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Promoting Bilingual Workplace Training Package and Tutor Notes

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					Promoting Bilingual Workplaces




        Training Package


          Tutor’s Notes




                1           RH 2009
Tutor’s notes:

Promoting Bilingual Workplaces training is a field which can
generate a lot of debate – you are certain to encounter a wide range
of opinions and attitudes – and are likely to meet individuals who
disagree with one another’s standpoints. The most important
consideration with regard to Promoting Bilingual Workplaces
Training is that all members of the audience should feel free to
contribute without fear of criticism from others.

These notes contain some additional information on the use of the
Promoting Bilingual Workplaces Training Package with a group.

This guidance is intended for use in conjunction with the Promoting
Bilingual Workplaces Training Package.



The time devoted to this package can be flexible and dependent
upon the focus required by the organisation. It is strongly advised
that the package is used in conjunction with an organisation’s
strategic planning in promoting bilingual workplaces.

The exercises / workshops contain suggested time allocations for
group discussion / work. However, these are flexible and at the
tutors discretion. (Appendix ‘6’).


            _______________________________________




                                  2                             RH 2009
1. The purpose of this initial section is to start the group thinking about
   languages in the wider sense – and to realize that bilingualism is very
   common among people in Wales, in Europe and beyond.

   Are there any members of the group who have friends and family who
   speak a second language? Why do they speak another language? –
   E.g. „common in their place of birth; advantageous for work etc‟

                                               ______________________


2. Spend a couple of minutes getting the group to name the top ten
   languages spoken in the world today.

2.1 Welsh has survived in close proximity to one of the world‟s major
   languages.

                  ______________________


3. Quiz

   1.
   b) - around 600,000, approximately 20% or 1 in 5 of your customers,
   clients, colleagues.

   2.
   a) - 3 – 15 year old. 31.2% compared to 17%.

   3.
   b) - City and County of Swansea 28,581 compared to 23,540 in
   Denbighshire.

   4.
   a) - more – Welsh Language Board research indicates 611,000
   (21.7%) aged 3 and over could speak Welsh in 2004 compared to
   508,098 (18.7%) in 1991.

   5.
   a) – Carmarthenshire 84,000 Welsh speakers in the county (50% of
   the population). 77,000 in Gwynedd (69% of the population). 39,000
   in Ceredigion (60% of the population). [1991 census figures]

   The conclusion to be drawn from this section is that we all have
   preconceived ideas about the language, which perhaps are not all
   correct.
                    _________________________



                                    3                                   RH 2009
4. Only 4 out of 22 of the counties in Wales have less than 10,000 Welsh
   speakers. 6 counties have over 30,000 Welsh speakers; two have over
   75,000 Welsh speakers.

   Conclusion – Where are the Welsh speakers? Throughout the whole of
   Wales!

                   ___________________________

   Questions touched on here in 5 and 6 are covered in more detail later
   in the training package.

5. Spend a few minutes getting the group to suggest some of the factors
   that can or will affect language patterns in the workplace.

   i) Think of the chart – 5,000 Welsh speakers in Merthyr Tydfil, 84,000
   in Carmarthen, demography will influence the recruitment of Welsh
   speakers.

   ii) E.g. Emergency services, patients‟ notes in hospitals – examples
   where everyone needs to be fully aware of what is occurring or when
   medication / treatment are required.

   iii) Acts of Parliament. E.g. the „Act of Union‟ 1536 prohibiting the use
   of Welsh in public administration and the legal system.

   Welsh Language Act 1967. This Act guaranteed the right to use the
   language in Courts and permitted a very limited use in public
   administration.

   Welsh Language Act 1993. Introduced the principle that:

   “in the conduct of public business and the administration of justice in
   Wales, the English and Welsh languages should be treated on a basis
   of equality.”

   Imposed a duty on public bodies to provide statutory language
   schemes to implement the said principle.

   Established the Welsh Language Board in order to „have the function of
   promoting and facilitating the use of the Welsh language‟ and to
   oversee the development and implementation of linguistic equality
   through statutory language schemes.

   From a traditional point of view, “I was taught to do it this way and
   have always done it this way”.

   iv) Corporate commitment is vital in creating and maintaining a


                                    4                                   RH 2009
   bilingual workplace. Leadership at all levels within the organisation
   needs to be consistent and robust.

   v) The lack of or perceived lack of Welsh language oral and / or written
   skills. Sometimes there is more use of oral skills than written skills as
   „everyday‟ Welsh seems to be more readily accepted when spoken
   rather than when written.

   vi) Confidence – or indeed lack of confidence. So many Welsh speakers
   tend to undervalue their Welsh language skills. Perhaps in past
   employment Welsh speakers have not had the opportunity to use or
   practise their skills.

   vii) An organisation‟s financial situation, producing work bilingually will
   bring with it extra costs. Also, one way of increasing the capacity of
   the organisation to work bilingually is to provide Welsh language
   training to staff. Will the budget allow for this?

   viii) Doing everything twice will take more time. There are ways to
   overcome this of course- the use of bilingual templates for example will
   save time in certain situations.

                       _________________________



6 Again, spend a few minutes discussing the group‟s understanding of
  which factors influence this area.

   i) Level of skill higher or perceived to be higher in spoken Welsh
   rather than written Welsh. Again we return to „every day‟ Welsh being
   more readily accepted when spoken rather than in its written form.

   ii) “My written skills are not good enough!” We need to think about
   the type of documents being written. When completing policy
   documents, legal documents and so on, the written work needs to be
   correct. However, e-mails to colleagues and associates can be less
   formal and therefore more acceptable in „every day‟ Welsh. Remember
   that a large number of organisations have written translation services
   which may be utilised to check work drafted in Welsh. In many cases
   work drafted in Welsh is returned sooner than work sent for
   translation.

   iii) Historically / traditionally the business language of the organisation
   on a day to day basis has always been English.

   iv) Again historically / traditionally / as a matter of habit – first contact
   has been in English. If the organisation‟s staff directory included the


                                     5                                    RH 2009
   language skills of all members of staff, then first contact could be in
   Welsh and already we would start to change language patterns.

   v) Think back to the number of different languages in the World
   (between 6,000 and 7,000 different spoken languages). Microsoft
   currently has over 130 languages available on its system, which
   includes Welsh. However, very few programmes allow input through
   the medium of Welsh. The Welsh language needs to be a consideration
   from the very outset in any project that involves the use of I T
   programmes for use within the workplace. Organisations have to
   request bilingual systems from the manufacturers.

   vi) Time and budget. Organisations and managers have to accept as a
   fact that completing certain work bilingually will take more time and
   allow for this when allocating that work. Similarly the costs of certain
   aspects of the work will rise e.g. recruitment / advertising literature.
   On the contrary, developing the bilingual skills of staff will benefit the
   organisation by reducing translation costs; correspondence can be
   turned around quicker and both Welsh speaking and English speaking
   customers will receive the same standard of service at the time of
   asking!

