CPU CPU by liwenting

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									            CPU TYPES

            Memorize the types of CPUs. The exam does not go into details of what year a certain CPU first came out, but you need
            to know what CPU introduced the real mode, what CPU has the coprocessor disabled, and how to calculate the 486
            doubler/trippler.




CPU         Comment                             External clock   Internal clock in       Can access        Internal cache   Built in co-   Internal   External
                                                in MHz           MHz                     memory up to                       processor      bus        bus
                                                                                                                            (FPU)

8086        First CPU (1978)                    5                5                       1 Mb              no               no             16 bit     16 bit

8088        Used in the first IBM PC/XT         8                8                       1 Mb              no               no             16 bit     8 bit
            computer. 29000 transistors.
            (1979)

80286       Introduced the idea of protected    8, 10, or 12     8, 10, or 12            16 Mb             no               no             16 bit     16 bit
            mode. 134000 transistors.
            (1982)

80386 DX    Can switch between real and         16, 20, 25, 33   16, 20, 25, 33          4 Gb              no               no             32 bit     32 bit
            protected mode. First true 32 bit
            CPU. 275000 transistors.
            (1985)

80386 SX    Cheaper version of 386 known        same as          same as 80386DX         4 Gb              no               no             32 bit     16 bit
            as derivative chip (1988)           80386 DX

80486 DX    Introduced internal L1 cache.       25, 33, 50       25, 33, 50              4 Gb              8K               Yes            32 bit     32 bit
            About twice as fast as 386. 1.2
            Million transistors (1989)

80486 SX    Same as 486 but with disabled       same as          same as 486DX           same as           same as          NO             same as    same as
            co-processor (1991)                 486DX                                    486DX             486DX                           486DX      486DX

80486 DX2   Can execute instruction in one      25, 33           50, 66                  4 Gb              8K               Yes            32 bit     32 bit
            cycle rather than 2 cycles in DX
            (1992)

80486 DX4   Runs at 3 times the speed of        25, 33           75, 100                 4 Gb              8K               Yes            32 bit     32 bit
            motherboard (1994)

Pentium     64 bit data bus. Can execute 2      60 or 66         60, 66, 90, 100,        4 Gb              16 K             Yes            64 bit     32 bit
            instructions at the same time by                     133, 150, 166, 200
            using superscaler technology. 2
            internal 8K cache chips. Cache
            controller built on board. 3.1
            million transistors (1993)


            Pentium              additional instructions to          60 or 66         60, 66, 90, 100,          4 Gb          16 K             Yes             64 bit   32
            MMX                  better handle video and                              133, 150, 166, 200
                                 graphics. Improves
                                 performance in multimedia
                                applications 50 - 100 %. To
                                utilize MMX technology
                                programs must be written
                                to use MMX instructions.
                                (1996)

           Pentium              Speculative execution,              66              180, 200                                                             64 bit   32
           PRO                  Dataflow analysis. 5.5
                                million transistors. (1996)

           Pentium II           Uses proprietary socket             66, 100         233, 266, 300,        4 Gb          16 K             Yes             64 bit   64
                                design - 242 SEC slot                               333, 350, 366,
                                (Single Edge Connector).                            400, 450
                                L2 cache built in the
                                cartridge. 7.5 million
                                transistors. (1997)

           Pentium III          (1999) Not covered on the           100             500, 550
                                exam




CPU        Comment                             External clock   Internal clock in     Can access     Internal cache   Built in co-   Internal   External
                                               in MHz           MHz                   memory up to                    processor      bus        bus
                                                                                                                      (FPU)

8086       First CPU (1978)                    5                5                     1 Mb           no               no             16 bit     16 bit

8088       Used in the first IBM PC/XT         8                8                     1 Mb           no               no             16 bit     8 bit
           computer. 29000 transistors.
           (1979)

80286      Introduced the idea of protected    8, 10, or 12     8, 10, or 12          16 Mb          no               no             16 bit     16 bit
           mode. 134000 transistors.
           (1982)

80386 DX   Can switch between real and         16, 20, 25, 33   16, 20, 25, 33        4 Gb           no               no             32 bit     32 bit
           protected mode. First true 32 bit
           CPU. 275000 transistors.
           (1985)

80386 SX   Cheaper version of 386 known        same as          same as 80386DX       4 Gb           no               no             32 bit     16 bit
           as derivative chip (1988)           80386 DX

80486 DX   Introduced internal L1 cache.       25, 33, 50       25, 33, 50            4 Gb           8K               Yes            32 bit     32 bit
            About twice as fast as 386. 1.2
            Million transistors (1989)

80486 SX    Same as 486 but with disabled      same as    same as 486DX        same as   same as   NO    same as   same as
            co-processor (1991)                486DX                           486DX     486DX           486DX     486DX

80486 DX2   Can execute instruction in one     25, 33     50, 66               4 Gb      8K        Yes   32 bit    32 bit
            cycle rather than 2 cycles in DX
            (1992)

80486 DX4   Runs at 3 times the speed of       25, 33     75, 100              4 Gb      8K        Yes   32 bit    32 bit
            motherboard (1994)

Pentium     64 bit data bus. Can execute 2     60 or 66   60, 66, 90, 100,     4 Gb      16 K      Yes   64 bit    32 bit
            instructions at the same time by              133, 150, 166, 200
            using superscaler technology. 2
            internal 8K cache chips. Cache
            controller built on board. 3.1
            million transistors (1993)

								
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