Acid-Base Theories - PowerPoint

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					 ACID-BASE THEORIES
 SECTION 20.3
Arrhenius acids: hydrogen-containing compounds
that ionize to yield H+ in aqueous solution.
                   HCl + H2O --> H3O+ + Cl-

Arrhenius bases: compounds that ionize to yield OH-
in aqueous solution


2Na + 2H2O --> NaOH + H2
A few terms…
   Monoprotic acids: contain 1 ionizable
    hydrogen
                  Nitric Acid HNO3
   Diprotic acids: contain 2 ionizable
    hydrogens
                 Sulfuric Acid H2SO4
   Triprotic acids: contain 3 ionizable
    hydrogens
               Phosphoric Acid H3PO4
Bronsted-Lowry Acids and Bases

   Acid: hydrogen-ion donor

   Base: hydrogen-ion acceptor

            NH3 + H2O <--> NH4+ + OH-
         Hydrogen-ion   Hydrogen-ion   Ammonium ion
           acceptor        donor
    Conjugate Acid & Base

   Conjugate Acid:                   Conjugate Base:
    particle formed                    particle that remains
    when a base gains                  when an acid has
    a hydrogen ion                     donated a
                                       hydrogen ion

              NH3 + H2O <--> NH4+ + OH-
               Base     Acid           Conjugate Conjugate
                                         Acid      Base

        Amphoteric: substance that acts as both an acid & a base
              Examples: H2O, HSO4- (Hydrogen Sulfate Ion)
Lewis Acid & Base
   Lewis Acid: substance that can accept a
    pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
   Lewis Base: substance that can donate a
    pair of electrons to form a covalent bond.
                H+ + OH- --> H2O
             Lewis    Lewis
               Acid      Base

				
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