                        ____________________



7 The Welsh Language Act 1993 relates to the linguistic duty imposed on
  public bodies when providing services to members of the public.
  Employees are not afforded the same rights!

   Some public bodies are now looking internally and are providing their
   staff with some linguistic choice.

   At the time of writing, consultation is taking place on the proposed
   Welsh Assembly Government Order (Legislative Competence) (The
   Welsh Language) 2009, (LCO) „Issue 20.2‟ states:

   “Provision in or relating to the freedom of people who wish to use the
   Welsh language with each other to be able to do so including any
   restrictions on that freedom).”

   Whilst not attempting to presume what the new legislation will be, it is
   apparent that Welsh in the workplace and the right of the individual to
   have a language choice therein are a consideration. Therefore any
   organisation already adopting the principle of bilingual workplaces will
   be ahead of the game and not in a position of playing „catch up‟.




                                    6                                   RH 2009
   The Statutory Code of Practice on Racial Equality in Employment
   produced by the Commission for Racial Equality includes at Paragraph
   4.46 a section on Language in the Workplace. The document explains
   that it is recognised that there is a significant difference here in Wales.
   The CRE code of conduct, taking into account certain safeguards,
   allows for the Welsh and English language to be treated on a basis of
   equality within the workplace.

   For example, internal meetings can be held bilingually if simultaneous
   interpretation is made available. Here the responsibility lies with the
   organisation‟s Human Resources department to ensure that such a
   facility is available. All too often, organisations fail in this area,
   resulting in English being the default business language used in all or
   most of their internal meetings. Organisations and their Human
   Resources departments need to address this issue in a professional
   manner by ensuring that their policy on the internal use of Welsh
   includes internal meetings and ensuring that the appropriate resources
   are made available to support the objective.
                         __________________________


8 Spend a few minutes getting the group to speak about their
  understanding and experiences of conforming to their organisation‟s
  Welsh Language Scheme when dealing with the public.

   The vast majority of Welsh Language Schemes are very similar in their
   statement of intent with regards to providing a bilingual service to
   members of the public. The language schemes are prescriptive in their
   detail of how each aspect of communicating with the public will be
   dealt with. It is important therefore that all members of staff are fully
   conversant with this document within their organisations.

   From a moral aspect, it is a very short leap to an employee expecting
   the same rights when dealing internally with their employers.

                       __________________________



9 Advantages of a bilingual workplace.

   1. Having an increased opportunity to use and practise their language
   skills in the workplace will result in staff that are more competent,
   confident and willing to use those language skills when dealing with
   the public. As a result the organisation will increase its capacity to
   provide a true bilingual service to the public at the time of asking.



                                    7                                   RH 2009
2. It must surely improve an individual‟s performance if he or she can
work in their preferred language. Similarly, one‟s confidence has to be
higher if one is able to select one‟s preferred language for example at
interview. Place an individual under pressure (job selection / promotion
interview; attaining tight deadlines etc.) it is natural that he or she will
wish to default to their first or preferred language. It is imperative
therefore that they are provided with opportunities within the
workplace to work in their language of choice if organisations wish to
make the most of the skills of their staff.

3. The right to express themselves in their language of choice is a
fundamental right and one that should not be denied anyone.

When considering the Welsh Language Act 1993 and subsequent
language schemes of public bodies, one can see that as a member of
the public, an individual has a right to demand service in his or her
preferred language, be that Welsh or English. As we have seen earlier
in the training package, the employee currently does not have that
right. In this day and age, it would be morally wrong for any
organisation to deny the employee that choice of language.

(“I work for my local authority which is a public body as defined in the
WLA 1993. I work 9 – 5, Monday to Friday. On this particular day I am
on holiday and I come across a problem that needs to be reported
immediately to the highways department. I telephone and in
accordance with the authority‟s Welsh Language Scheme I am
answered bilingually and given a choice as to whether to continue in
Welsh or English. I select Welsh and the matter is reported and the
problem will be resolved. On Monday I return to work, unless the
authority has a strategy to promote bilingual workplaces and is
working to achieving the same, I will not be afforded a similar
language choice when going about my day to day work ….”).

Also, being able to use Welsh in the workplace as a business language
makes staff more competent, confident and willing to use the language
when responding to the public.

4. Earlier in the training package we discussed the fact that the Welsh
language has survived to this day in spite of Acts of Parliament rather
than due to them; until recently that is.

To Name but a few, the introduction of the Welsh Language Act 1993
has afforded some rights to Welsh speakers and other Acts of
Parliament have seen Welsh become a compulsory part of Primary and
Secondary School Education in Wales. Section 32 of the Government of
Wales Act, 1998 states “The Assembly may do anything it considers
appropriate … to support the Welsh language”. In 2003 we saw the
introduction of „Iaith Pawb‟, a national action plan for the Welsh


                                 8                                    RH 2009
             language which outlines the vision of the Assembly Government for the
             creation of a bilingual Wales.

             All of the above and other such initiatives and Acts of Parliament were
             created to protect not only a language but also a culture. By increasing
             the opportunity for staff to use and practise their Welsh language skills
             within the workplace, organisations, and the Welsh speaking and non
             Welsh speaking staff they represent are contributing positively towards
             this aim.


                                  __________________



10.          Here, the group can spend time listing and discussing the barriers to
             creating a bilingual workplace together with what resources and
             actions are required in order to overcome these barriers. Compare the
             lists prepared by the group to those within the training package.


