American Labor in the 20th Century

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					                                               Report on the American Workforce

                                                                                                                                      American Labor in the 20th Century
                                              American Labor
                                              in the 20th Century

                                                       he 20th century was a remark-      composition, compensation, work-
                                                       able period for the American       place, and very nature of work also
                                                       worker, as wages rose, fringe      changed during the century.
                                              benefits grew, and working conditions           Over the course of the 20th century,
                                              improved. Even though many statis-          the composition of the labor force
                                              tics were sketchy at the beginning of       shifted from industries dominated by
                                              the century, the picture is clear: The      primary production occupations, such
                                              American workforce was much better          as farmers and foresters, to those domi-
                                              off at the end of the century than it was   nated by professional, technical, and
                                              at the beginning. The statistics used       service workers. At the turn of the cen-
                                              to understand the condition of work-        tury, about 38 percent of the labor force
                                              ing Americans also improved over the        worked on farms. By the end of the
                                              course of the century, as we discuss in     century, that figure was less than 3 per-
                                              these articles excerpted from the Re-       cent. Likewise, the percent who worked
                                              port on the American Workforce (U.S.        in goods-producing industries, such as
                                              Department of Labor, 2001).                 mining, manufacturing, and construc-
                                                  Comparison of the American              tion, decreased from 31 to 19 percent
                                              workforce at the end of the 20th cen-       of the workforce. Service industries
                                              tury with that at the beginning shows       were the growth sector during the 20th
                                              numerous changes. Some of these are         century, jumping from 31 percent3 of
                                              dramatic; others less so. Many of           all workers in 1900 to 78 percent4 in
                                              these changes are well known, but           1999.
                                              some are not. In certain cases, statisti-       The labor force composition shifted
                                              cal data are lacking to make quantita-      in other ways too. Female participa-
                                              tive comparisons between the begin-         tion in the labor market grew dramati-
                                              ning and end of the century; but most       cally in the 20th century. In 1900, only
                                              of the changes are discernible, never-      19 percent5 of women of working age
                                              theless.                                    participated in the labor force, whereas
                                                  The size of the Nation’s workforce      60 percent6 of them did in 1999. Fur-
                                              increased roughly six fold during the       thermore, there was a marked change
                                              20th century. The workforce registered      in female occupational employment. In
                                              24 million in 1900 with those aged 10       1900, only 1 percent of the lawyers and
Donald M. Fisk, Economist, Division of In-    and above reporting a gainful occupa-       6 percent of the Nation’s physicians
dustry Productivity Studies, Office of Pro-   tion;1 in 1999 it was 139 million (aged     were women.7 In 1999, the figures were
ductivity and Technology.
Telephone: 202-691-5625                       16 and older).2 But it is not just the      29 percent for lawyers and 24 percent
E-mail:                        sheer numbers that are striking. The

                                                                               Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001     3
for physicians.8                             tury, although in real terms they seem      statistics are not available for most in-
    Child labor was common at the turn       to have leveled off during the last quar-   dustries at the turn of the century.
of the century, and many families            ter of the century. If total compensa-      Moreover, injury data are not available
needed the income earned by their chil-      tion—wages, salaries and benefits—          at the beginning of the century for any
dren to survive. The 1900 census             is examined, the trend remains positive.    industry. Some national injury data
counted 1.75 million individuals aged            The average workweek changed            were collected in 1911, but detailed sta-
10 to 15 who were gainful workers.9 At       dramatically during the 20th century.       tistics were not available until later in
that time, these children comprised 6        In 1900, the average workweek in manu-      the century. Whether accidents are
percent of the labor force. There were       facturing was 53 hours,17 and in 1999 it    fatal or not, statistics indicate that they
no national laws that governed child         was about 42 hours.18 But the decline       are less common, and the workplace is
labor, and while some States enacted         was not steady, as the workweek is very     a much safer place, for the worker at
and enforced such laws, most did not.        sensitive to business conditions. Dur-      the end of the century than at the be-
By 1999, Federal and State law regu-         ing the Great Depression, the average       ginning.
lated child labor; and Federal law ef-       number of hours per workweek for pro-           If an employee was injured on the
fectively prohibited full-time workers       duction workers in manufacturing            job in 1900, his only recourse for com-
under the age of 16.                         dropped as low as 34.6. During World        pensation was to sue for damages.
