or section of the desired starship hull on graph paper to a scale of 1/4 inch
equals 8 feet. McEwan starships are all built to a scale of 1/1200 or 1 inch equals 100 feet. The simplest way is to just
measure the model and multiply all dimensions by 3.

All weapon systems, power banks and propulsion units are based on a modular construction; modules are 8'x8'x8'. If a
laser unit takes up one compartment, it will require one 8'x8'x8' module.

Most ships of above destroyer design will be modularized construction. This allows ships to be repaired very rapidly by
merely pulling out damaged modules and replacing them with new modules. Small ships, however, will often be too
cramped for modularized construction and the systems will be built in. (See Repair rules for the details.)

FIGURE 1

Figure 1 shows a hypothetical Ralnai type ship. Since the ship is only one compartment high and mostly square, it will be
easy to count the number of compartments. The main body of the ship (wing area doesn't count) would have 15
compartments. The neck two, and the head, while technically less than one, could contain a built in command bridge so
we can count it as one. The tube housing on the upper rear deck is two compartments long but is only 1/2 compartment
thick. If we assume that the splinter head tube is built into this tube housing, we can count it as one. The splinter head,
which requires three adjacent compartments, could then occupy this irregular area and the two compartments directly
beneath. The ship in Figure 1 would then have 19 compartments.

FIGURE 2

The ship in figure 2 represents a cylindrical ship, front and side views. It can readily be seen from the front view that there
are 5 complete compartments and 4 partial compartments (each over ½) in each section 5-9. Section 4 contains one
complete compartment. 4 partial compartments over ½ and 4 compartments over ¼. Sections 2 and 3 contain one each
and section 1 contains a partial compartment over ½. Therefore, there are 28 compartments available for modular
components and if we allow two partial compartments over ½ to count as one and 4 partial compartments over ¼ to count
as one and we ignore all partial compartments less then a ¼, we can add 14 more compartments. If the 14 odd sized
compartments are to be nulls, then the equipment will be considered to be built in. (see repair rules for details.)

FIGURE 3

Figure 3 is traditional saucer shape. There are 16 full sized compartments. 16 partial compartments over ½, and 8 partial
compartments over ¼ making a total of 26 compartments.

FIGURE 4

Figure 4 is a streamlined hull with 50 compartments: 36 of which would be suitable for modularized equipment.

Hull Mass

Determine hull mass.

Multiply the number of compartments times the factor shown for the particular type of construction under the appropriate
technical level on the following chart

Technical Level
Construction Type       6-6.1 6.2-6.7 6.8        6.9
Streamline              1.45   .65      .45      .40
Semi Streamline         .95    .43      .29      .26
(Ralnai)
Cylindrical             1.11    .50      .34     .30
Saucer Shape            .76     .35      .23     .21
Flying Wing             1.45    .65      .45     .40
Cubical                 .84    .38     .26     .23
Irregular Cubical       .95    .43     .29     .26
Spherical               .55    .25     .17     .15
Soft                    .27    .13     .08     .07

System Mass

Determine Systems Mass

A. Make a work sheet showing the number of each weapon or system, the number of compartments utilized by each
system, the mass of each system, and the points for each system.

B. Systems Configuration and Cost
Power
System                         Size            Mass           Requirements Points

Engine Repairable              1               2              1               5
Engine Unrepairable            1               4              2               10
Eli Engine (6.6)               1               2              2               15
Power Bank                     9 to a          2              -               10
compartment
Accumulator I                  1               5              3               7
Accumulator II                 1               6              6               10
Accumulator III                2               15             15              20
Command Bridge                 1               1              -               20
Screens                        1               5              1               5
ECM Pod                        2               15             2               10
Anti Torpedo Rocket            1               1              1               10
Light Laser                    1               5              1               5
Medium Laser                   1               10             2               10
Heavy Laser                    2               15             3               15
Ultra Laser                    2               20             4               20
Super Laser                    3               25             9               25
Conversion Beam I              1               10             Acc I           15*
Conversion Beam II             2               10             Acc II          15
Conversion Beam III            3               15             Acc III         20
Induction Beam                 1               10             2               15
AMP                            4               20             1-5             20
Mini AMP                       2               5              1               5
Pressor Tractor                1               5              1               5
Splinter Head Torpedo          3               20             1               20
Torpedo                        3               25             1               25
External Torpedo               -               5              1               5
Super Torpedo                  External        15             1               10
Hex                            2               20             1               10
Super hex                      2               25             1               10
Drone Launcher                 1               5              1               5
Drone Nekton Type              1               5              1               25/m
Drone II                       3               10             -               25
Drone Link                     1               1              1               10
Troop Compartment              1               1              -               1
Bomb Launcher                  1               5              1               5
Retrieval Boat                 6 (3x2x1)       8              1               10
Null Compartments              1               .25            -               -

Once the systems mass is determined, add in the hull mass. Put in the desired number of engines and power banks. Add
the engine mass and power bank mass to the systems mass and hull mass to find the total mass.

Tech Level

Technical Level Chart
To determine the number of engines necessary to move a given mass at a given vector factor, multiply the total mass
times the desired vector times the technical factor, rounding to the nearest whole number. Formula looks like this: E =
TMxVFxTF. For instance: at tech level 6.5, to move a total mass of 150 at 5V: 150 x 5 x .0225 = 16.875 or rounded to 17
engines.

If the calculation is for unrepairable engines divide by 2. Remember that, when dealing with unrepairable engines, two
power banks are needed to run each engine.

The following table shows the Technical Factor (TF) and the number of power banks to a compartment (PB/C) by tech
level.

Tech Level       6.2      6.3      6.4     6.5      6.6      6.7      6.8     6.9
TF               .0894    .0315    .026    .0225    .0196    .0175    .0157   .0145
PB/C             6        7        8       9        10       11       12      13

Concerning Power Bank capacity and Technological Advancement

The basic principle of power generation for starships is now well known to the general public. Metastable crystalline
substances (ex. Amcrys) under ultra high magnetic flux densities may be broken down upon application of intense
coherent gamma radiation with the consequent controlled release of energies approaching those in the heart of an
exploding star. However, the Resonance Coupling Factor, first investigated by Oscar Yomaguchi in 2042, causes
catastrophic destabilization of adjacent non-stimulated Meta-crvstallines. Thus, the number of power generating units
e
which may be within the Coupling Radius (for Amcrys approximately 4.3 x 10 meters) is dependent upon the
Synchronization Phasing Equipment. Current technology permits 35 units of 20 megazark capacity to be ganged in a
single power bank. Under conditions of maximum power draw, the bank has a Theta factor of 3, meaning a 3% chance of
at least one unit in the bank undergoing catastrophic destabilization owing to external energy surge. Adding additional units
above 35 increases the Theta factor by 3 times x, where x is the number of units in excess of 35.

In actual point of fact, the energy released does not come from the disintegration of the Meta-crystalline. The energy
comes from the fusion reaction which the Metacrystalline catalyzes. A special hydrogen-lithium-oxygen plasma utilizes the
Meta-crystalline surface as a substratum upon which fusion reactions take place at a much lower temperature, pressure
and density than would be required for the unaided reaction. After a number of catalysis cycles, the Meta-crystalline
structure breaks down and it is no longer a functional catalyst. Plasma flow and surface adhesion factors limit the amount
of power produced by any one reaction unit to 20 megazarks.

Determination of Power Bank Capacity by Tech Level

The following chart shows the maximum safe number of power bank units which can be installed in any ship at any tech
level, and the base Theta factor which can be achieved at that tech level.