                                  ______________________

      11. Factors that influence an individual‟s language choice within the
          workplace.

             i) The organisation‟s policies – decisions on creating and maintaining
                a bilingual workplace have to be made and clear policies based on
                the aims and objectives created and communicated to all staff.

             ii) Subsequent protocols regarding for example internal job interviews;
                 choice of language when using internal I T systems; language
                 choice at internal meetings and performance reviews need to be
                 simple to follow and available to all staff. In performance reviews, if
                 both the employee and his or her line manager are Welsh speaking,
                 then it should be in order for the performance review interview to
                 be conducted through the medium of Welsh. Any written evidence
                 may be in Welsh or English dependant on the language of the
                 second line manager. That said, any evidence written in welsh can
                 be translated either verbally or in writing as the need arises.

      iii)      Opportunities – is the opportunity there to use Welsh as an internal
                business language of the organisation? If not, why not? History,
                tradition, habit! It is accepted that the nature of the work and also
                the audience that the work is aimed at will influence language
                choice. Looking again at performance review, if a Welsh speaking
                employee‟s line manager is a non-Welsh speaker then obviously the
                performance review interview will be in English. However if both


                                              9                                   RH 2009
      are Welsh speaking there is nothing but history, tradition and habit
      to stop them from conducting the interview in Welsh! File notes are
      case in point, if the writer is the only [person who needs to read file
      notes, then why not give that individual a choice of language in
      which to write them. If at a future date, for some unlikely reason
      they need to be understood by a non-Welsh speaker they can be
      translated. E-mails to colleagues, if they are for an individual‟s
      attention, and that person is a Welsh speaker, then why not send
      them in Welsh only. Apart from using Welsh as a business
      language, here as well people get an opportunity to use and
      practise their skills in a less formal environment and one where the
      „language police‟ will not judge them!

iv)   The desire of the individual or of the workforce to have a language
      choice when conducting internal business is an important factor.
      However, equally important is that the individual and or workforce
      communicate that desire to the management. How many times is
      heard the phrase “there is no demand for language choice” – well
      the demand is certainly there externally when communicating with
      the public. Here is an opportunity to request the choice internally
      also.

v)    Confidence – or lack of confidence! Whatever the reason, and this
      in its self could be debated at length, a large number of Welsh
      speakers have a lack of confidence their ability to speak and write
      the language. In the majority of cases they underestimate their
      skills levels, and in fact have a higher skill level than that at which
      they assess themselves to be.

      The Welsh language is a skill and should be recognised as such
      together with any other skill required in order to perform a role.
      Therefore, Welsh language skills should be assessed as part of an
      individual‟s yearly performance review. (Here there is also an
      opportunity to measure the capacity of the organisation to deliver a
      bilingual service). The individual‟s self assessment of his or her
      Welsh language skills can be challenged by the line manager, and if
      required included in any development plan for the individual, thus
      enhancing his or her skills and increasing the capacity of the
      organisation to provide a better service to the community ….

vi)   Attitudes can vary. Some are very supportive and agree in principle
      that a bilingual workplace would be the ideal, but because of
      pressure of work, deadlines to be met, no budget within the
      department to cover the extra costs and so on, adopting such a
      principle is not viable at this time. Here we could be talking about
      Welsh speakers, learners or non Welsh speakers.

      Some Welsh speakers can‟t see why a policy is required to allow


                                   10                                    RH 2009
         business use of Welsh in the workplace, they already use Welsh!

         Some in all three categories can‟t see the point of it – English has
         always been the business language and everything works alright so
         why change? After all as long as the public has a choice of
         language when communicating with the organisation, then all is
         well!

         The list is lengthy and individuals‟ opinions have to be respected
         and taken into consideration. See Point 16 Dealing with Negativity.

                            _____________________


12.   Creating and maintaining a bilingual workplace.

      i) What do we mean by a bilingual workplace – during the first of
      the two pilot projects, the following definition was agreed upon and is
      a good starting point:

      “Accordingly, the definition agreed on was based on two aspects of bilingual
      workplaces:
      - The first based on an intention to normalise bilingualism within the
         organisation's internal culture and procedures
      - and, the second based on the organisation's contact with the public and
         the effectiveness and efficiency of the way in which its services are
         provided bilingually.

      The following definitions of these two aspects were agreed upon:

      a) Circumstances that allow the organisation's employees a choice of
      language when:

         (i)     carrying out their own duties,
         (ii)    receiving services and information from the organisation, and
                 when
         (iii)   socialising informally with others within the organisation.

      b) Sufficient ability to respond to contact with the public in the original
      language (whether Welsh or English) without the help of an intermediary,
      e.g. a translator, both orally and in writing”.

      It should also be remembered that providing equal status to both the
      Welsh and English languages, should include parity of service i.e. the
      quality and timing of the service should be the same whether provided
      in Welsh or English. Questioning here whether this is the case in the
      organisation employing the group should lead to a lively discussion in a
      number of cases.



                                       11                                    RH 2009
ii) Geography and demography –The percentage of Welsh speaking
people in the locality needs to be considered at the outset of the
project.

iii) Corporate commitment is vital to creating and maintaining a
bilingual workplace. Leadership at all levels within the organisation
needs to be consistent and robust. As the change is a corporate
change, then staff need to see that management, from the very top
down, are themselves embracing the change. They need to encourage
and support staff to accept the change and work positively towards
achieving it.

iv) The easiest and the most financially viable way of ensuring
sufficient bilingual staff in order to achieve the aims and objectives is
through recruitment. However, with established organisations this can
and does take a number of years to achieve. Welsh language training
for learners within the organisation therefore needs to be considered.
For established organisations, this process has to be a long term plan
and must be introduced sensitively.

