Report on the American Workforce
American Labor in the 20th Century
in the 20th Century
DONALD M. FISK
he 20th century was a remark- composition, compensation, work-
able period for the American place, and very nature of work also
worker, as wages rose, fringe changed during the century.
benefits grew, and working conditions Over the course of the 20th century,
improved. Even though many statis- the composition of the labor force
tics were sketchy at the beginning of shifted from industries dominated by
the century, the picture is clear: The primary production occupations, such
American workforce was much better as farmers and foresters, to those domi-
off at the end of the century than it was nated by professional, technical, and
at the beginning. The statistics used service workers. At the turn of the cen-
to understand the condition of work- tury, about 38 percent of the labor force
ing Americans also improved over the worked on farms. By the end of the
course of the century, as we discuss in century, that figure was less than 3 per-
these articles excerpted from the Re- cent. Likewise, the percent who worked
port on the American Workforce (U.S. in goods-producing industries, such as
Department of Labor, 2001). mining, manufacturing, and construc-
Comparison of the American tion, decreased from 31 to 19 percent
workforce at the end of the 20th cen- of the workforce. Service industries
tury with that at the beginning shows were the growth sector during the 20th
numerous changes. Some of these are century, jumping from 31 percent3 of
dramatic; others less so. Many of all workers in 1900 to 78 percent4 in
these changes are well known, but 1999.
some are not. In certain cases, statisti- The labor force composition shifted
cal data are lacking to make quantita- in other ways too. Female participa-
tive comparisons between the begin- tion in the labor market grew dramati-
ning and end of the century; but most cally in the 20th century. In 1900, only
of the changes are discernible, never- 19 percent5 of women of working age
theless. participated in the labor force, whereas
The size of the Nation’s workforce 60 percent6 of them did in 1999. Fur-
increased roughly six fold during the thermore, there was a marked change
20th century. The workforce registered in female occupational employment. In
24 million in 1900 with those aged 10 1900, only 1 percent of the lawyers and
Donald M. Fisk, Economist, Division of In- and above reporting a gainful occupa- 6 percent of the Nation’s physicians
dustry Productivity Studies, Office of Pro- tion;1 in 1999 it was 139 million (aged were women.7 In 1999, the figures were
ductivity and Technology.
Telephone: 202-691-5625 16 and older).2 But it is not just the 29 percent for lawyers and 24 percent
E-mail: Fisk_D@bls.gov sheer numbers that are striking. The
Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001 3
for physicians.8 tury, although in real terms they seem statistics are not available for most in-
Child labor was common at the turn to have leveled off during the last quar- dustries at the turn of the century.
of the century, and many families ter of the century. If total compensa- Moreover, injury data are not available
needed the income earned by their chil- tion—wages, salaries and benefits— at the beginning of the century for any
dren to survive. The 1900 census is examined, the trend remains positive. industry. Some national injury data
counted 1.75 million individuals aged The average workweek changed were collected in 1911, but detailed sta-
10 to 15 who were gainful workers.9 At dramatically during the 20th century. tistics were not available until later in
that time, these children comprised 6 In 1900, the average workweek in manu- the century. Whether accidents are
percent of the labor force. There were facturing was 53 hours,17 and in 1999 it fatal or not, statistics indicate that they
no national laws that governed child was about 42 hours.18 But the decline are less common, and the workplace is
labor, and while some States enacted was not steady, as the workweek is very a much safer place, for the worker at
and enforced such laws, most did not. sensitive to business conditions. Dur- the end of the century than at the be-
By 1999, Federal and State law regu- ing the Great Depression, the average ginning.
lated child labor; and Federal law ef- number of hours per workweek for pro- If an employee was injured on the
fectively prohibited full-time workers duction workers in manufacturing job in 1900, his only recourse for com-
under the age of 16. dropped as low as 34.6. During World pensation was to sue for damages.