Power Bank Capacity

Tech Level       6.2      6.3      6.4     6.5      6.6      6.7      6.8     6.9
No. of Units     20       25       30      35       40       45       40      55
Base  Factor    5%       4%       4%      3%       3%       2%       2%      2%

The Theta  factor is the chance that a unit of that power bank will blow up if subjected to external power flow. It is possible
to gang more power banks in a single ship than the maximum safe number. This called power bank stacking and results in
a higher than normal Theta factor. If using stacked power banks in a ship, the new Theta factor can be calculated by the
following formula where B() is the original base Theta factor, N is the safe number of power banks for That tech level. PN
is the new number of power banks, and  is the new Theta factor for that power bank at that tech level!

PN - N x B() + B() =()

Rule Changes on Power Bank Hits

From now on, power bank hit percentages will be calculated on the ratio of power bank compartments to the total number
of compartments. All hits on power banks will roll a six sided die for number of units K.O.ed and will then roll percent dice
for power bank critical hit. The chance of critical hit is the Theta factor of the power bank. If the die roll is equal to or less
than the Theta factor, the power bank suffers catastrophic destabilization and blasts the ship to atoms.

Structural Damage Calculation
The structural damage a ship can take is determined by dividing the total mass by 2 and rounding to the nearest 10 points.
The exception to this is Dreenoi ships which take 80% of total mass as structural damage. At the point when a ship's
structural damage boxes are all used up, the ship is not necessarily destroyed, but the ship's computer brain, which has
components scattered throughout the hull, has taken so many hits that it ceases to be able to function and the ship goes
dead, and drifts powerless through space. This is referred to as being hulked out, or the powerless ship may be referred to
as a hulk. If the crew is still alive, they may attempt to repair the vessel. (See Repair rules.)

Dreenoi ships have no onboard computers; therefore, they can take more structural damage up to the point the ship starts
to fall apart. Dreenoi crews are made up of cybercoms who do all the calculating and functions of a ship's computer. For
this reason, if all the crew aboard a Dreenoi ship are killed, then the ship is hulked out at that point regardless of the
number of structural damage points left undamaged.

To completely destroy a ship, you must double the structural damage points. At this point, the ship's hull will break up into
smaller chunks. Any undamaged components will still be salvageable, however, unless you keep shooting until you have
accumulated enough Special Damage to destroy all components.

Special Damage Determination

To calculate the special damage chart, merely find the percentage of the total area each system occupies, round to the
nearest whole percent. All systems should, however, be at least 1%. External torpedoes should be calculated as if they
took up 1 compartment for each 2 torpedoes. The same for heaters. Since the total of the percentages must never be less
than or exceed 100%, subtract the needed percentages for external torpedoes and heaters from the total for null
compartments or engines if no nulls are available.

Note: Null compartments are defined as being compartments which have no systems in them. This does not mean that
these are empty areas, though they may be. Null compartments may be crew quarters, storage, arms lockers, galley
space, recreational areas or any number of things. Rather than try to define each type of null area, we have simplified by
considering them the same and charging .25 mass point-, for each null compartment. The total mass points for null
compartments will be rounded to the nearest whole mass point, and added to the systems mass.

One other thing needs to be mentioned about compartments. The term Compartment is a measure of area (8'x8'x8' or 512
cubic ft.), not a measure of the size of a room. For instance: a first class stateroom on board a fancy passenger liner might
be as large as six compartments and still only be one room. Such a room would calculate for mass and area the same as
6 compartments.

If the null compartment is planned to be mostly empty space, such as a ballroom, tennis court, hangar or cargo hold, the
one-quarter of a point of mass need not be charged for it.

Point Value

To determine the point value of a ship, add the hull mass plus the mass for the nulls to the total of the systems points
added to the total points for engines and power banks equals the total point value. Note; the ratio of points shown in the
Orilla game for infantry weapons to the points shown in Starwar 2250 is 10 to 1.

PPPP

Some of you may have, by this time, noticed that there is no way you can make the original ships stat pads supplied with
the game calculate out correctly using this system. The reason is that this is not the same system used to calculate the
original stat pads. The original system had a number of serious faults that we hope to have corrected in this new system.
All new ships will have a stat pad available, which was calculated using this new system. All old ships will be recalculated

Crew

Starships have cyberbrains and can fly and fight on their own without a crew however, they are limited as to their decision
making capacity. Therefore, a human crew is usually needed for routine maintenance and decision making. Fully robotic
starships are usually only employed if hazardous cargo’s or extremely inhospitable conditions exist at either departure or
destination point.

Fighters, interceptors, scouts and other small combat vessels, which are not expected to maintain themselves, generally
will only have a command pilot.
Starships expected to be away from their base for more than a few days at a time will need approximately one crew man
for every 100 mass points in order that the ship may be properly maintained. If the ship is to be on patrol in deep space for
more than a few days, the crew will need some living space; therefore, there should be at least one null compartment for
each crew man, but in any case no more than 4 crew men may be assigned to one null compartment.

Marines

Marines may be allocated as desired, but no more than 4 may be assigned to any null compartment. If there are more
marines aboard than 1 for every 50 mass points, add one mass point to the ship for every 4 additional marines. The
difference between marines and troops is that marines are trained differently and they are permanently assigned to the
ship. Marines have their own individual space armor and battle stations. During the course of a space battle, they may be
expected to board or to repel boarders. Marines may also be expected to use drop capsules and jet belts in raids on
enemy territory. When their ship is in port or landed in unknown or hostile territory, they will provide security for the ship
and crew.

Troops

Troops on board a starship are little more than glorified cargo. During the course of a space battle, they are locked into
individual life support capsules 4 to a compartment. It is very unusual for army units to have their own space armor unless
they are specially trained troops intended for an airless planet. Add one mass point for each 4 troops carried.

Passengers On Board Ship

If there are to be more than one passenger for every 50 Mass Points of the Ship, add one point per each four passengers
above, the one for every 50 mass point’s number.

Crew Hits

Personnel aboard ship are, unfortunately, much more likely to take damage from weapon hits than are the systems. Most
small ships will have only one or two crewmen. These will generally be located in the Command Bridge, so if the CB takes
a hit, there is a 50% chance per man that they will be casualties. The rest of the crew will be located at various places
aboard ship and each time a special damage hit is taken, there is a 16% (1 in 6) chance one of them will be hit.

Power Banks as Cargo

Shut down power banks are inert and are treated just like any other type of cargo as far as weapon hits are concerned.
This then brings us to the question, "Why can't I build a Monster Dreadnought with power banks stacked to 99% Theta
factor, drive through hyper space at 3 or 4 V, and then shut down enough power banks to bring the Theta factor down to
3% when it comes time for combat?" This, you may indeed do. You may shut down as many power banks in one turn as
you wish, but no more than one power bank per turn may be restarted. This rule applies whenever power banks are shut
down or restarted. The Synchronization Phasing Equipment cannot handle more than one power bank start up per turn.

Such Monster Dreadnought can be useful for specific tasks, but are generally inefficient. In combat, when they need power
the most, they are hauling around many mass points of useless power banks.

Power banks destroyed by weapon hits are also inert. For instance, a ship having 49 power banks is hit in the power
banks. The Theta factor is 33% but the die roll is higher so no explosion occurs. Then a six sided die is rolled and we see
that six power banks are knocked out. The new Theta factor is (45 - 6 = 39 - 35 = 4 x 3 = 12 + 3 = 15) 15%. If the power
banks are hit a second time, the new Theta factor is the one which is rolled for. Note: no power bank can ever have a
lower Theta factor than the original base Theta factor.

Damage caused by starships blowing up due to critical hits or deliberate self-destruction will be handled the same as a
drone burst.

Accumulators tech level 6 to 6.8

Accumulators function as storage batteries or as large capacitors. They come in three sizes: the small, which can hold 1
units of power and is usually attached to a conversion beam. Small units may only be charged at a rate of one unit per
turn. Small units require one compartment, if not attached to a conversion beam. Medium units can hold a charge of 6 and
charge at 2 units per turn, and require one compartment. Large units require 2 compartments and hold a charge of 15
units. They charge at 5 units per turn.