When discussing the recruitment of Welsh speakers, we have to
consider the pool that we recruit from. The 2007 Statistical Bulletin
reports that 15.4% of secondary school pupils (years 7 – 11) studied
Welsh as a first language during 2007. Although the trend shows that
this average is rising every year, the fact remains that a very large
number of organisations are recruiting their welsh speakers from a
relatively small pool. In Canada, they have set a target to double the
percentage of school leavers that study French as a first language
during the next ten years. These are the sort of targets that the W A G
should be considering.

v) E.g. Emergency services. There are occasions during police
operations for example when all staff need to understand instructions
for the sake of safety. Situations such as these do not either allow time
for translation.

vi) The important point here is to provide language choice. Just
because a person speaks Welsh it doesn‟t mean that he or she will
always wish to work through the medium of Welsh. Often non-Welsh
speaking managers have difficulty understanding that, given the
choice, a Welsh speaking member of staff will prefer to use English
when writing. It has to be stressed that it‟s having the choice that is
important, together with the encouragement and support thereafter to
allow that member of staff to select Welsh as the preferred language.
Language practices that have been established over many years will
not be changed overnight. However successfully doing so will positively
alter the capacity of the organisation to work bilingually and ultimately



                                12                                  RH 2009
to provide a better service to customers and staff.

vii) An organisation‟s financial situation, producing work bilingually will
bring with it extra costs. Also, one way of increasing the capacity of
the organisation to work bilingually is to provide Welsh language
training to staff. Will the budget allow this? Doing everything twice will
take more time. There are ways to overcome this of course. The use of
bilingual templates for example will save time in certain situations.
Having staff with the ability to draft work in Welsh will save the time of
the translation unit and of course using the Welsh facility within
Microsoft Office comes at no cost.

viii) As with any change in the workplace, changing language patterns
will have to be resourced and supported. Listed below are just some of
the resources available to support the change:

       Welsh language interfaces on computer software (e.g. Microsoft
       Windows XP and Vista, Office 2003 and 2007; Agored and Open
       Office).

       A Language Control Centre running Windows XP and Vista that
       enables changing from one screen language to the other, and
       which includes a tutorial and support.

       National Database of Terms by the Welsh Language Board.

       „Term Cymru‟ – terms used by the Welsh Assembly
       Government‟s translation service in their work.

       Cysgliad

       Support and encouragement for staff to use „Cymraeg Clir‟
       (Clear Welsh) which helps to remove the „fear‟ of having their
       Welsh language skills judged by others.

       As well there are a number of reference books aimed at people
       with differing linguistic needs including dictionaries, books of
       terms, grammar books, writing guidelines, Cymraeg Clir (Clear
       Welsh) and others.

ix) Clear policies based on the aims and objectives. Subsequent
protocols (i.e. regarding language choice at internal job interviews; use
of Welsh within internal meetings) need to be simple to follow and
available to all staff.

x) If Welsh speakers and learners are to be encouraged to use their
language skills in the workplace, then there must be opportunities for
them to do so, both formally and informally.


                                13                                   RH 2009
      Relevant examples are, using Welsh in day to day administration,
      human resource activities, finance, during official break times and so
      on.

                           ______________________


13.   Creating a bilingual atmosphere.

      There are common themes running through the sections, leadership,
      clear decision making / policies and so on. It is important that these
      common themes are highlighted and discussed at each opportunity in
      order to reinforce their importance.

      iii. Target those departments within the organisation such as Human
      Resources, Information Technology and Finance that have a daily
      regular impact on individuals‟ day to day work.

      vi. It may well be that your organisation already has a Welsh Language
      Group meeting on a regular basis to monitor the organisation‟s
      performance against its Welsh Language Scheme. If so, this may well
      be the ideal group to monitor the organisation‟s performance in
      relation to promoting bilingual workplaces. If no such group exists then
      consideration should be given to addressing the matter.

      vii. Having Welsh or Bilingualism as a set agenda item on all
      departments‟ management meeting agendas raises the profile of the
      subject and provides formal opportunity for structured discussion and
      decision making in relation to promoting a bilingual workplace.

      viii. Organisations often go through periods of change, i.e. moving to
      „open plan‟ accommodation, moving buildings, downsizing and so on.
      Such changes are subject to a planning process and at this early stage
      consideration should be given to the Welsh language. For example, if a
      department is moving to an open plan office, there is an opportunity to
      move staff around; therefore taking into account language skills and
      placing learners in close proximity to fluent Welsh speakers will
      improve the language skills of the learners. It is proven that this type
      of immersion in the language does assist with learning and certainly
      provides more opportunity for practise.

      xi. Recruiting Welsh speakers and providing learners with Welsh
      language lessons is all well and good, but of little use if there are no
      opportunities for using and practising the skills in the workplace. These
      can be formal opportunities such as administrative tasks, working with
      I T, performance reviews and so on. Or informal opportunities such as



                                      14                                 RH 2009
         organised breaks for Welsh learners giving an opportunity for them to
         practise their language skills in a safe and friendly environment.

         x. Language champions, usually volunteers work within departments to
         monitor and promote bilingualism by encouraging and supporting
         managers and staff to conform to the Welsh Language Scheme and
         promoting bilingual workplaces strategy. Language mentors work on a
         one to one level with Welsh learners, not as a tutor or trainer but as
         someone with whom the learners can practise his or her language skills
         in a safe and supportive environment. (See section 11 for a list of tools
         and language aids).


                               ____________________


14.      Common problems.

         Again we see common themes coming through such as „time‟ and
         „budget‟. Also included in this section is „lack of vision,‟ a failure by the
         organisation or its staff to realise the wider benefits of creating a
         bilingual workplace. See section 17 – Advantages of a bilingual
         workplace.

         4. Attitude – see Section 16 – Dealing with Negativity.

                         ________________________


      15. Dealing with negativity

         15.1 One can see that this list could go on forever, some people relish
         change whilst others resist it for a number of reasons, whether
         professional or personal or both. For any change to occur successfully
         within an organisation it has to be planned and managed positively
         whilst also dealing sensitively with staffs‟ concerns and fears.

         15.2 When dealing with negativity one must do so professionally.
         Consider and discuss the items within the list at 15.2 which are self
         explanatory. Remember, one cannot be dismissive or authoritarian. If
         staff have concerns about the nature of the change, then these must
         be addressed and resolved. An unhappy workforce will not produce its
         best work.

         The reason for the change together with actual aims and objectives
         must be clearly communicated to all involved. Any subsequent policy or
         strategy documents produced must also be clearly written and readily
         accessible to all staff.


                                           15                                    RH 2009
Employees and workplace representatives must be given an
opportunity to be involved in the planning and implementation stages.