    Statistics are sparse on minority par-   War II, it rose to 45.2 hours at one        Such lawsuits were generally unsuc-
ticipation in the labor force at the turn    point. After the War, it stabilized at      cessful. It is estimated that at that time
of the century, even by the standards        about 40 hours per week. The normal         only 15 percent of workers injured on
of the day. Using the terminology of         range for the four decades after World      the job were successful in obtaining
the day, census data show that the           War II was 39 to 41 hours per week, but     any damages under common law. 25 By
nonwhite workforce numbered a little         the factory workweek exceeded 41            1999, there were a number of govern-
under 3.8 million in 1900. This was          hours for most of the 1992-1999 pe-         ment programs that assisted those in-
about 14 percent of the labor force.10       riod.19                                     jured on the job. Long-term disability
In 1999, the black workforce numbered            The number of hours at work varies      payments, Worker’s Compensation,
16.5 million, or about 12 percent, of the    by industry sector, as well as in re-       and other provisions in statute or con-
labor force.11 There were also Ameri-        sponse to the state of the economy. In      tracts provided safety nets for the
can Indians, Japanese, and Chinese in        1999, the weekly average for the total      worker in 1999 that did not exist in 1900.
the labor force at the turn of the cen-      private sector was 34.5 hours; and the          Unemployment is estimated at 5 per-
tury, but their numbers were few com-        average for the total goods-producing       cent26 in 1900; in 1999 it averaged 4.2
pared with the Negro.12 By 1999, the         sector was 41.0 hours. The retail trade     percent.27 While these two figures are
other minority groups had increased,         sector average workweek was 29 hours,       not much different, they reflect very
but blacks remained the largest racial       wholesale was 38.3, construction was        different dynamics. Data from four
minority group.                              39.1, and mining was 43.8. Average re-      States—California, Kansas, Maine, and
    In 1900, per capita income (in 1999      tail trade hours, for example, have shown   Michigan—and the 1910 census sug-
dollars) was $4,200; it was about            a fairly constant drop since 1947, as       gest that workers around the turn of
$33,700 in 1999.13 The average hourly        industry added more part-time work-         the century faced a high probability of
pay of manufacturing production work-        ers.20 Mining hours, on the other hand,     being laid off or unemployed sometime
ers in 1999 was $13.90; in 1909, the first   rose over that period. Workweeks in         during the year. But the length of time
measured year, it was about $3.80 (in        some sectors, such as manufacturing         one was unemployed was likely to be
1999 dollars).14 In addition to wages        and construction, are impacted by           shorter than it was at the end of the
and salaries, benefits comprised a ma-       changes in the economy; and many            century.28 In 1999, the median dura-
jor part of employee compensation at         sectors, including retail trade and con-    tion of unemployment was 6.4 weeks.29
the end of the 20th century. Statistics      struction, are affected by seasonal             There were 19 business cycles in the
show that benefits averaged $5.58 per        changes.                                    20th century.30 As a result, the cen-
hour—or 27.5 percent of total compen-            Workplace safety improved dra-          tury experienced periods of very low
sation—in 1999.15 Benefit data are not       matically during the 20th century. Al-      unemployment and periods of ex-
available for the beginning of the cen-      most 1,500 workers 21 were killed in coal   tremely high unemployment. Between
tury, but benefits were minimal—if           mine accidents in 1900. However, in         1900 and 1908, the unemployment rate
available at all—to workers in the in-       1999, the figure 22 was 35. And it was      fell below 3 percent. Later in the cen-
dustrial economy. One compensation           not just coal mines that were unsafe.       tury, rates above 8 percent were re-
series shows that benefits accounted         There were 2,550 railroad workers 2 3       corded during recessions, such as
for a little more than 1 percent of total    killed in 1900, compared with 56 in         those in 1915, 1921, 1975, and 1982. The
compensation in 1929, the first year         1999.24                                     highest rates of unemployment came
measured.16 Wages and salaries im-               These two industries were picked        during the Great Depression, when
proved during the course of the cen-         because of data availability, as fatality   there were rates above 20 percent for

4   Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001
several years. In 1933, there were more      century.33 New machines introduced           In 1999, the economy consumed over

                                                                                                                                       American Labor in the 20th Century
than 12 million workers unemployed;          in the home in the 20th century in-          one trillion dollars of fixed capital.