Theta    Points
Size    mass    Power      Factor   costs
Accumulator               1       1       3          40%      7
Accumulator II            1       6       6          20%      10
Accumulator III           2       15      15         10%      20

All accumulators (tech level 6.5) function as follows:

1. Charge limits may not be exceeded unless the Theta factor is applied. Each unit of power over the charge limit adds the
Theta factor to the chance that the accumulator will malfunction during charge.

2. Accumulators may hold a charge indefinitely.

3. Accumulators may be discharged from a state of partial charge, but when discharged must discharge all power in one
turn.

4. If there is any excess energy left over when an accumulator discharges, it is assumed to be lost.

5. Accumulators will malfunction when hit by any weapon or on a roll of one (D6) when discharged.

6. When rolling for malfunction, during charging, this must be done at the end of the programming phase and before
movement. Example: an accumulator type III is being charged with 7 units of power (7-5=2x10% = 20%). Therefore, there
is a 20% chance of malfunction. Roll percent die. If the roll is not better than 20%, the unit will malfunction.

7. For a malfunction, consult the following chart:

Die Charging

1        A&B             A               A
2         A              C               A
3        C&B             C               A
4         C              E               C
5         C              E               D
6         E              E               D

Results
A. Device detonates explosively doing 10 points of damage for every unit of power stored.

B. A power surge back down the lines to the power banks causes a power bank critical hit.

C.The device shorts out and melts itself into a pile of slag doing one point of damage for each unit of power stored.

D. Accumulator is destroyed with no other damage.

E. Accumulator shorts out and all power in accumulator is lost, but accumulator is not damaged.

8. Special Damage Chart Abbreviation Ac

Conversion Beams.

Conversion beams fire the same as lasers and directly after lasers. A hit by a conversion beam will not penetrate or flare a
screen, but if the screens are already flared, it will do 10 points of damage for each point of power in its accumulator.
There are three types of conversion beams:

Accumulator          Points
Size     Mass           Type               Cost
Cob I           1        10              I                 15
Cob II          2        10             II                 15
Cob III         3       15                III              20

Cob Is have a Type I accumulator built in and both units only require 1 compartment for the unit. The point cost for both is
included in the total shown above. Cob IIs and IIIs require a separate accumulator, which must be paid for separately.

Conversion beams are subject to all the rules concerning accumulators. If a malfunction occurs on discharge, the
conversion beams does not fire.

Induction Beam:           Size    Mass     Power Points
1.5     10       2     15

Fires after lasers and before tractor beams. Use laser fire chart to determine hits. Although a hit by an Induction Beam
does no structural damage or cause any personal casualties (screens are effective against IBs. IBs flare screens same as
heavy lasers), check the special damage chart as if 15 plus (1 to 6) points of damage had been done. Roll for special
damage. Hits on any system programmed for that turn result in damages to the system. This damage is repairable, but
will not be such that it can be repaired during the short duration of a space battle. Hits on systems unprogrammed will
result in no damage to the system. IBs hits do no damage to personal or ship's structure.

Size     Mass     Power Points
Nekton Drone Launcher             1        5        1     1
Nekton Drone                      1        5        1     5/m

A spheroid with horns much like a sea mine which is projected from the Drone launcher at 10v. Each launcher may launch
one Drone per turn. Each Drone must be controlled by a Drone link which must have one unit of power programmed to it.

The power flow chart for each Drone will have a vector chart and 30 boxes. Each time the Drone vectors, cross off one
box for each "V". The Drone can do as much as 10V per turn. When the boxes are exhausted, the Drone can no longer
vector. Drones do have hyperdrive capability and can pump and go into hyperdrive same as anything else. The maximum
range of the Drone link is 1 light year, however.

The Drone is powered by a special accumulator, which is exempted from the malfunction rule because of its small size
and low power (1 unit total storage). This accumulator also can make partial discharges if desired.

Drone launchers are large gauss cannons and can project a Drone at 10 V away from the launching ship, in any direction
desired. The initial turn of launch does not cost any power from the Drone. When launching a Drone, one power unit must
be programmed to the launcher, one unit to the Drone (to charge the accumulator) and one unit to the Drone link.

The Drone accumulator is also the warhead. The accumulator can be purposely detonated during any turn the operator
desires. This detonation need not be programmed but does not occur until after splinter head move. The damage caused
by the detonation of a Drone is calculated as follows: The burst radius is equal to the number of unused power boxes in
inches divided by three and rounding up the nearest inch. Damage on this first turn is 3 times the roll of a 12 sided die (+
1-6) for all ships inside the burst radius. The next turn the Drone marker is moved as if the Drone were still there but
drifting, and the blast radius expands to two times the initial radius. All ships inside this radius take two times the roll of a
12 sided die (+ 1-6). On the third turn, the marker is moved again as if it were drifting and the blast expands to three times
the original radius. All ships inside the blast radius take 1 times a 12 sided die (+ 1-6). The blast is then considered to be
dissipated. Note: screens are effective shields against Drone bursts.

Drones vs. Hex Missiles

Any Hex missile or a ship in hyperdrive passing through a Drone burst has a 1/12th chance per turn that it is in the burst
area of taking damage. Drones may not catch up to and force out of hyperdrive any Hex missile the Hex is too fast to
catch. A drone in hyperdrive has the same chance of being punched out of hyperspace by a Hex as any other ship. A Hex
missile targeting a Drone in normal space only has a 1/12th chance to hit, due to the small mass of the Drone.

Drones vs. Lasers

Drones, because of their small size and low mass, are hard to track and, therefore, hard to hit. All Drone target at +2 to
their actual vector. Even when drifting, Drones take fire as if they were vectoring at 2V. Any laser hit will suffice to destroy a
Drone.

Drones vs. Pressor Tractors
PTs fire at Drones the same as lasers. Any Drone locked onto can be projected at 10v away from the ship Note: the
vectors imported to a Drone by a Pressor tractor beam are not accurate enough to ram another ship unless that ship is
drifting during that turn.

Drones vs. Induction Beams and Conversion Beams

Any hit by either will destroy a Drone. The chance to hit is the same as for lasers.

Drones vs. Amps

An Amp or Amp burst is unaffected by passing through a Drone burst. A Drone caught In an Amp burst is destroyed.

Any splinter head passing through a Drone burst will be destroyed. Any Drone caught within a splinter head burst will have
an 80% chance of being destroyed.

Drones vs. Torpedoes

Any torpedo passing through a Drone burst is destroyed. Any torpedo can take out a Drone unless the Drone can hyper or
vector a 7V or more on the turn the torpedo is to hit.

Drones vs. Anti Torpedo Rockets

Any ATR will destroy any Drone within the six inch range of the ATR.

Drone II: Drone II is a cylindrical missile having 3 compartments and usually contains one unrepairable engine and 2
power banks. A light laser usually occupies the remaining compartment. With a total mass of 14, the Drone II can vector at
9 V or fire its laser and vector at 4 V.

Obviously, many different types of Drones could be assembled, with different warheads or accumulator combinations.
However, all Drones require a drone link and all other Drone rules will apply.

Drones can also be launched from hard points on the outside of the ship or from a Rotary bomb bay. In these cases, the
Drones don't get the 10 V free first move that having a launcher gives.

Repair Rules

Modularized construction versus built in construction.

When calculating the number of compartments available in any hull, first determine the number of complete 8'x8'x8'
compartments available. If the number of systems compartments exceeds the number of complete compartments
available, the excess systems will be considered to be built in. If more than ½ the systems are built in, the entire ship will
be considered to be built in construction.