Any changes made must be monitored by an appropriate group and
any revisions to initial plans agreed and communicated to all staff.

One cannot stress enough the importance of communication in this
area. Staff who are informed from the outset and regularly updated
throughout the period will remain focused on their work and will not
endure unnecessary worry.

Remember also that it is mandatory for all employees to conform to
the policies of the organisation. These policies, agreed through a
consultative process detail the aims and objectives of the organisation
whilst going about its day to day business. Individuals within the
organisation do not have the right to pick and choose which of the
organisation‟s policies they will or will not conform with.

Challenging negative attitude has to be done sensitively, with the
ultimate goal of succeeding in moving forward the agenda regarding
promoting a bilingual workplace firmly in mind. A dogmatic or
aggressive response to negativity is therefore to be avoided. Some of
the strategies outlined below can be followed:

Use open questions to discover the reason behind the negativity and to
get at the root of individuals‟ objections. Use the reasoned arguments
in section 15.2 and the advantages of a bilingual workplace within
section 9 to counter the view.

Enlist the assistance of others in the group who are more positive, and
open out the discussion, but remember you must remain in control.

Where negativity persists then it is important not to let the purpose of
the workshop be forgotten and having attempted to turn the negativity
around, move on with the other issues to be addressed in the session.
Remember to close the debate by reiterating the advantages of
creating a bilingual workplace and how this will not only benefit
individuals within the organisation but will also enhance the service
provided to customers.

If necessary, following the workshop, it will be possible to discuss
individuals‟ attitudes with management and where appropriate agree
suitable action plans for the development of said individual(s). Any
further action would be at the discretion of the organisation and in line
with their management policies.

                     ______________________


                                16                                 RH 2009
16.   The four bodies listed were part of a Welsh Language Board funded
      project to promote bilingual workplaces between April 2006 and
      September 2008.

      The examples listed give a flavour of how the organisations went about
      normalising bilingualism within their internal day to day business
      activities. (Further information can be obtained on the Welsh Language
      Board‟s website or from the organisations themselves).

      There are also examples from within the private sector such as „Sain
      Cyf‟ in Gwynedd and‟ Blas ar Fwyd‟ in Llanrwst who have purposefully
      adopted a policy of administering their businesses through the medium
      of Welsh.

                            _____________________




17.   Examples from other countries.


The Official Languages Act 1998 of Canada has a specific section aimed at
language in the workplace:

Rights relating to language of work

   34. English and French are the languages of work in all federal
   institutions, and officers and employees of all federal institutions have the
   right to use either official language in accordance with this Part.

   Duties of government

   35. (1) Every federal institution has the duty to ensure that

   (a) within the National Capital Region and in any part or region of Canada,
   or in any place outside Canada, that is prescribed, work environments of
   the institution are conducive to the effective use of both official languages
   and accommodate the use of either official language by its officers and
   employees; and

   (b) in all parts or regions of Canada not prescribed for the purpose of
   paragraph (a), the treatment of both official languages in the work
   environments of the institution in parts or regions of Canada where one
   official language predominates is reasonably comparable to the treatment
   of both official languages in the work environments of the institution in


                                       17                                  RH 2009
  parts or regions of Canada where the other official language
  predominates.



      More recently: The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005.

                          ______________________



18.   Challenge! Why are tasks completed in English? Often staff complete
      certain tasks in a particular way because that is how they were taught
      or shown when they first joined the organisation and for no other
      reason.

      What are the barriers to completing work bilingually or in the
      individual‟s language of choice?

      In which „internal‟ services does the organisation provide the employee
      with a choice of language? If these do not exist, why not? Briefly
      examine the rights of the individual and equal opportunity. We will re-
      visit this at a later stage.

      The purpose of this section is to raise the awareness of the group of
      how much opportunity there is within the organisation to work
      bilingually or within the language of the individual‟s choice.

      See Appendix „1‟ (Designed by „Cwmni Iaith‟).

                    ___________________________



19.   Conclusion.

      All organisations in Wales should recognise that the Welsh
      language is valid to be used in their operations, both internally
      and externally.

      All workplaces in Wales, without exception, should develop a
      positive attitude towards using the Welsh language in the
      workplace by welcoming its unobstructed use by individuals.

      The Welsh language is owned by the individuals, whether
      Welsh speaking or not, it is a moral right for those individuals
      to ensure language choice for themselves and colleagues
      whilst going about their daily business.


                                     18                                 RH 2009
      Managers who provide language choice for their staff will reap
      benefit in the quality of the work produced.

                    ___________________________

Useful links and sources of further information:

Those listed below are the main providers of support and information. It
should be borne in mind that, in addition, most authorities have language
officers who can provide information and advice.

If you need further advice about any aspect of Promoting Bilingual
Workplaces Training, please contact:

The Welsh Language Board
Market Chambers
5/7 St Mary Street
Cardiff CF10 1AT

Website: www.bwrdd-yr-iaith.org.uk


Welsh Language Unit
Countryside Council for Wales
Maes-y-Ffynnon
Penrhosgarnedd
Bangor
Gwynedd LL57 2DW


Welsh Language Services Department
North Wales Police Headquarters
Glan y Don
Colwyn Bay
Conwy
LL29 8AW

Neuadd Cyngor Ceredigion
Penmorfa
Aberaeron
Ceredigion
SA46 0PA

Welsh Language Unit
Law Courts
Stanley Street
Holyhead


                                     19                                 RH 2009
Isle of Anglsey
LL65 1HG




                  20   RH 2009
This document was created by Cwmni Iaith as part of the original pilot project to Promote
Bilingual Workplaces with North Wales Police and Ceredigion County Council.

                                                                              Appendix „1‟

     Completing the whole of Appendix „1‟ will take approximately 2 hours.

