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From the SBE website:
WHAT THE FCC REQUIRES: On July 12, 2007, the FCC released an EAS Second Report and Order
and Further Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (FCC 07-109) which revises the FCC Part 11 EAS

SBE provides a summary and analysis of those rules below.

- “EAS Participants” below refers to all broadcast stations, cable operators, etc. that are
currently required to participate in EAS.
- A number of these rules do not take effect until 180 days after FEMA acts on that item.
- The FCC has mandated Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) for EAS use.

The SBE EAS page,, has more information on CAP.

Of particular interest to broadcasters:

       EAS Participants must be able to receive Common Alerting Protocol (CAP) v1.2
messages, no later than 180 days after FEMA publishes adoption of this standard.

        EAS Participants must adopt Next Generation EAS delivery systems no later than 180
days after FEMA publicly releases standards for these systems.

        EAS Participants must transmit state-level and geo-targeted local EAS alerts received in
CAP format and issued by state governors or their designees no later than 180 days after FEMA
publishes its adoption of the CAP standard, provided that the state has an FCC-approved EAS
State Plan that provides for delivery of such alerts.

        EAS Participants must configure their systems to incorporate CAP security functions
within 180 days after FEMA publishes standards for authentication and validation of CAP alerts.

       EAS Participants are required to upgrade their station-relay networks to Next
Generation EAS networks.

         FCC and FEMA will coordinate on the resources and requirements to conduct EAS
training programs to ensure states and other interested parties can implement Next Generation

Non-broadcaster New Rules

Wireline Video Providers (AT&T U-Verse and Verizon FiOS) have now been included as EAS

SDARS (XM and Sirius) and DBS (Dish and DirecTV) are exempted at this time from carrying the
governors’ messages due to the technical limitations of their national feeds.

1. When do broadcasters need to implement equipment for
   receiving CAP alerts from the federal government? What
   exactly does the 180 day clock mean.
   “Many in industry and government see the 180 day clock as problematic, for a variety
   of reasons (funding issues, internal certification timelines for new equipment,
   government purchasing cycles, the need for updated state plans first, among a host of
   reasons that have been raised).
   There is also a question of what specific action will start the clock for broadcasters.
    FEMA will likely issue a press release or something along those lines in September -
   denoting FEMA's acceptance of CAP and supporting standards (like the IPAWS
   profile). However, there is a question of what and whether the FCC needs to do to
   translate this FEMA announcement into required action by EAS participants.
   The FCC's Communications Security Reliability and Interoperability Council is
   compiling its final recommendations report to the Commission. When published, this
   should be reviewed. A lot of work went into the CAP Introduction Working Group
   recommendations with a wide range of federal agency and industry input.” (source:
   Ed Czarnecki, Monroe Electronics/Digital Alert Systems)

2. Is there a list of CAP equipment vendors that
   broadcasters can reference?
“The FCC publishes a list of devices that are certified for part 11.

In the near future, FEMA will publish a list of products that have completed the CAP
1.2/IPAWS 1.0 conformity assessment here: Some vendors
have already had equipment tested for CAP. FEMA has not yet published the results on
the rkb website. You can read about the assessment process here:” (source: Harold Price, Sage
Alerting Systems)

“Yes, the FCC certified EAS vendor list needs to be one resource to monitor. I would
guess that someday the FCC will need to update with a new list of CAP-EAS compliant
gear (i.e. certify/re-certify Part 11 compliance in the CAP environment).

Another source would be the FEMA IPAWS conformity assessment "S-doc". This will
be a list of vendors confirmed to use the IPAWS profile (subset) of the CAP message.
The third source would be your state authorities for a list of equipment and/or
interconnection requirements to their state CAP networks.

The task is to triangulate between the three information sources. And even if the FCC
comes out with a revised definitive list of CAP+IPAWS+EAS compliant equipment,
you'll still need to refer to a state authority as to what fits into their respective state
--Ed Czarnecki, Monroe Electronics/Digital Alert Systems

3. When do states/counties need to implement CAP
   origination for EAS?
       •   “The Second Report and Order indicates that state/local CAP EAS should
           begin no earlier than 180 days from FEMA adoption of CAP. In practice,
           therefore, SECCs and emergency managers need to take initial actions early,
           and probably within that 180-day period. These initial actions would at a
           minimum include the process of defining, developing and procuring CAP
           origination and relay systems and updating state/local EAS plans.” (source:
           Ed Czarnecki, Monroe Electronics/Digital Alert Systems)

4. What are the next steps for originating CAP alerts at the
   state/local level?
           •   Depending on your state plan, this means enabling state, local and/or tribal
               officials to originate CAP EAS messages
           •   Origination of CAP messages can be accomplished by putting a CAP
               messaging server in place at an authorized government site, or making use
               of a hosted service.
           •   This will require some degree of funding and commitment from emergency
           •   A “free” alternative is using NOAA’s Hazcollect, but that raises a number of
               issues (it is web-based primarily, their servers would be remotely located (i.e.,
               out of state), their system is used for NWS dissemination rather than to LP-1s
               directly. That does not really help broadcasters meet the CAP-EAS
           •   However, a state CAP server could send alerts directly to a state’s broadcasters,
               as well as post to Hazcollect simultaneously. That way, an EAS originator could
               relay CAP messages to broadcasters and to NWS directly from one entry point.