and the unemployment rate averaged           cluded the refrigerator, dishwasher,         Without capital, technology would not
24.9 percent. More recently, double-         clothes washer, dryer, iron, vacuum          have made its way into the workplace.
digit unemployment rates were re-            cleaner, microwave oven, automatic               Changes in the demographics of the
corded during parts of 1982 and 1983,        toaster, electric razor, and electric        population in the 20th century had a
but there was a fairly steady decline        hairdryer. In addition, there was pre-       profound impact on the workplace. The
from 7.8 percent in mid-1992 to 4.1 per-     packaged food, frozen food, and a host       population aged, became more diverse,
cent at the end of 1999.31                   of other convenience items. The list         and grew dramatically. In 1900, the life
                                             could extend for many pages. Expan-          expectancy of a newborn was 47.3
Forces of change                             sion of the paid workforce was certainly     years;37 in 1999 it was 77.0.38 In 1900,
What forces underlie the changes of          facilitated by these labor-saving goods      80 percent of American children had a
the workforce in the 20th century?           and devices that were introduced into        working father and a stay-at-home
Technology, capital, demography, im-         the home in the 20th century.                mother, however, by 1999, that figure
migration, education, and government             Likewise, technological improve-         was only 24 percent.39 The population
intervention are often mentioned. In         ments have worked their way through-         at the beginning of the century was 76
most cases, it is impossible to point to     out the economy. Medical advances            million, but approached 280 million by
a single force or action that led to         have extended the life span of individu-     the end of the century. (The official 1999
changes in the workforce. Most               als and have led to fewer and less se-       Census count is 273 million, but the
changes reflect the confluence of sev-       vere illnesses, allowing workers to work     2000 Census counted 281 million).40
eral factors or events.                      longer with fewer debilitating illnesses.        Immigration was crucial to the de-
    Technology entered the workplace         Those injured on the job were more           velopment of the U.S. economy and the
in a massive way in the 20th century.        likely to return to work sooner. There       workplace in the 20th century. In 1900,
The list of technological improvements       was a host of new drugs and medical          448,572 individuals passed through im-
in the workplace in the last century is      procedures; and new contraceptives           migration control, and for the decade
almost endless: Communication de-            facilitated family planning, especially      as a whole (1900-9) there were 8.2 mil-
vices, measuring devices, computer           impacting women workers. Major               lion.41 Those of work age had come to
controlled equipment, the x-ray, wind        changes in transportation, primarily the     find employment and a stake in a better
tunnel, arc welder, circuit breaker, tran-   use of the automobile, led to massive        job. Most were laborers or listed no
sistor, geiger counter, laser, neon lamp,    shifts in the location of the workplace.     occupation on their entry documents.42
teletype, fiber optics, stainless steel,     Factories were resettled to areas of         (Recent numbers are only slightly larger
and the atomic clock. The list goes on       cheap land and built on single levels.       and, as a proportion to the overall
and on. At the turn of the century, only     No longer were factories tied to the city.   population, a great deal smaller.) In
5 percent of the Nation’s factories used     The explosion of communications per-         1998, there were 660,477 legal immi-
electricity to power their machines.32       mitted further dispersal of the work-        grants; and for the decade as a whole
However, by the end of the century,          place. The automobile also led to dis-       (1990-99), there were close to 10 mil-
electrical powered machines were om-         persion of the home and shopping.            lion.43 During the 1930s and 1940s, in
nipresent; and heating, air condition-       Computers were a major factor in the         contrast, immigration dropped to less
ing, and air filtration were common in       economic growth of the last decade of        than 100,000 per year, as a result of the
the workplace. And technological im-         the 20th century, but the overall impor-     strict quota system established under
provements often resulted in improved        tance of computers in the economy and        the National Origin Act of 1929. But
safety in the workplace, as technology       workplace will not be known for de-          the Immigration and Naturalization Act
replaced the worker in some of the more      cades.34                                     of 1965 removed racial quotas and
dangerous tasks.                                 To put the new technology to work        opened the doors to a large number of
    Additionally, technological im-          often required massive amounts of capi-      non-European immigrants. Immigration
provements that entered the home in          tal. In 1996, for example, investment in     laws had a major impact on the labor
the 20th century led to major changes        information technology per worker was        force. Indeed, one observer suggests
in the workplace, as more homemakers         $29,200 for telecommunications; $7,600       “that quotas restricting the less-skilled
were able to shift some of their time        for real estate; and $4,600 for rail-        immigrant labor were the single most
from home production to paid jobs. At        roads.35 While real capital input in-        important piece of labor legislation in
the same time, new industries were cre-      creased 3.8 percent per year between         the twentieth century.”44
ated to serve the home; and existing         1948 and 1998 for the private sector,            However, it was not just immigra-
industries expanded. Electricity was in      information equipment and software           tion that changed the workplace in the