                                     Workshop 1

Part 1 – Everyday work

    1) Use the clock to start thinking of all the things you do during the day,
        (e.g., dealing with the mail and e-mail; going to the canteen for lunch;
        chatting with a colleague over the photocopier…). - 10 minutes


    2) Using the clock once again or the separate Task Sheet, make a more
        detailed note of all the tasks and activities you perform as part of your
        work. – 10 minutes


    3) Turn to the person sitting next to you and talk about the things you
        have noted – there may be things that you have forgotten! – 10
        minutes


Part 2 – The language of the workplace


    4) Now, take a look at the tasks on your own once again.                      Use two
        different colours to indicate a) the tasks you perform through the
        medium of Welsh; b) the tasks you perform through the medium of
        English. Use both colours to indicate the tasks that are undertaken
        bilingually. - 5 minutes


    5) In groups of 3 or 4 people, think about why this happens; what factors
        influence the language you use in different situations? - 10 minutes


    6) Then, rejoin the rest of the group in order to share some of the points
        you have discussed. – 10 minutes




                                             21                                       RH 2009
Rhestr o weithgareddau yn y gwaith
List of work related tasks
Tasgau llafar                                Oral tasks

Ar y ffôn
On the telephone




Trafod/siarad gyda chydweithwyr
Talking to/Discussing with colleagues




Cyfarfodydd mewnol
Internal meetings




Cyfarfodydd cyhoeddus
Public meetings




Arall
Other




                                        22                RH 2009
Tasgau Ysgrifenedig                         Writing based tasks

Anfon ebost
Email


Llythyru
Correspondence


Cadw cofnodion cyfarfodydd
Minute taking


Cadw cofnodion ffeil
File records


Creu/llenwi ffurflenni
Form filling


Creu/drafftio deunydd i’w arddangos
Drafting display material


Creu/drafftio deunydd gwybodaeth i’w ddosbarthu’n fewnol
Drafting internal information material


Creu/drafftio adroddiadau at ddefnydd mewnol
Drafting internal reports


Creu/drafftio deunydd gwybodaeth byr i’r cyhoedd
Drafting public information material


Drafftio adroddiadau i’r cyhoedd
Drafting public reports


Arall
Other




                                       23                         RH 2009
Part 3 – Creating change


7) Now, turn to the sheet entitled Creating Change and use this as you
begin to decide what you will do over the coming months:


a) as an individual


b) as a team.


Therefore,
      as an individual exercise, think of the personal changes you would
       like to make - 10 minutes


      share these points with the rest of the group - 10 minutes


      use the remaining time to decide on the changes you want to make
       as a team – 30 minutes.




8) Come together as one large group to talk about your Action Plan for
the team.




                                   24                               RH 2009
             Creating change from day to day
                         Action Plan


                          My plan:


a) I can begin to do the following things through the medium of
  Welsh immediately:




b) Over the next 6 months, I will need support to do the following
  things through the medium of Welsh too:




                              25                            RH 2009
                             Our plan


a) These are the things that we can do through the medium of Welsh
  immediately:




b) Over the next 6 months, we will need support to do the following
things through the medium of Welsh too:




                                 26                           RH 2009
                                                                              Appendix „2‟

   This document was created by Her Majesty‟s Court Service in Wales as part of the joint
      project with the Countryside Council for Wales to Promote Bilingual Workplaces.



    Swyddogaeth Pencampwr Iaith                          Functions of a Language Champion
Bod yn bwynt cyswllt unigol ar lefel                    Being a single point of contact at court/office
llys/swyddfa o ran y Gymraeg o fewn GLlEM               level in relation to the Welsh Language within
e.e sicrhau bod gwybodaeth yn cael ei                   HMCS e.g. ensure information is disseminated
throsglwyddo e.e y Cylchlythyr.                         e.g. the Newsletter.

Cyfleu gwybodaeth i’r Gwasanaethau Iaith                To convey information to Welsh Language
Gymraeg mewn perthynas â materion yn                    Services in relation to local issues in relation to
ymwneud â’r Gymraeg.                                    the Welsh Language.

Cyflwyno eu hunain i aelodau staff newydd a             To introduce themselves to new members of
rhoi copi iddynt o’r ‘Cynllun Iaith Gymraeg a           staff and provide them with a copy of ‘The
Chi’.                                                   Welsh Language Scheme and You’.

Bod â gwybodaeth am y Cynllun Iaith                     Have an understanding of the Welsh Language
Gymraeg a’r hyn sy’n ofynnol gan staff ar lefel         Scheme and what is required by staff at
llys/swyddfa o ran cydymffurfio â’r cynllun e.e         court/office level in order to comply e.g
cyfarchion dwyieithog.                                  bilingual greetings.

Nodi staff sydd eisiau dysgu Cymraeg neu                To identify staff who wish to learn Welsh or
sydd eisiau datblygu eu sgiliau Cymraeg a               who wish to develop their Welsh skills and
chyfleu hyn i Bennaeth y Gwasanaeth Iaith               convey information to Head of Welsh
Gymraeg.                                                Language Services.

Paru dysgwr o’r llys/swyddfa gyda dysgwr o              Buddy a learner from the court/office with a
lys arall fel gallant gynorthwyo ei gilydd              learner from another court/office so that they
(rhestr o ddysgwyr i’w dosbarthu).                      can assist one another (list of learners to be
                                                        distributed).

Cyflwyno sesiynau ymwybyddiaeth iaith yn y              Present language awareness sessions in the
swyddfa/llys o leiaf unwaith y flwyddyn.                court/office at least once a year).


Cwblhau rhestr wirio ddwywaith y flwyddyn               Complete the court checklist twice annually on
ar gydymffurfiaeth â’r Cynllun Iaith a’i thrafod        compliance with Welsh Language Scheme and
gyda’r Rheolwr Llys a’i g/chael i’w arwyddo.            discuss with Court Manager in order to obtain
                                                        sign off.

Rhoi arweiniad wrth godi proffil yr iaith e.g           To lead by example in raising the Welsh
defnyddio cyfarchion ‘allan o’r swyddfa’                language’s profile e.g. using bilingual out of
dwyieithog ac edrych yn barhaus am ddulliau o           office notices and to continuously look for
godi proffil yr iaith yn y llys/swyddfa e.e.            ways of increasing the profile of the Welsh
cyflwyno cyfieithu ar y pryd i gyfarfodydd tîm          language in the court/office. e.g. introducing


                                            27                                       RH 2009
os oes siaradwyr Cymraeg yn y tîm a.y.y.b a     simultaneous translation to team briefs if there
thrwy hynny hyrwyddo’r agenda                   are Welsh speakers in the team etc and by so
dwyieithrwydd mewnol.                           doing, promoting the internal bilingual agenda.