A single ship colony can replace up to 25 modules in damaged ships per day and at the same time repair 100 points of
structural damage per day. Built in systems require three times as long to repair.

There is no difference between built in and modularized systems as far as repairs by the crew are concerned when
working in space, except in the case of unrepairable engines which are just that. When a starship crew is trying to repair a
ship in space, each crewman can repair one point of structural damage per day or repair one module, if such module is
repairable. The base chance for any combat damaged module to be repairable Is 40%, this base chance goes up by 5%
for each damaged module of the same type available which can be stripped for parts. If using roll-playing rules, see Chart
8, Specialists, to determine the effect of having engineer officers and other specialists available. See page 33 Starwar
2250 for further details.

NOTE: We might point out here that a ship with only one power bank and one engine, intact, can still go into hyperdrive
providing that the structural damage has been repaired up to the point where there are some structural damage boxes left.
For instance, a Federation Battle Cruiser with only one engine and one power bank, intact, can vector at 1/15th of a V. In
Hyperdrive then, this ship could do about .67 light years per day. Slow yes, but it, beats walking.

Tech 6-6.1
Primitive Technology - Tech Levels 6 & 6.1

Tech Level 6 (or G as it is called in Starwar 2250) represents the most primitive type of starship technology. Starship hulls
in this period are made of metallic alloys and are considerably more massive than later period hulls. (See construction type
by tech level chart.) One type of construction used extensively in this period was the soft or skeleton type construction.
This is where the ship's hull consists mainly of a scaffold like framework on which the various components of the ship are
attached. Soft construction is only for ships that never enter atmosphere or land on a planet's surface. Many of the earliest
type starships were of this construct ion and carried a small streamlined shuttle that was used to transfer crew and cargo
to and from planetary surface.

Power Plants

Atomic power plants require 8 compartments: most often in a 2x2x2 configuration. Atomic power plants produce about the
equivalent of one Amcrys power unit per fuel unit.

Fusion plasma power units. This type of power unit, the Hydrogen Fusion reaction, is contained in a magnetic bottle and
the radiation is absorbed and converted to useable power by the absorption screens.

Matter converters or junk burners are so called because they can utilize any type of material as fuel. Pulverized matter is
injected into a magnetic bottle where a low power sustained emission conversion beam converts a small portion of the
mass to energy.

Both junk burners and fusion plasma power units may double as primary drive units. Simply opening one end of the
magnetic bottle on either unit makes a very nice reaction drive.

Tachyon Drive also belongs to this period. A Tachyon Drive will move 1000 mass points at 1 G acceleration for one point
of power. Tachyon Beams are also deadly weapons, however, and the exhaust from a Tachyon drive is dangerous out to
about a hundred miles behind the vessel. Force screens are effective against this type of radiation. To determine the
damage to a ship caught in a Tachyon beam, use the following formula where P power of the beam in units of power, D
distance in inches (each inch 1200 yards), and SD = the number of points damage the beam delivers at that distance:

SD - p x 10653
2
D

For instance: if a target is at 48 inches and the beam is using 3 units of power, the damage to the target is 14 points. A
ship with 3 screens could absorb this with no damage.

Chemical rockets (liquid and solid fuel) saw considerable use during this period. They are no where near as efficient as
fusion plasma drives, but they do have the advantage of being cheap and light weight.

The following table shows the comparison between the various types of drive and power units:

System                   Size    Mass     MCR              MF/T    MPO     FT                   PR       Cost

Atomic Power             8       60       ---              10      1       Nuclear              -        10
Fusion Plasma            6       40       2,000            3       4       Hydrogen             1        40
Matter Converter         8       60       3,000            5       5       All                  1        50
Tachyon Drive            3       30       1,000            --      -       External Power       1-10     60
Chemical Rocket          1       1        200              100     -       Chemical             -        1
Amcrys Power Bank        1/6     2        ---              ---     -       Amcrys               -        10
Gravetic Drive           1       2        ---              ---     -       External Power       1        10
Warp Engines             1       6        ---              ---     -       Accumulator only     1        15
Accumulator Units        1/6     1        ---              ---     1       External Power       1        2

Note that when fusion plasma units and Junk burners are being used as both engine and power plants, the power can be
split. For instance: a ship having a mass of 2000 pts. wants to use a fusion plasma unit as both a power bank and a
reaction engine. Three units of fuel are used in one turn; the ship can move at 1 G and 8 units of power are drawn off.

The Mass Conversion Ratio (MCR) is a number which should be divided by the total mass to find the number of G's at
which that drive unit can accelerate that mass for one point of fuel, or power.

The maximum fuel units per turn (MF/T) is the number of fuel units per turn which can be expended in that drive or power
unit. The maximum power output per unit of fuel is the amount of power from one unit of fuel per turn (MPO). Power
requirements (PR) is the amount of power required to start that type of power unit. Except in the case of the Tachyon
drive, where the power requirement is the amount of power it can use from some other source.

Amcrys power bank and gravetic drive engines are included for comparison only inasmuch as they belong to Tech Level
6.2 and up. From this comparison, it will readily be seen why gravetic drive engines and Amcrys power plants obsoleted all
other types.

Warp Drive

The Warp Drive is the forerunner of the Hyperdrive and is not used in the tactical game. Procedure for the use of warp
drive is as follows: First, the ship proceeds on its primary drive for about 6 or 7 days at constant 1 G acceleration until the
ship is conveniently far away from any large gravitational attractions (planets or such). At the jump point, the ship drifts
while the Astrogator computes the jump. Since Astral Drift (the difference between where the target star is now and where
it was when it emitted the light you are seeing now), and the possible presence of gravity wells being between the ship and
its destination must be taken into account, these calculations may take considerable time. To determine the hours
required, multiply the number of light years in the planned jump times the roll of a six sided the and multiply times 5%.

While the jump is being calculated, the accumulators are being charged. The same rules apply to accumulators in this
period as in later ones, only these Tech Level 6, and 6.1 accumulators require a much slower charge time: one hour for
each 3 units of power stored. Also, result B on the malfunction chart is ignored unless the ship has Amcrys type power
banks.

Each warp drive engine will move 200 mass points into warp. The warp drive engine can only be powered from an
accumulator. Each warp jump requires the same amount of power regardless of the distance or vector. Every time a warp
jump is made, roll percent dice and check the following chart. Tech Level 6 and 6.1 accumulators are assembled to any
number of units desired to power the warp engines. Once assembled, the accumulator is considered to be one unit and is
only rolled for once on discharge.

When all is ready, the accumulators are discharged (roll for malfunction) and the ship jumps through a space time warp
and instantaneously appears somewhere else. Where that somewhere else is, or perhaps where it is not, is one of the big
problems with warp drive.

Warp Jump Accuracy Chart

Modify the dice roll by adding the number of light years in the planned jump squared times .004, rounding up the nearest
percent.

1-20       A
21-36      B
37-52      C
53-68      D
69-84      E
85+        F

Results:

A. You are very close to target: roll a 12 sided die to determine the number of hours at 1 G to arrive at target.

B. Still close; roll a six sided die to determine number of days at 1 G to target.

C. Further off target. Roll percent dice to determine days to target.

D. You are way off; roll 1 percent die to determine how many light years you are off target, and then jump again.

E. You really missed it this time. Roll both percent dice to determine how many light years you are off, and then jump
again.

F. You are lost. Make a random jump by guessing the distance and vector back to target. Umpire will determine the
magnitude of the error and the direction of the drift by secretly rolling a single percent die and interpreting the results as
follows:
1.Low and to the left:
2. To the left:
3. Left and high:
4. High:
5. High and to the right:
6. To the right:
7. To the right and low:
8. Low:
9. Long:
10. Short.