less than 10 percent of the Nation’s         increased 11.4 percent per year; and         20th century. Education played an im-
homes at the turn of the century, but it     computers and related equipment soft-        portant role in the advancement of the
was almost universal by the end of the       ware increased 27.8 percent per year. 36     individual worker, the workforce, and

                                                                              Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001       5
the economy; and during the 20th cen-       Bill, and the Civil Rights Act. Studies     according to Bernard Baruch, Chairman
tury, there was a steady increase in        show that the Civil Rights Act of 1964,     of the War Industries Board.57 War-
educational attainment. In 1900, less       specifically Title VII, had an important    time needs led to a massive expansion
than 14 percent of all Americans gradu-     affect on hiring of black workers.5 3       of statistical data. Prices and wages
ated from high school.45 By 1999, that      Other actions that impacted the             were of immediate concern, since wage
figure had increased to 83 percent.46       workforce indirectly include the fund-      rates needed to be adjusted to keep
In 1910, the first year for which esti-     ing and building of the interstate high-    pace with inflation. In 1918, wage and
mates are available, less than 3 percent    way system, funding of research and         hour surveys were expanded to 780
of the population had graduated from        development, and enforcing patent and       occupations in 28 industries, covering
a school of higher learning.47 By 1999,     copyright laws.                             2,365 establishments in 43 States.5 8
the figure was 25 percent.48 Further-                                                   There was also increased interest in in-
more, increased education resulted in       Counting the changes                        formation on strikes and lockouts. With
substantial monetary payoff for the in-     Much of what we know about the im-          the termination of the war, statistical
dividual worker. Men with college de-       provements in the workforce came from       budgets were trimmed, and the wage
grees earned 62 percent more and            the advancements that were made in          and hour program was reduced to its
women 65 percent more in hourly com-        counting the workforce in the 20th cen-     prewar level.
pensation than did those with a high        tury. Important developments came in            The next surge of interest in labor
school degree at the end of the cen-        methodology and data gathering. In          statistics came in the latter part of the
tury (1997).49 A substantial part of the    addition, there was a major expansion       1920s. By 1927, there was monthly re-
growth of the economy is attributable       of the data collection effort. Here, we     porting of employment on 54 manufac-
to increased education.50                   briefly touch on some of these improve-     turing industries covering 11,000 estab-
    There is no question about the in-      ments and the underlying forces that        lishments; and in 1928-29, agriculture,
creasing role of government during the      set the stage for these developments.       mining, construction and trade were
20th century.51 But what impact did         Details are discussed in the articles of    added to the reporting. Several stud-
government intervention have on the         this issue.                                 ies addressed the issue of how to col-
workplace and on the workforce? This            Statistics are often lacking on the     lect unemployment statistics, a continu-
question is not easily answered. Even       American workforce at the beginning         ing and unresolved issue at that time.59
when there was workplace legislation,       of the 20th century as workforce data           The Great Depression provided the
one cannot ascribe changes in the           were restricted largely to special stud-    next great push to improved labor force
workplace to changes in the law. As         ies that addressed subjects like child      statistics. Modern-day employment
one observer notes, “government in-         labor, immigrant labor, and pensions.       statistics, unemployment statistics,
tervention often reinforced existing        Rudimentary statistics were produced        occupational statistics, and the like
trends, [such as in the case of] the de-    on wages and hours in manufacturing         grew out of the Great Depression. The
cline of child labor, the narrowing of      in 1904, but these series were discon-      creation of the Central Statistical Board,
the wage structure, and the decrease        tinued in 1908 for more investigative       in 1933, led to a number of new statisti-
in the hours of work.”52 In addition to     reporting.54                                cal initiatives. One created the Inter-
workplace legislation, there was legis-         Wage and hours surveys were re-         departmental Committee on Industrial
lation directed at larger societal issues   sumed in 1913, but resources permit-        Classification, in 1937, that resulted in
that had a dramatic impact on the work-     ted only 10 industry studies every          the creation of the Standard Industrial
place.                                      other year. 55 These studies focused        Classification (SIC) system. This was
    A number of pieces of legislation       on industries, or industry groups, such     the first time that the United States had
dealt with the workforce and workplace      as cotton, wool and silk. For each study,   produced a comprehensive industry
in the 20th century. In addition, there     data were collected and published on        classification system. Until that point,
was general societal legislation that had   hourly wage rates, full-time weekly         industry data collection was pretty
an impact on the workforce and the          earnings, fluctuations in employment        much ad hoc, responding to immediate
workplace, although the focus of the        during the year, volume of employment,      needs and what could be collected,
legislation was elsewhere. Social in-       and productivity. In 1916, the Bureau       given the time and available funding.