Hyrwyddo’r defnydd o adnoddau Cymraeg e.e       To promote the use of Welsh language
Cysgliad (os ar gael yn y llys).                resources e.g. Cysgliad (if available at the
                                                court).


Cryfhau’r rhwydwaith o Bencampwyr Iaith         To strengthen the Welsh Language Champion
Gymraeg trwy gysylltu â’i gilydd o dro i dro    network by occasionally e-mailing/telephoning
trwy e-bostio/ffonio (rhestr o’r pencampwyr i   one another (list of champions to be supplied).
gael ei dosbarthu).

Mynychu cyfarfodydd o Dim Iaith Gymraeg yr      To attend meetings of the Area Welsh
Ardal/Tîm Iaith Cymru pan yn gyfleus ac yn      Language Team/Wales Welsh Language
ymarferol.                                      meeting when convenient and practicable.

Mynychu unrhyw seminarau a gynhelir ar          To attend any seminars held for language
gyfer pencampwyr iaith.                         champions.




                                         28                                 RH 2009
                                                                                         Atodiad „3‟

        This document was created by the Countryside Council for Wales as part of the joint project
                with Her Majesty‟s Court Service in Wales to Promote Bilingual Workplaces.



08/07                                                      08/07

               Polisi Dwyieithog Mewnol                                  Internal Bilingual Policy

Mae Cyngor Cefn Gwlad wedi’i ymrwymo dan ei                CCW is committed under its Welsh Language Scheme
Gynllun Iaith Gymraeg i annog y defnydd o’r                to encouraging the use of Welsh for communicating
Gymraeg wrth gyfathrebu’n fewnol.                          within the organisation.

Mae’r polisi hwn yn ymwneud a’r canlynol:                  This policy applies to the following:

Eitemau i holl staff y Cyngor neu i grwpiau mawr           Items sent to all CCW staff or to large groups of
o staff                                                    staff
Dwyieithog o fewn yr un ddogfen, gyda’r Gymraeg ar         Bilingual within the same document with Welsh above
y brig neu i’r chwith o’r Saesneg. Pan fo angen creu       or to the left of the English. When it becomes
dogfennau Cymraeg a Saesneg ar wahân, dylid nodi           necessary to create separate Welsh and English
eu teitl yn glir a’u hanfon allan ar yr un pryd bob tro.   documents, they should be appropriately titled and
                                                           always sent out at the same time.
   Mae’r eitemau yma’n cynnwys:                               These items include:
   o Canllawiau i staff                                        o Staff guidance
   o Cylchlythyrau                                             o Newsletters
   o Hysbysiadau (staff, swyddfa, swyddi gwag,                 o Notices (staff, office, vacancies, health and
    iechyd a diogelwch ac ati)                                    safety etc)
   o Negeseuon e-bost neu gyfarwyddiadau i’r holl              o E-mail messages or instructions to all staff or
    staff neu i grwpiau mawr o staff                              large groups of staff

Eitemau i grwpiau o staff                                  Items sent to small groups of staff
Dwyieithog, neu’n unol â dewis iaith aelodau’r grŵp        Bilingual, or according to the preferred language of
                                                           group members

Eitemau i unigolion                                        Items sent to individuals
Cymraeg neu Saesneg, yn dibynnu ar ddewis                  Welsh or English depending on language
iaith/allu’r unigolyn. Dylai negeseuon safonol gael eu     preference/ability of recipient(s). Standard messages
hanfon yn ddwyieithog.                                     should be sent bilingually.
                                                           Welsh speakers and learners are encouraged to develop
Mae siaradwyr Cymraeg a dysgwyr yn cael eu hannog
                                                           their Welsh writing skills by sending items bilingually
i ddatblygu eu sgiliau ysgrifennu yn y Gymraeg trwy
                                                           whenever appropriate.
anfon eitemau’n ddwyieithog pan fydd hynny’n
briodol.
                                                           Standard messages are available on the intranet.
Mae negeseuon safonol ar gael ar y fewnrwyd.
                                                           CCW’s internal translator/editor (Einir Thomas/Eluned
Fe fydd ein cyfieithydd/golygydd mewnol (Einir
                                                           Edwards) [Translations_Cyfieithu] will be glad to help
Thomas/ Eluned Edwards) [Translations_Cyfieithu}
                                                           check or translate items as required. Please try to
yn falch o gynorthwyo â’r gwaith o wirio neu
                                                           allow enough time before sending items out if you
gyfieithu eitemau yn ôl yr angen. Os byddwch chi am
                                                           wish to use this service.
ddefnyddio’r gwasanaeth yma, fe fydd yn help mawr
os gallwch chi adael digon o amser cyn anfon eitemau



                                                    29                                        RH 2009
allan.



Cyfarfodydd mewnol                                      Internal meetings

Er mwyn cynnig yr un cwrteisi ieithyddol i staff CCG    In order to provide CCW staff with the same linguistic
ac sy’n cael ei gynnig i aelodau o’r cyhoedd ac         courtesy afforded to members of the public and other
asiantaethau eraill; wrth drefnu cyfarfodydd mewnol,    agencies; when arranging internal meetings, the same
dylid ystyried, a gweithredu’n llawn pan fo hynny’n     principles as outlined in the Welsh Language Scheme
bosib, yr egwyddorion o fewn y Cynllun Iaith            for arranging external meetings should always be
Gymraeg sy’n ymwneud a threfnu cyfarfodydd              considered and where possible fully implemented.
allanol.
                                                        When organising internal meetings, consideration
Wrth drefnu cyfarfodydd mewnol, dylid ystyried rhoi     should be given to providing language choice for those
dewis iaith i’r sawl sy’n mynychu, ac annog             attending and bilingual meetings encouraged. An in-
cyfarfodydd dwyieithog. Mae gwasanaeth cyfieithu ar     house translation service is available to facilitate this.
y pryd mewnol ar gael i hwyluso hyn.
                                                        When translation facilities are not used, every meeting
Pan fydd offer cyfieithu ddim yn cael ei ddefnyddio,    should be opened and closed bilingually and, if Welsh
dylid agor a chau bob cyfarfod yn ddwyieithog. Os yw    language skills are available to provide an informal
sgiliau iaith Gymraeg ar gael i gynnig gwasanaeth       translation service, participants should be advised that
cyfieithu ar y pryd anffurfiol, dylid cynghori’r rhai   they are welcome to use their Welsh language skills.
sy’n bresennol bod croeso iddynt ddefnyddio eu
sgiliau iaith Gymraeg.