5. How can CAP alerts be relayed from state/local sources to
   broadcasters? What are the transmission options?
       •   Basically, this means having a data architecture in place to relay CAP messages
           from the source out to the LP-1s and/or to any number of broadcast stations
           directly. [The added data "payload" for EAS Common Alerting Protocol (CAP)
           messages may rule out using the LP distribution model.]
       •   The IPAWS system will be Internet-based (i.e. terrestrial line only). SECCs need
           to carefully weigh the options here. Yes, Internet is free, but “you get what you
           pay for”.
       •   States will want to consider building their own systems that provide redundant
           message pathways. One possible system architecture, as an example: secure
           VPN (internet) first and when additional funding is available adding in a DVB or
           VSAT satellite relay.

6. What are the CAP EAS reception options for state and
   local CAP networks?
       •   There are a number of companies that provide CAP-EAS devices of various
           flavors. Most of these vendors are members of the EAS-CAP Industry Group
           ( .
       •   SECCs need to be aware that system design choices may determine what brands
           of CAP-EAS device will “plug and play” with a given network.
       •    Some CAP-EAS devices are Internet-only (and do not natively support or would
           require investment in additional equipment to support a satellite or wireless
           data network). Some CAP networks will provide higher levels of security, and
           will require devices attached to that network to conform to certain security
       •   A very rough example of some of the equipment interconnection issues could
           be taken from the mobile industry. An ATT cell phone will not function on a T-
           Mobile network, and vice versa, even though the phones are built to a whole
           range of US and international standards. Each network has additional
           requirements for security and operational purposes. However, you can get cell
           phones to work on either network just by acquiring and dropping in a chip. And
           Verizon cell phones do not allow swapping chips at all, even though they also
           conform to international standards. Bottom line with this analogy is that the
           CAP-EAS “network” that you choose to build or buy will determine what
           brands of devices broadcasters will need to be advised to purchase. An SECC
           or emergency management may be in the position of needing to advise
           broadcasters what menu of CAP-EAS devices are authorized for use in their
       •   There are real-world considerations that will come into play at the state and
           local level. IPAWS conformance testing will determine whether a device can
           plug into the Federal IPAWS. But it will not determine whether a device can
           plug into a given state or local CAP EAS network.
7. What is the role of IPAWS?
       •   The primary emphasis of IPAWS, is the issuance of national (EAN) alerts
           from IPAWS to connected outbound systems (CMAS, EAS, etc.), as was
           explained to me and other industry participants a few weeks ago by a FEMA
           exec. (source; Ed Czarnecki, Monroe Electronics/Digital Alert Systems)

8. What is the relationship between IPAWS and state/local
   CAP EAS systems?
   The deployment of IPAWS does not necessarily give state and local authorities a
   "free ride." To the contrary, there will be a need for deployment of state and local
   CAP systems. There wll need to be interconnections between FEMA IPAWS and
   state CAP systems at a server-to-server level (via IPAWS OPEN, formerly DM
   18+ states already have some form of IP-based EAS relay capability. It appears the
   majority of those are CAP, or ready to be converted to CAP. Two to three more are
   building or leveraging state IP networks for this purpose (meaning they'll just need to
   procure or build a CAP server). Bottom line, almost half the states are positioning
   themselves for CAP origination and dissemination at a state and/or local level.
   (source; Ed Czarnecki, Monroe Electronics/Digital Alert Systems)

9. What does IPAWS Conformance Testing mean?
See, “Conformity Assessment

10. Is the FCC providing any certification or re-
  certification of CAP-EAS equipment.
That is uncertain at this time.

11. What kind of equipment is needed at a broadcast
Boiling it down to two types:

A CAP-EAS receiver/translator – simply put, a data receiver that receives CAP, converts
the message to EAS tones and audio, and outputs to an existing EAS encoder-decoder as
a monitoring source. A unit like this would sit on top of an existing encoder-decoder.
Check with manufacturers to see who is making this kind of box.

A CAP EAS encoder-decoder is an FCC-certified box with CAP capability built in.
Some manufacturers also have the ability to put satellite/wireless data receiver cards into
their units. This is an all-in-one solution for a broadcaster that might need both a new
encoder-decoder and a CAP receiver.

12. What considerations should we have in mind when
  evaluating CAP EAS equipment?
“You will need a device (or group of devices) that are certified for Part 11, and appear on
FEMA's list, to be CAP/EAS compliant. You'll also need one that works with the
delivery system your area/state is using. Your state/area will have to publish that list, or
ask your supplier.

“These boxes don't stand alone, there will always be interface questions. In addition to
CAP, you'll need to know if it talks to your character generator, your automation system,
your audio format, etc. That's why engineers get the big bucks. :)” (source: Harold
Price, SAGE)

13. What do SECC’s need to factor into revised state EAS
  plans for CAP?
There’s a tremendous amount to consider here. CAP EAS action steps by SECCs will
need to encompass a holistic, systems-level approach, factoring in a fairly wide range of
technical, regulatory and operational issues. But, the task is manageable by trying to
keep the parameters as simple as possible. (source: Ed Czarnecki, Monroe
Electronics/Digital Alert Systems)

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