surance legislation, such as Social Se-     of Labor Statistics (BLS) began to pub-     The result was different data definitions
curity and Medicare, had a profound         lish monthly employment series for five     and overlapping data collection. The
affect on the workforce and workplace       industries.56 This was the start of the     SIC underwent four major revisions
by providing many workers a retirement      establishment series on employment          before being replaced in 1997 by the
stipend and health insurance for the        and payrolls.                               North American Industry Classification
first time. Other legislation that had a        Gaps in labor force statistics became   System (NAICS).
profound impact on the workforce in-        apparent, with the mobilization for             The Great Depression spawned a
cludes the 1990 Americans with Dis-         World War I. Federal statistics were        number of new laws, such as the Fair
abilities Act, the post-World War II GI     “woefully incomplete and inadequate”        Labor Standards Act, which required

6   Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001
new statistics on the labor force. Col-      monthly reporting of industrial injuries.   President’s Concentrated Employment

                                                                                                                                      American Labor in the 20th Century
lection of unemployment statistics re-           Statistical data collection and re-     Program led to a series of studies on
mained an unresolved issue in the            ports were cut back following the con-      employment in poverty areas, and BLS
1930s. After many studies—and false          clusion of WWII; in fact, BLS staff was     introduced a quarterly series that
starts—a household survey was un-            cut by 40 percent.63 Data collection        tracked the situation in poverty areas
dertaken; and national unemployment          activities that remained were redirected    in the United States. The Comprehen-
estimates were produced, for the first       from wartime to post-war problems. At       sive Employment and Training Act of
time, in 1940. In 1938 the Central Statis-   about the same time, the Council of         1973 required information on unem-
tical Board and the American Statisti-       Economic Advisers and the Joint Eco-        ployment and poverty by detailed geo-
cal Association moved to develop an          nomic Committee were created. Almost        graphic area.67 This was also a period
occupational classification system that      immediately, these two organizations        when inflation was a major economic
reflected the similarity of work, educa-     focused attention on gaps in workforce      and political issue, and the Cost of Liv-
tion requirements, skill levels, and so-     data, leading to further changes in data    ing Council was established to provide
cioeconomic class. This new classifi-        collection and analysis. Worker bud-        guidelines on wage and price escala-
cation was used in the 1940 census and       get estimates were revised and calcu-       tion that put renewed emphasis on
the development of the Occupational          lated for large cities, benefit studies     price, wage and productivity statis-
Outlook Program. With the outbreak of        were undertaken, and industry produc-       tics.68
World War II, the statistical focus          tivity studies were re-instituted. In           The rest of the 20th century saw
changed from recession and depres-           1948, General Motors and the United         continuing improvement of workforce
sion to wartime needs.60                     Auto Workers agreed to use the CPI to       statistical data. These changes were
    There was need for greatly ex-           establish a wage-escalator clause,          evolutionary. While the decennial cen-
panded labor force statistics in World       which gave new emphasis to the CPI,         sus collected data on occupations, it
War II, as in World War I. United States     at a time when there was serious            was not until 1977 that the first Stan-
statistical data collection and analyses     thought in cutting back funding of the      dard Occupation Classification manual
shifted to focus on defense industries       index. 64 Occupational studies initially    was published. The manual grew out
and the wartime economy. Wages and           focused on veterans’ re-entry into the      of the Bureau of the Budget’s Office of
prices were controlled, and many items       labor force; later, studies reverted to     Federal Statistical Policy and Standards
were rationed. At the beginning of the       their prewar focus of providing data for    initiative to develop a single occupa-
war, employment and wage data were           counseling young people in their            tional classification system that would
collected on 90 industries; at the end       choice of careers.                          be used by all major U.S. statistical or-
of the war, data were collected on 180           With the advent of the Korean War,      ganizations. It was at this time that oc-