Umpire will then roll the percent dice and multiply the results times a 1 to 10 roll of a single percent die; this tells the
number of light years off of target. Remember, if it comes up short and the number of light years indicates that the ship
was going backwards, don't worry about it, warp drive is unpredictable!

Note: All jumps of less than 10 light years are calculated for time and accuracy as if they were 10 light year jumps.

Emergency jumps: While it is possible to make an emergency jump, that is a jump without making the necessary
calculations or jumping before the calculations are done, this type of jump adds 50.points to the dice roll for accuracy.
Jumps cannot be pre-programmed but must be calculated from a drift. Ships with gravetic engines may not use them
during the calculation time, because very sensitive gravetic detectors are in use during this time.

Combining Gravetic Drive and Warp Engines: The impossibility of tracking warp ships while in warp drive makes the warp
drive very appealing to raiders, secret agents, and others who wish to go about unnoticed. There is no reason that the two
types of drive can not be combined into one ship if the tech level is above 6.2. The only restrictions are that: only one type
of drive may be operated at one time, and the warp drive must be powered from an accumulator.

To simulate the effects of advanced technology on the navigation of warp ships, you may subtract 3 points from the warp
jump accuracy roll for each tech level above 6.2. A, B, and C results are rather meaningless to a ship which also has
gravetic engines. Even ten days at one G would only be a little over one-half hour travel time for a one V ship in normal
space, a matter of a. few seconds in hyperdrive.

When a warp ship becomes lost, on a result F, the astrogator may attempt to determine the ship's position by doing a
computer analysis of the local stars, their position and spectral type. This analysis will require one to six hours and if
successful will reveal the correct position of the ship. For Tech Level 6, there is a 20% chance this analysis will succeed.
Add 5% to the base chance of success for each tech level above 6.

For instance: at Tech Level 6.5, the base chance is 45%. If the analysis does not succeed, take a random jump and try
again. Each time a random jump is made, the base chance goes down by 5%, unless, of course, the ship is fortunate
enough to jump close (30 light years) to a well traveled or well known area.

Fuel

Fuel Supplies:

There are one thousand fuel units in a mass point of fuel. An atomic power plant running at full power would use 10 units
of fuel per turn or one mass point of fuel per 100 turns. Atomic fuel, having a high mass to volume ratio, can be stored at a
rate of 100 mass points per compartment.

Fuel for atomic reactors is highly processed radioactive material that must be obtained from a supply dump, spaceport or
other similar source. Refueling an atomic power plant will take one hour per every 100 mass points.

Fusion plasma power units burn hydrogen, and this can be obtained from a base or by diving the ship in tight orbit through
the outer atmosphere of a Jovian world. If fueling from a base or supply ship, the fuel transfer will require one half hour for
every 100 mass points. Diving through the atmosphere of a Jovian world in a reaction drive ship is a tricky business at
best. Since individual gas giants may vary as to the amount of hydrogen in their upper atmosphere, we will roll the percent
dice to determine the number of mass points of hydrogen which can be taken aboard during each hour. Getting the ship
into position to pull the close orbit will require from 1 to 6 hours. The number of hours spent in passing through the
atmosphere will be determined by the player, but keep in mind that each hour spent in close orbit increases the chance the
ship will become caught by the gravitational field of the Gas Giant. The base chance for one hour is 5%; this doubles each
hour. For instance: a reaction drive ship spending 3 hours in close orbit runs a 20% chance of being caught. Ships caught
in the gravitational field of a Jovian world have only one chance to escape and that is to make a panic warp jump.

Note: Gravetic drive ships capable of 1V do not suffer from this problem. Gravetic drive ships can pull enough G's to
achieve escape velocity from any gas giant and even some stars. Keep in mind that each V is the equivalent of 144 G's.
Hydrogen fuel for a fusion plasma unit will be stored at a rate of 10 mass points Per compartment.

Matter converters can utilize literally any type of material for fuel. Usually the procedure for fueling is to find a suitable
asteroid, bust it up, using a conversion beam, and then load the fragments aboard using waldos and pressor tractor
beams.

For ships with warp engines, utilize the warp jump accuracy chart to determine the time to locate a suitable asteroid. For
ships with gravetic engines, roll percent dice to find number of minutes to locate and position next to a suitable asteroid.
Loading for both types of ship will be at a rate of 50 mass points per hour.

Matter converters, when utilized as power banks or engines, require one point of fuel for each 5 units of power produced.
Since a matter converter can handle 5 units of fuel per turn, 25 units of power can be produced. This power is the same as
the power produced by Amcrys power banks and can be utilized in the same way.

Since any type of matter may be utilized in a junk burner, and said matter will vary widely as to its mass to volume ratio, we
will make a compromise, for the sake of simplification, and allow junk burner fuel to be stored at a rate of 50 mass points
per compartment.

During the test period for these rules, some people had difficulty calculating the fuel usage and range for ships using
matter converters as power sources. Combining MCs and gravetic engines is one way of getting around the Theta factor
problem and constructing larger vessels than would otherwise be possible. The following is an example of fuel calculation
for a Tech Level 6.5 ship utilizing MCs as a primary power source for the engine: Assume our hypothetical ship has 4 MCs
and 50 unrepairable engines. Its total mass without fuel is 948. Six fuel bunkers containing 50 mass points each of gravel
(total 300 mp) will supply the MCs. The total mass of the ship is now 1248. (Note; computations for structural damage
should be based on the total mass less fuel.)

At Tech Level 6.5, 1248 mp will require 42 unrepairable engines to do 3 V. This means 84 power units will be required.
Each MC can produce 25 power units per turn for an expenditure of 5 fuel units. Therefore, the 4 MC use 17 units of fuel
per turn, or 68 units per minute, or 4080 per hour. (Remember, there are 1000 fuel units to a mass point.) After 15 hours
and 26 minutes, enough matter has been converted to bring the ship's total mass down to 1185; at this point, 4 engines
can be shut down and 3 V can still be maintained. This frees up 8 power units so the matter converters will use only 16
units of fuel per turn.

In 23 hours and 11 minutes, 89 more mass points will have been used bringing the mass down to 1096; at this point, 3
engines my be shut down to maintain 3 V. The 37 unrepairable engines now use 74 power units. This will require an
expenditure of 15 fuel units per turn. (We are wasting some power, one unit in this case, because we can only throttle
back in increments of 5 power units.) In 16 hours and 23 minutes, the ship's mass falls to 1037 which will require 35
engines or 70 power units or 14 fuel units per turn to maintain 3 V. The next break point occurs when the mass falls to
948, at which point the fuel is exhausted and no further computations need be made. The remaining fuel, at 14 units per
turn, will last for 26 hours and 29 minutes. A work sheet for this calculation would look like this:

Fuel                                             Fuel             Fuel
Per Turn      Mass            Engines          Expended         Remaining            Hours

17            1248               42                63              237               15.43
16            1185               40                89              148               23.18
15            1096               37                59               89               16.38
14             948               32                89                0               26.49
Total             81.48

Since each V is the equivalent of .5 light years per hour, our hypothetical ship would have a range of 122.22 light years.

A simpler method would be to calculate the range based on the initial fuel usage and then multiply times 110%. This figure
should be close enough for most uses.

Communications

Communications and Detection by Tech Levels

Until Tech Level 6.3 is reached, there is no communications other than by radio or laser; both of which are limited in
practical application to the time delay occasioned by the speed of light. All communications between colonies on different
star systems were by starship, until development of the gravetic drive opened up research into the Pervasive Space Time
Continuum Theory. Tech Level 6.3 can signal or detect starships in hyperdrive at 10 light years, Level 6.4 through 6.7 up to
30 light years, and Levels 6.8 and 6.9 up to 50 light years.

No one, however, ever discovered a method of tracking a warp ship In warp drive. Ships moving by fusion plasma junk
burners or Tachyon drive are easy to track because they leave a trail of glowing ionized gases behind them very much like
a comet.

