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      Unit 2 - b
Your Name and who you are

   Your name might tell you the following:
       Your gender
       Your ethnicity – Physical characteristics
       Possibly your age

Example: What comes to mind when you hear the
  name Jennifer?

   Describe yourself:
    Physical characteristics?             Now, imagine you were
    likes?                                 switched at birth with
    dislikes?                              another baby in the
                                           maternity ward and went
    Hobbies?                               home with the ‘wrong’ family
    Strengths (school, sport, art…)?       and were raised by them.
    values?                               How might you be different?
    personal history?
The Nurture Side of Things!

   Socialization – lifelong process through which we learn all the
    knowledge, skills and attitudes we need to survive and prosper

   Sociologist: focus on how we learn the basic rules and
    attitudes of human behaviour (don’t pick your nose)

   Psychologists: focus on the development of the human
    personality – those characteristics that make each individual
    unique (self-confidence)

   Anthropologist: focus on the process by which permanent
    human societies are produced. (A uniquely human way of life
    centered on ‘marriage’, ‘family’, and ‘household’)
Socialization continued

   Key process in the development of the individual
   Necessary for the continuation of society
   Affects virtually every aspect of our lives

    example: 1) Hunger patterns (when we eat)
             2) Perception of the world around
                us (Arctic peoples have many
                words for ‘snow’)
                                                     Develop the ability to
                                                     think ahead and act
          Components of                              according


We learn:
                        Anticipatory Socialization
How to eat
To practice hygiene
Gender roles
To deal with emotions   Secondary Socialization

                               Primary                  Lean how to function
                              Socialization             in groups (schools)

                                                        How to follow the
                                                        behaviours society
                                                        expects of us while
                                                        acting in group
Components of
Socialization cont.

   Resocialization:
    Deliberate attempt by
    society to replace
    aspects of an
    individual’s socialization
    with new learnings

       In prisons, society tries to change inmates’ learned behaviour to more
       appropriate, law-abiding ones
Agents of Socialization

   How might a person develop        Anna 1938. 5 year old
    if cut off from normal human       found hidden in a second
    contact at an early age?           floor storage room tied into a
   Ferals: Children raised by
    wild animals (unrealistic)        Genie 1970:
                                   13 year old had
   Isolates: raised in human      been kept locked
    households but were            in a room with
    severely neglected             only a potty seat
    physically, socially and
 Agents of Socialization - Family

Primary Socialization – 1st Agent of socialization
Most influential ages 0-6, after 20

•Gender roles
•What are our own special unique qualities

Vital in the development of the self

The socialization we get at home is not
  always correct
Agents of Socialization - School

Secondary Socialization – group rules

•Dealing with formal rules
•Preparation for the adult world
Manifest function – visible purpose of school
                   - to learn academic skills

Latent function – hidden purpose
                 - to learn how to understand
                   and cooperate with strangers
                 - learn rules about being on
                   time, being neat, when to
                   talk, respect for authority
 Agents of Socialization – Peer groups

Most influential between ages 10-20

Social group where members are the same age
and share the same interests and social position

•Provide opportunities to do things not usually
 encouraged by one’s family

•Peer pressure: values and behaviour,
                  sexual attitudes, gender roles
 Agents of Socialization - Media

•Function: Commercial – designed to make money
 by obtaining as many customers as possible

•Attract customers by setting out an unrealistic
 view of life (cop drama: suspense, romance,
 tragedy and justice fits into 52 minutes)

•Advertising – attempts to persuade us that we
 can ‘have it all’ Gender roles are created and
 reinforced, whether realistic or not
         example: average model 5’9”, 123 lb
                     average women 5’4”, 144lb
Agents of Socialization - Religion

1996 – approx 86% of Canadians indicated that
        they had some sort of religious faith
      - 30% reported weekly attendance at
        a religious service

•Religious activities communicate beliefs about
 gender, appropriate sexual conduct, the afterlife,
 responsibility for one another in society, values
 and morals (usually reinforced by the family)
 Agents of Socialization –Workplace

•Most people take up paid employment at some

•Already learned the importance of punctuality,
 appropriate dress, respect for authority at school

•Must learn specialized language, procedures,
 rules as they relate to our jobs

•Must learn how to deal with colleagues,
 competitors, customers, students

•Teambuilding activities
 Agents of Socialization –
 Total Institutions

Intended to wipe out old socialization and
Replace it with new

•Boot camp – for young offenders
•Prison – convicted felons
•Destructive religious cults

Emphasis on removing individuality and
replacing it with a common group identity
         - identical hair cuts
         - identical clothing
         - strict enforcement of rules about
           daily activities and schedules
Total Institutions - Asylums

   Degradation ceremonies – intended to weaken a
    person’s current identity so that a new one could be
    put in its place – many have since been abolished

Common in all Total Institutions:
1. All aspects of life are closely supervised by staff
2. Members have no choice regarding food or
   sleeping arrangements
3. Formal rules about virtually all aspects of daily

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