industries. New defense-related indus-       there were demands to update much of        cupational statistics were updated
tries sprung up overnight.61 There was       the statistical program, especially the     through a series of industry studies,
need for detailed, recurring data on         price and wage statistics which were        and an industry-occupation matrix was
price and wage changes. Occupational         needed to set price and wage guide-         developed for the first time. These sta-
wage studies were expanded and refo-         lines. A revised CPI was instituted; and    tistics were necessary ingredients to
cused on the occupational skills             collective bargaining agreements were       the preparation of the industry and
needed by private industry to meet mili-     tracked, summarized, and published.         occupational projections. But this was
tary needs. In order to set and control      The Wage Stabilization Board used the       not all. There were revisions in the in-
wages, wage reports were broken down         wage data to establish guidelines.65        dustry and occupational classifications
by area and occupational group. Thou-            The Vietnam War did not require the     and additional minority and demo-
sands of interplant wage inequity cases      massive development of new data, as         graphic data collected. Wage data has
had to be heard and resolved, which          had the earlier wars of the 20th cen-       also undergone major expansion to cap-
required additional labor force informa-     tury. But the so-called “War on Pov-        ture total compensation. In 1980, the
tion. The Cost of Living Index became        erty” introduced a whole new set of         Employment Cost Index included ben-
a contentious political issue during the     statistical requirements for information    efits for the first time; and indexes were
Second World War, because it was used        on the poor, unemployed, and minori-        calculated and presented by occupa-
to adjust and set wages. Basic issues,       ties. The 1963 Vocational Education Act     tional group and major industry.69
including changes in the quality of          required the States to develop infor-
products and substitution affects, were      mation on future occupations. This led      What comes next?
the same ones that continue to torment       to the development of occupational          The following articles discuss work-
developers of these indexes today. In        statistics by industry.66 Many of the       place compensation, how it evolved,
1945, the name of the index was              revisions and improvements in data did      and how it was measured in the 20th
changed to the Consumer Price Index. 62      not take place until the 1970s, when        century.
The World War II era also saw the ex-        new income support and training laws
pansion of productivity studies and          prompted more detailed reporting. The

                                                                              Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001      7
       U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical          19
                                                          Ibid.                                        to 1970, Part 1, Series A 1-5, p. 8; Census
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times       20
                                                          Ibid. (visited Jan. 23, 2001), and Monthly   Bureau, “Resident Population Estimates of
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 11-25, p. 127.           Labor Review, November 2000, table 13, p.           the United States by Age and Sex,” on the
       Employment and Earnings, January            66.                                                 Internet at
2000, p. 10.                                           21
                                                          U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical        tion/estimates/nation/intfile2-1.txt (vis-
       U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical       Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times     ited July 17, 2001); and Census Bureau, “Resi-
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times    to 1970, Part 1, Series M 271-86, p. 607.           dent Population of the 50 States, the Dis-
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 152-66, p. 138.              22
                                                          “National Census of Fatal Occupational       trict of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: Census
      Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the   Injuries, 1999,” USDL 00-236 (Bureau of La-         2 0 0 0 , ” o n t h e I n t e r n e t a t http://
United States: 2000, tables 656 and 682, pp.       bor Statistics, Aug. 17, 2000), table 3, p. 8.
410 and 426.                                           23
                                                          U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical        nation/intfile2-1.txt (visited July 17, 2001).