Combat

Interception and Combat in Space

Interception of an enemy warship in warp drive is impossible. Interception after pop out from warp drive is possible but
requires matching velocity with the enemy ship, a difficult task, costly in time and fuel. The math to calculate the time and
fuel expenditure of such an operation is overly complicated for a game of this sort. Therefore, if you must intercept a ship
after pop out from warp drive, make a warp jump of your own with the enemy ship as the target. Then use the warp jump
accuracy chart unmodified to determine how long it will take to intercept.

A more convenient method would be to simply wait till he gets to his target where he has to decelerate and go into orbit. It
is much easier to match vectors in that situation and you will have a 90% chance that you can meet him just as he goes
into orbit. If you should miss the 90% roll, roll a six sided die and divide by the number of G's your interceptor is capable of
sustaining to determine the number of hours till you match vectors.

Remember, also, that any ship of over about 600 mass points is going to have a hard time making a soft landing on a
planetary surface with no anti gravs to help him down slowly. That means that he must send troops down in shuttlecraft
which would be fairly easy to intercept with atmospheric fighters, or missiles from the ground.

Space combat in Tech Level 6 and 6.1 usually follows the following format:

After matching vectors, the antagonists slug it out with various missile and energy weapons until one decides he has had
enough and pulls out or tries to grapple and board the other.

Weapons

Weapons - Tech Level 6 and 6.1

Torpedoes, chemical rockets with guidance mechanisms and nuclear warheads designed to burst in the near vicinity of a
ship and damage it by radiation.

Torpedoes, mass of 2, require no energy expenditure to fire, and can accelerate at 15 G's. They have a proximity fused
warhead which will deliver 20 damage points. In order to simplify torpedo fire, we will say that torpedoes are homing and
will always hit their target unless they are destroyed or the target goes into warp drive.

When firing torpedoes, use the same procedure as outlined on page 30, Starwar 2250, except use the following chart to
determine the turn to hit: 0"-15" current turn, 15"-45" next turn, 45"-90" 2nd turn, 90"-150" 3rd turn. Torpedoes can be fired
against other torpedoes.

Auto Launchers: Rapid fire, small caliber (20mm to 50mm) rocket launchers depending on volume of fire to hit and
explosive warheads to do the damage. Auto launchers may be mounted in turrets or in fixed mountings on fighters.
Use the following chart to determine the percent chance of a hit when using auto launchers. The top row of numbers
represents the number of G's the target is vectoring at on the turn the shells are to hit.

G’s              0       1        2        3       4        5       6        7        8       Torpedoes
Range

0”-5”            99      95       80       65      55       45      35       25       15      10
5”-10”           99      90       75       60      50       40      30       15       7       5
10"-20"          99      85       70       55      45       35      20       5        0       2
20"-40"          65      45       35       25      20       15      10       0        0       0
40”-80"          55      35       30       20      15       10      5        0        0       0
80"-160"         45      20       15       10      8        5       0        0        0       0

Targets at up to 20" will be hit on the current turn. Those 20"-80" the next turn, and targets 80"-160" the 2nd turn.
Roll for hits on the turn the shells are to hit. If hits are obtained, roll a single percent die and multiply times the factors
shown on the following chart.

Range            factor
0”-5”            10
5”-10”           9
10"-20"          8
20"-40"          6
40”-80”          4
80"-160"         1

Lasers: Level 6 do 1 point damage from one power unit. Level 6.1 do 2 from one power unit. All energy weapons automatic
hit against these Ships. Tech Level 6.3 lasers do 4 points damage from one unit of power.

Conversion Beams: Are Tech Level 6.2 and all rules apply to all Tech Levels up to 6.7.

Screens: Are available at Tech Level 6 but only provide one unit of protection for one unit of power. Tech Level 6.2
provides 2 units of protection from one power unit, and Tech Level 6.3 screens are good for 4 units of protection.

Pressor tractors appear in Tech Level 6.1 and will move 500 mass points at 1 G for one unit of power.

Computers vs. Cyberbrains

Previous to the invention of the cyberbrain in 2125 (Tech Level 6.3), starship computers required one compartment each.
Most warships of this period carried a separate computer for Astrogation and fire control.

Armored Compartments

Since starships of this period were so vulnerable to their computers being knocked out by a lucky hit, many ships of this
period utilized armored compartments to protect their command bridge and computers.

To armor a compartment, all surrounding compartments should be nulls to start. These nulls are then filled with 1 mass
points each of armor. The armor was usually a combination of metal plates backed by shock and energy absorbing plastic.

When utilizing armored compartments, first calculate the total mass of the armor protecting each compartment. Divide this
mass by two. This represents the number of bits the armor can take before it loses its effectiveness. Each time the special
damage results show the armored compartment has been hit, deduct the number of hit points from the number of hit
points the armor can sustain. When all the boxes are gone, the armor no longer will provide any protection for the
compartment.

The number of hit points is determined by dividing the total hit points by the number of special damage rolls indicated by
the special damage chart.

The points cost for an armored compartment is equal to ½ the number of mass points of armor in the compartment.

On the special damage chart, the armored compartment and the protected compartment should have separate listings
next to each other. All hits on the protected compartment should be assessed against the armored compartment until the
armor is penetrated or until the armor is damaged beyond its ability to protect. All hits on the armored compartments are
assessed both against the armor value and against the structural damage of the ship.

Playing the Game in Tech Level 6 and 6.1

It will be obvious from the foregoing information that the ships of Tech Level 6 and 6.1 are so slow in acceleration that the
scale must be changed to accommodate them. Therefore, when using ships of this Tech Level in Starwar 2250, they are
not considered to be able to vector at all on the 250 mile to the inch scale. The play must be changed to a scale of 1200
yards to the inch. In this scale, a ship, which changes its direction of travel by one inch, is vectoring at 1 G. Soft
construction ships may not pull more than 1 G any time. Ships with living crews may not pull more than 8 G's.

A ship of Tech Level 6.2 or higher, which could do one V, would be able to change its course by 366 inches per turn in this
scale. Gravetic drive ships can do this because the gravetic engine is not a reaction engine. Everything inside the drive
field is accelerated or decelerated at exactly the same rate. Therefore, the crew can walk comfortably around while the
ship is pulling hundreds of G's and not feel any motion.
Vectoring is done the same as described on page 25, Starwar 2250, except that the total of the column changes may not
exceed the number of G's you can pull on that turn. For instance: a ship with the capability of 3 G's could, if his last vector
was 3N 6W 2-, go to 2N, 5W 3- but not 6N 3W 3- like a gravetic drive ship. Remember the total of the changes in each
column must always equal the G factor for that turn, when using reaction engines.

The following table summarizes the weapons at this period (Tech 6 and 6.1):

Size    Mass Tech Level Power Hit Points  Protection Pull               Points
Lasers                2        5       6       1        1          -       --                  5
Lasers                1        5      6.1      1        2          -       --                  5
Torpedoes             2        2     both      0       20          -       --                  1
Auto Launcher         1        1     both      0   Variable        -       --                  1
Ammo Storage for      1       10     both      0 10 Turns Fire     -       --                 10
Auto Launcher
Screens               1        5          6         1           -            1      --      5
Screens               1        5         6.1        1           -            2      --      5
Pressor Tractor       2        5         6.1        1           -            -  500 at 1 G 5
Pressor Tractor       1        5         6.1        1           -            - 1000 at 1 G 5
Conversion Beams      1       10         6.1      Acc 1        30            -      --     15
Armor                 1      1-20       both        0           -          1-20     --    1-20
Computer              1       10        both        0           -            -      --     20

Structural Damage in Tech Level 6 and 6.1

To calculate the structural damage in this period, take 80% the total mass of the Ship. A ship in this period will become
hulked out when its computers are shot out or all structural damage boxes are gone.