Gweinyddu mewnol                                        Internal administration

Y nod yw creu cyfleoedd i staff ddefnyddio’r iaith      The aim is to create opportunities for staff to use
Gymraeg yn eu gwaith o ddydd i ddydd, a                 Welsh in their day-to-day work, and help develop
chynorthwyo i ddatblygu sgiliau Cymraeg ar bob          Welsh skills at all levels. Everyone has a right to use
lefel. Mae gan bawb hawl i ddefnyddio’u dewis iaith,    the language of their choice, and the Council
ac mae’r Cyngor yn annog hyn er mwyn cynnig y           encourages this so that we provide the best service we
gwasanaeth gorau bosibl i’n gilydd a’r holl bobl yr     can to each other and all the people we work with.
ydym yn cydweithio â nhw. Felly, lle bo’n ymarferol     Where practical staff may select their language of
gaiff staff ddewis eu hiaith wrth gwblhau gwaith        choice when completing internal administration work
gweinyddol mewnol e.e. nodiadau ar ffeil.               e.g. file notes.



Os oes gennych chi unrhyw ymholiadau ynglŷn â’r         If you have any queries regarding this notice please
hysbysiad yma, wnewch chi gysylltu â Jenny Pye,         contact Jenny Pye, Language and Equalities Officer
Swyddog Iaith a Chydraddoldebau


                                                        Circulation: All Staff
Cylchrediad: Holl Staff
                                                        Issued: [date]
Cyhoeddwyd: [dyddiad]




                                                 30                                          RH 2009
                                                                  Appendix „4‟


Promoting Bilingual Workplaces – Handout 1


What are the barriers to creating and maintaining a bilingual workplace?

      1.  Lack of opportunity.
      2.  Lack of confidence.
      3.  Difficulty in getting others to use their Welsh language skills.
      4.  Working with non Welsh speaking staff.
      5.  Welsh speakers not wishing to seem impolite towards non Welsh
          speaking colleagues.
      6. Not knowing the language skills of the person you need to contact.
      7. Lack of Welsh speaking managers.
      8. Need to change the culture of the organisation.
      9. Lack of interpretation at internal meetings.
      10. Pressure of work / time.
      11. Budget costs.
      12. Lack of oral / written skills – difficult to access Welsh language
          courses.
      13. Historically English is the business language of the organisation.
      14. No leadership / support.
      15. Lack of resources „e.g. „Cysgliad‟.



What resources and support are required?

      1. Leadership – needs to come from the very top showing
         commitment and support for the use of Welsh in the workplace.
      2. Managers to realise and accept that working bilingually will take
         more time and will cost more.
      3. Policies and protocols stating the organisation‟s intent to promote a
         bilingual workplace.
      4. Resources to support Welsh speakers and learners i.e. „Cysgliad‟.
      5. Welsh language courses / Welsh language written skills courses.
      6. A marketing strategy to raise awareness of all staff.
      7. Staff Directories that indicates the language skills of staff.
      8. I T programmes that support working through the medium of
         Welsh.
      9. Access to Interpretation/translation services and equipment at
         internal meetings.




                                     31                                    RH 2009
                                                                     Atodiad „5‟

Promoting Bilingual Workplaces – Handout 2


Creating a bilingual atmosphere.

     What is required?

     1. Firm and supportive leadership.

     2. Clear policies.

     3. The targeting of key departments such as Human Resources and
        Information Technology.

     4. The ability of the organisation to allocate resources and / or time.

     5. Communication strategy.

     6. Monitoring group – consistency of messages and practices across
        all areas of the organisation is vital.

     7. Adding of „bilingualism‟ as a standing agenda item for all
        departmental meetings.

     8. Adding of „bilingualism‟ to the agenda for any restructuring within
        organisations - seize any opportunity, i.e. changing office to open
        plan; placement of new staff – learners with fluent Welsh speakers
        and so on.

     9. Creation of opportunities for working bilingually whilst being
        sensitive to all of the needs of all staff.

     10. Provision of a range of tools and language aids to support the use
        of Welsh in the workplace. Also consider the use of „language
        champions‟ and „language mentors‟.

     11. Working through the change in a manner which is non-threatening
         to all staff – focusing on equal opportunity for all.

     12. Patience – significant changes are not going to happen overnight,
         however the work on pilot schemes has shown significant changes
         in language patterns within the workplace occurring over a period
         of time as a result of all of the above.




                                     32                                  RH 2009
                                                                           Appendix „6‟

Below is a list of the suggested time allocations when using this package. The actual
times will of course depend on the tutor, the number in the group and the group‟s
prior understanding of the subjects discussed.

2.     Top ten languages
       Approx 5 minutes

3.     Quiz
       Approx 5 minutes

5.     What factors can, or will in the future, affect language patterns in the
       workplace?
       Approx 5 minutes

6.     Spoken Welsh versus written Welsh.
       Approx 5 minutes

8.     Under your organisation‟s Welsh Language Scheme, what constitutes a
       bilingual service?
       Approx 5 minutes

9.     Advantages of a bilingual workplace
       Approx 10 minutes

10.    What are the barriers and requirements for this to take place?
       10.2 What are the barriers?
       Approx 10 minutes

       10.3 What resources and support are required?
       Approx 10 minutes

11.    What factors influence an individual‟s language choice within the workplace?
       Approx 10 minutes

12.    Creating and maintaining bilingual workplaces
       Approx 10 minutes

13.    Creating a bilingual atmosphere
       Approx10 minutes

14.    What are the common problems?
       Approx 10 minutes

15.    Dealing with negativity
       15.1 Approx 5 minutes
       15.2 Approx 15 minutes

18.    Ways of changing our own linguistic working patterns.
       Approx 2 hours when using the templates at Appendix „1‟.




                                          33                                      RH 2009

				
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