       U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical       Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times            U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times    to 1970, Part 2, Series Q 398-409, p. 740.          Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 11-25, p. 128. Data          24
                                                          “National Census of Fatal Occupational       to 1970, Part 1, Series C 88-119, p. 105.
are for persons aged 10 years and older re-        Injuries, 1999,” USDL 00-236 (Bureau of La-                Ibid., Part 1, Series C 120-37, p. 110.
porting a gainful occupation.                      bor Statistics, Aug. 17, 2000), table 1, p. 6.             Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of
       Employment and Earnings, January                25
                                                          U.S. Department of Labor, “Two Hun-          the United States: 2000, table 6, p. 9, and
2000, table A-3, p. 12.                            dred Years of Work in America,” 1976.               U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service,
      Caplow, Theodore, Louis Hicks, and Ben           26
                                                          U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical        Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and
J. Wattenberg, The First Measured Century:         Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times     Naturalization Service, 1998 (Washington,
An Illustrated Guide to Trends in America,         to 1970, Part 1, Series D 85-86, p. 135.            U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000).
1900-2000 (Washington, AEI Press, 2000)                27
                                                          Monthly Labor Review, November 2000,         Data is for fiscal year ending September 30.
pp. 44-45.                                         table 1, p. 56.                                            Goldin, p. 53.
      Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the       28
                                                          Goldin, Claudia, “Labor Markets in the              U.S. Council of Economic Advisors, p.
United States: 2000, table 669, p. 416.            Twentieth Century” Working Paper H0058              278.
       See U.S. Bureau of the Census, Histori-     (Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Eco-                    Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of
cal Statistics of the United States, Colonial      nomic Research, June 1994) pp. 34-36.               the United States: 2000, table 249, p. 157.
Times to 1970, p. 134.                                 29
                                                          Monthly Labor Review, November 2000,                Ibid., table 1426, p. 877.
        U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical      table 7, p. 61.                                            Ibid., table 249, p. 157.
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times        30
                                                          Cycles are counted peak to peak.                    U.S. Department of Labor, Report on
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 26-35, p. 72.                31
                                                          U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical        the American Workforce, 1999, p. 56.
        Employment and Earnings, January           Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times            Goldin, p. 50.
2000, tables A-3 and A-4, pp. 12-13.               to 1970, Part 1, Series D 85-86, p. 135;                   Ibid., pp. 5-6.
        U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical      Caplow, Hicks, and Wattenberg, pp. 44-45;                  Ibid., p. 6.
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times    and Bureau of Labor Statistics, on the Internet            Ibid., p. 46.
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 59-70, p. 9.             at (vis-                   Goldberg, Joseph P and William T.
        U.S. Council of Economic Advisors,         ited Nov. 28, 2000).                                Moye, The First Hundred Years of the Bu-
2000, Economic Report to the President,                32
                                                          U.S. Council of Economic Advisors, p.        reau of Labor Statistics (Washington, U.S.
2000 (Washington, U.S. Government Print-           279.                                                Government Printing Office, 1995), pp. 37-
ing Office, 2000) pp. 279.                             33
                                                          Ibid. p. 278.                                38.
       Caplow, Hicks, and Wattenberg, 2000,            34
                                                          Ibid., pp. 100-01 and 281.                          Ibid., pp. 93-94.
pp. 160-61.                                            35
                                                          Ibid., table 3-2, p. 113.                           Ibid., p. 97.
       Employer Costs for Employer Compen-             36
                                                           “Multifactor Productivity Trends,                  Ibid., p. 101.
sation, 1986-99, text table 1, p. 2.               1998,” USDL 00-267 (Bureau of Labor Sta-                   Ibid., p. 107.
        U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical      tistics, Sept. 21, 2000), table 7, p. 22.                  Ibid., pp. 128-31.
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times        37
                                                          U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical               Ibid., p. 167.
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 905-12, pp. 174-         Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times            Ibid., p. 165.
75.                                                to 1970, Part 1, Series B 107-15, p. 55.                   Ibid., p. 158.
        U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical          38
                                                          Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of              Ibid., p. 178.
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times    the United States: 2000, table 116, p. 84.                 Ibid., p. 179.
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 765-78, p. 168.              39
                                                          U.S. Council of Economic Advisors, pp.              Ibid., p. 202.
       Bureau of Labor Statistics, on the          278 and 280.                                               Ibid., p. 240.
Internet        at            40
                                                          U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical               Ibid., p. 241.
ceshome.htm (visited Nov. 28, 2000).               Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times            Ibid., p. 249.
                                                                                                              Ibid., pp. 248-49.

8   Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001

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