Special damage is calculated the same in this period as in all others.

The sequence of fire for the weapons is as follows:

Lasers
Pressor tractors
Conversion beams
Auto launchers
Torpedoes

Otherwise, this period plays the same as Starwar 2250. All boarding actions, special damage and other rules apply.

Hex missiles: These do not become available until Tech Level 6.3 is reached. It should be noted here that a Super Hex is
merely a large caliber Hex missile. It masses twice as much and does twice the damage as a normal sized Hex missile.
There are only 5 in the launcher instead of 10, however. Otherwise, all the same rules apply to Super Hexes as other Hex
missiles.

On page 27, Starwar 2250, last paragraph makes mention of the fact that small ships are harder to hit with a hex missile.
This is due to the fact that hex missiles home on screen radiation. They also can use a mass detector to home on, so they
can still find a ship with no screens up. Small ships with screens up will be calculated the same as any other ship. Small
ships with no screens up will have the chance to hit reduced by -1 for ships of 250 mass points or less, -2 for ships of 175
mass points or less and -3 for ships of 100 mass points or less. (Note: Do not include external torps in the calculation for
mass points in this situation.)

Example: A Ralnai fighter (Running Reptile Class) with a mass of 165 is programmed for no screens. Two hex missiles
are being fired. The first was programmed for a penetration of 3 screens. This is 3 off; and so, the chance for a hit is 1/6.
The second hex is programmed for no screens. This would normally be right on, and give a 4/6 chance of a hit; however,
in this case, the hex must use its mass detector to find the target. Consequently, the -2 bonus comes in and results in a
2/6 chance of a bit.

Lasers: To simulate the effects of advanced technology on range finding and laser fire, advanced tech lasers will be given
a bonus number which should be subtracted from the range when using the laser fire chart. The following table shows
bonuses by tech level.
Tech Level Bonus              Tech Level          Bonus
6           NA                   6.5                0
6.1         NA                   6.6                0
6.2         +20                  6.7               -10
6.3         +10                  6.8               -20
6.4          0                   6.9               -30

Conversion beams: The rules for cobs are unchanged from their introduction in Tech Level 6.1 clear up to Tech Level 6.9.
They do, however, receive the same fire bonuses as lasers where such apply.

Accumulators: Accumulators are available all the way through Tech Level 6 to 7. Rules are the same for all levels except
for Level 6.9, which is exempt from rule 1 and 3.

The following table shows pressor tractor power by Tech Level. Pull is the amount of mass that the pressor tractor will
move at one power unit. Power is the maximum units of power any one PT can handle.

Pressor Tractors by Tech Level

Tech Level     Size              Mass               Pull             Power             Points
6               2                 5              500 at 1G             1                 5
6.1             1                 5             1000 at 1G             1                 5
6.2             1                 5               50 at 1V             1                 5
6.3             1                 5              100 at 1V             1                 5
6.4             1                 5              200 at 1V             1                 5
6.5             1                 5              300 at 1V             1                 5
6.6             1                 5              400 at 1V             1                 5
6.7             1                 4              500 at 1V             2                10
6.8             1                 4              600 at 1V             3                15
6.9             1                 3              700 at 1V             4                20

Note: See laser section for fire bonuses for advanced energy weapons.

The following table compares screens by tech levels. Power is the maximum units of power any screen can use in one
turn. Protection is the amount of damage points a screen can absorb per unit of power.

Tech Level     Size              Mass             Power            Protection          Points
6               2                  5                1                  1                 5
6.1             1                  5                1                  2                 5
6.2             1                  5                1                  3                 5
6.3             1                  5                1                  4                 5
6.4             1                  5                1                  5                 5
6.5             1                  5                1                  5                 5
6.6             1                  5                1                  5                 5
6.7             1                  6                2                 10                10
6.8             1                 10                3                 10                15
6.9             1                 15                4                 10                20

ECM Pods

ECM Pods are not available until late in Tech Level 6.5.

Method of functioning: ECM Pods interact with the scanning beam in an active fashion. Instead of a small tight blip on the
screen, you get a big fuzzy blip that jiggles. ECM does not hide a ship, but makes its precise location and motion
uncertain. The target ship is not invisible, just difficult to track. If it is difficult to track, it is difficult to predict its future
location for a "gunnery prediction". With ECM operating, even a stationary ship is no longer an automatic hit. The more the
mass to hide, however, the more energy required for the ECM gear. The following chart compares ECM gear by tech level.
Power is the number of units of power that can be run through the ECM gear. M is the mass that can be raised to one
ECM level by 1 unit of power.

Tech Level     Size     Mass    Power       M Point Cost
6.5             2        15       2        100    30
6.6             2        15       3        100    40
6.7             1        10       3        100    50
6.8             1       10        3       200     80
6.9             1       10        4       200    100

When a ship has been raised to one or more ECM levels, the following occurs:

Since starships normally become visible to the short range scanning beams at 100", each level of ECM protection which a
ship has functioning will subtract 20" from the distance at which the ship can be identified as to type and class. For
instance: a ship with two levels of ECM would not become identifiable until the range had closed to 60".

ECM affects weapons in the following ways:

ECM vs. Hex missiles: No effect at all.

ECM vs. lasers, conversion beams and other energy beam type weapons: Each level of ECM protection has the same
effect as increasing the V factor for that turn by 1 V. For instance; a ship doing 1 V during a turn in which it has 2 levels of
ECM protection would be fired at as if it were doing 1 V.

ECM vs. screens: Screens and ECM have no effect on each other.

ECM vs. AMPs and splinter heads: To simulate the difficulty in tracking, each level of ECM will have the same effect as if
the burst radius were reduced by one Inch.

ECM vs. torpedoes: Torpedoes are not affected at all by ECM

ECM vs. Drones: No effect against Drones, either.

AMPs: AMPs are not available before Tech Level 6.5. To simulate the effects of advanced technology, AMPs will increase
their burst radius by 1 inch and their range by 10" for each tech level above 6.6.

Splinter heads: Not available before Tech Level 6.5; otherwise, same as AMPs.

Torpedoes: Chemical rocket torpedoes are explained in the section on primitive weapons. Gravetic drive torpedoes
become available in Tech Level 6.2 and are relatively unchanged until Tech Level 6.5 when several larger sizes and faster
missiles were introduced. The following chart shows comparisons of missiles from each period. VF = vector factor.

In Tech Level 6.5, torpedo launchers with simultaneous launch capability become available. These are the same size and
mass as the older single launch, automatic reloading type, but cost 30 points instead of 25 points. When utilizing external
torpedoes, remember to add in one compartment for each two torpedoes when calculating the special damage percents.
Remember that when using simultaneous launch TL's or external torpedoes, one unit of power for each torpedo launched
must be programmed.

Missile      Tech                                           Internal     External
Type         Level        Size          Damage Mass         Storage      Storage           Points     VF
Torp I      6.2-6.6        ½              10     5            yes          yes               5         6
Torp II     6.5-6.6        ½              30    15             no          yes              10         9
(Super Torp)
Torp III    6.5-6.7          1             60       30         no           yes              30       10
Torp IV     6.7-6.9          ½             15        5         yes          yes               7        8
Torp V      6.7-6.9          1             60       15         no           yes              20       12

Induction beam addenda: Induction beams not available until Tech Level 6.5. The following chart compares induction
beams by tech level:

Type          Level    Size      Mass     Damage    Power Points
IB I         6.5-6.7    1         10        15        2    15
IB II        6.6-6.9    1         15        30        3    30

Transporters: Transporters translate matter, living or non-living, into electrical impulses, transmit those impulses, and then
reassemble the object transmitted at the destination. Transporters become available in Tech Level 6.8. Transporters do
not work through screens which means you must drop yours to operate your transporter, and the target area must not be
inside a screened area. Transporters are mostly used to ferry crew and cargo from ship to ship or from ship to surface.
System           Size    Mass     Power Range M/T Points
Transporter      4       25       1-6   64”   1      40

Power is the amount of power per turn the transmitter can handle and M/T is the mass points per unit of power that the
transmitter can handle.

Procedure for use of the transporter is as follows: First, a lock on, like a PT. lock on, must be achieved. This requires one
unit of power. Next, the proper amount of power must be programmed to move the required mass. (People count about
.25 mass points.)

The transporter works almost instantaneously but no screens may be around either target or transporting vessel or the
transporter won't work.

Use of the transporter as a weapon: Obviously, you can't transport a bomb aboard an enemy ship if said ship had screens
up, but you can transport a bomb to a point in space nearby and detonate it if you have your own screens down when you
transmit. The bomb used for this Tactic is ½ compartment in size; masses 2 points and explodes just like a drone, with full
accumulators. To use this, you program the point of detonation in the form of a vector, measured from your position after
you move. This is where the bomb goes off. The bomb remains in that position for the next two turns to serve as a
measuring point and doesn't drift like a drone.

Ramming Rules: Ramming was mentioned in Starwar 2250 as kind of an aside. Consequently, many questions have
arisen about it. A ship programmed to ram must do all its programming except for movement during the regular
programming portion of the turn. After everyone else has moved, the player for the ship attempting to ram writes down the
movement program for his ship, then moves. In order to successfully ram the target ship, he must be able to end his move
on the same space as the target ship, + or – ½ inch. (All programmed weapons may fire before the ram is accomplished. If
ramming heater or ship is hulked out before the fire portion of the turn is over, ram does not occur.) If he can do this, he
has successfully rammed the enemy ship. Damage evaluation is explained on page 32, Starwar 2250.

Note that while one ship may be pushed into another by pressor tractors, the same rule applies. Pressor tractors may not
be used to project small objects into enemy vessels. The pressor tractor is not sensitive enough to target a ram on an
object as small as a starship. A good analogy would be like trying to cast flies with a 100-ton crane. You can do it, but your
accuracy isn't very good.

Boarding Rules: The boarding rules were covered very well on pages 22 and 23 of Starwar 2250. However, let me add
here that anyone attempting to board a ship that has not been hulked out is plain crazy and deserves what will most likely
happen to him.

Retrieval boats were mentioned in several places in Starwar 2250 and a Ralnai boat is pictured on page 42.
Retrieval boats are small starships and have full hyperdrive capability. A typical retrieval boat (Downship, Scoutlander,
Shuttle, etc.) would have about 5 compartments. One compartment; would contain rudimentary bridge equipment and a
small single unit power bank; built into the floor or the rear of the hull would be a gravetic drive engine similar to a torpedo
engine. Such a craft would have no screens or weaponry, other than infantry troops. It would mass at about 7 to 10 mass
points and would do 5 to 7 V depending on the mass carried. One hit from any starship weapon would destroy such a craft.

Pod Vessels

Pod vessels are ships that are built in sections. During a battle, they can drop sections that have been damaged to
increase their vector factor. The pods may be designed any way that the designer wants. That is, you may have pods with
mixed weapons and engines or the pods can be all weapons or all engines. The power banks can be split up between the
pods also, but for Theta factor calculation are all considered to be one unit. The pods may be any size the designer wishes
as long as they are one compartment or larger.

Each pod must have an umbilical connection that is one compartment in size, masses one point and costs 5 points. Each
umbilical connection should be listed on the special damage chart as a separate entity. If the umbilical connection is hit,

When doing the special damage for a pod ship, each pod should be listed on the special damage chart and each pod or
type of pod should have a special damage chart of its own. Each pod and the main hull should have separate structural
damage sections, also, figured on the mass of each compartment. If a pod is hulked out before the main hull, it can be
jettisoned; but if the main hull is hulked out before the pods are, the whole ship is hulked out.

In Atmosphere Actions
Movements through and in atmosphere take up very little of the game. In the scale we usually play Starwar 2250 in (250
miles to the inch), a 31.7-inch sphere could represent the earth, with a mean Diameter of 7,918 miles. The atmospheric
envelope would be approximately .2 inches thick. Hardly enough to bother with, you might think. Except that the starship
must pass through that thin layer in order to land or take off, and at the speed a gravetic drive ship can move, that thin
layer is very solid, in comparison to the vacuum of space.

Obviously, no starship can enter the thick portion of a planet's atmosphere at its normal speeds or it would have to burn to
a cinder within a few seconds. Therefore, it must slow down to pass through the atmosphere. Since, in atmosphere
combat becomes important when supporting troops on the ground or when a freighter or passenger ship attempts to take
cover on the planet's surface, we have included the following section.

For sake of simplicity, we will go to a scale of I inch equals 1200 yards, and we will assume that the thick portion of an
Earth like planet's atmosphere is about 36 inches thick. We will then indicate a line that will represent the beginning of the
atmosphere and another line 36 inches away which will represent the surface. Everything outside the atmosphere line will
be played at a scale of one inch to 250 miles. Everything inside the line will move on a scale of one inch to 1200 yards.
Every starship which approaches the line must decelerate until it is going no more than one inch per turn when it crosses
the line. Any ship unable to decelerate to 1" per turn when crossing the atmosphere line will be burnt up and destroyed at
that point. Crossing the line takes one full turn, in which the ship is at a zero vector factor and does not move on that turn.
Obviously, your starship is very vulnerable at that point. Once inside the line, the starship will move at its maximum in
atmosphere speed that is determined by the type construction of the ship and its number of available screens. The
following chart shows the maximum in atmosphere speeds of various types of construction.

Construction type Maximum Speed Per Turn

Streamline                    18”
Semi Streamline                9”
Cylindrical                    3”
Saucer Shape                   4”
Flying Wing                   16”
Cubical                        2”
Irregular Cubical              1”
Spherical                      3”
Soft                   No atmospheric entry

Screens can modify the atmospheric speeds by one additional inch for every 5 screens available. Using the screens in this
manner will flare them, so they can give no additional protection against weapon fire. For each inch of speed over the safe
maximum, the ship will take 25 points of damage per turn.

None of the usual starship weapons work in atmosphere or will fire through an atmosphere except lasers and conversion
beams, and they attenuate. A starship light laser will attenuate down to less than one damage point in 5 inches. Therefore,
to simplify damage calculation on lasers, count each 5 inches of atmosphere between the laser and target as the
equivalent of one screen.

For instance: A super laser fires at a target 14" away. All laser fire in this scale is 100% hits regardless of the number of
inches moved. Ordinarily, the super laser would deliver 25 points of damage to the target but the 14" of atmosphere will
attenuate the power such that only 11 damage points are delivered to the target. For comparison, a Starguard infantry
laser rifle would deliver .25 of a damage point at its optimum range.

Since the limitations on starship moves in atmosphere is the resistance of the atmosphere and not any lack of power or
dependence on inertia, these ships can make sudden stops, 90 degree turns, 180 degree turns or any other violent
maneuvers desired.

Incidentally, in atmosphere maneuvering will only require about 5% of the power required for 1 V. Most ships will only need
to power one engine when maneuvering in atmosphere.

Effects of structural damage on ships maneuvering in atmosphere:

Determine the percentage of structural damage and multiply that times the listed speed on the in atmosphere chart, and
round down to the next inch. In any case, no ship will move slower than 1/2 inch per turn. Each inch in this scale
represents a speed of 163 mph.

In order to help you design ships, we are including 3 loose sheets of various stock parts which can be copied, cut out and
glued to a sheet of graph paper to make stat pads for the new ships you will design.

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