Statistics are sparse on minority par- War II, it rose to 45.2 hours at one Such lawsuits were generally unsuc-
ticipation in the labor force at the turn point. After the War, it stabilized at cessful. It is estimated that at that time
of the century, even by the standards about 40 hours per week. The normal only 15 percent of workers injured on
of the day. Using the terminology of range for the four decades after World the job were successful in obtaining
the day, census data show that the War II was 39 to 41 hours per week, but any damages under common law. 25 By
nonwhite workforce numbered a little the factory workweek exceeded 41 1999, there were a number of govern-
under 3.8 million in 1900. This was hours for most of the 1992-1999 pe- ment programs that assisted those in-
about 14 percent of the labor force.10 riod.19 jured on the job. Long-term disability
In 1999, the black workforce numbered The number of hours at work varies payments, Worker’s Compensation,
16.5 million, or about 12 percent, of the by industry sector, as well as in re- and other provisions in statute or con-
labor force.11 There were also Ameri- sponse to the state of the economy. In tracts provided safety nets for the
can Indians, Japanese, and Chinese in 1999, the weekly average for the total worker in 1999 that did not exist in 1900.
the labor force at the turn of the cen- private sector was 34.5 hours; and the Unemployment is estimated at 5 per-
tury, but their numbers were few com- average for the total goods-producing cent26 in 1900; in 1999 it averaged 4.2
pared with the Negro.12 By 1999, the sector was 41.0 hours. The retail trade percent.27 While these two figures are
other minority groups had increased, sector average workweek was 29 hours, not much different, they reflect very
but blacks remained the largest racial wholesale was 38.3, construction was different dynamics. Data from four
minority group. 39.1, and mining was 43.8. Average re- States—California, Kansas, Maine, and
In 1900, per capita income (in 1999 tail trade hours, for example, have shown Michigan—and the 1910 census sug-
dollars) was $4,200; it was about a fairly constant drop since 1947, as gest that workers around the turn of
$33,700 in 1999.13 The average hourly industry added more part-time work- the century faced a high probability of
pay of manufacturing production work- ers.20 Mining hours, on the other hand, being laid off or unemployed sometime
ers in 1999 was $13.90; in 1909, the first rose over that period. Workweeks in during the year. But the length of time
measured year, it was about $3.80 (in some sectors, such as manufacturing one was unemployed was likely to be
1999 dollars).14 In addition to wages and construction, are impacted by shorter than it was at the end of the
and salaries, benefits comprised a ma- changes in the economy; and many century.28 In 1999, the median dura-
jor part of employee compensation at sectors, including retail trade and con- tion of unemployment was 6.4 weeks.29
the end of the 20th century. Statistics struction, are affected by seasonal There were 19 business cycles in the
show that benefits averaged $5.58 per changes. 20th century.30 As a result, the cen-
hour—or 27.5 percent of total compen- Workplace safety improved dra- tury experienced periods of very low
sation—in 1999.15 Benefit data are not matically during the 20th century. Al- unemployment and periods of ex-
available for the beginning of the cen- most 1,500 workers 21 were killed in coal tremely high unemployment. Between
tury, but benefits were minimal—if mine accidents in 1900. However, in 1900 and 1908, the unemployment rate
available at all—to workers in the in- 1999, the figure 22 was 35. And it was fell below 3 percent. Later in the cen-
dustrial economy. One compensation not just coal mines that were unsafe. tury, rates above 8 percent were re-
series shows that benefits accounted There were 2,550 railroad workers 2 3 corded during recessions, such as
for a little more than 1 percent of total killed in 1900, compared with 56 in those in 1915, 1921, 1975, and 1982. The
compensation in 1929, the first year 1999.24 highest rates of unemployment came
measured.16 Wages and salaries im- These two industries were picked during the Great Depression, when
proved during the course of the cen- because of data availability, as fatality there were rates above 20 percent for
4 Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001
several years. In 1933, there were more century.33 New machines introduced In 1999, the economy consumed over
American Labor in the 20th Century
than 12 million workers unemployed; in the home in the 20th century in- one trillion dollars of fixed capital.
and the unemployment rate averaged cluded the refrigerator, dishwasher, Without capital, technology would not
24.9 percent. More recently, double- clothes washer, dryer, iron, vacuum have made its way into the workplace.
digit unemployment rates were re- cleaner, microwave oven, automatic Changes in the demographics of the
corded during parts of 1982 and 1983, toaster, electric razor, and electric population in the 20th century had a
but there was a fairly steady decline hairdryer. In addition, there was pre- profound impact on the workplace. The
from 7.8 percent in mid-1992 to 4.1 per- packaged food, frozen food, and a host population aged, became more diverse,
cent at the end of 1999.31 of other convenience items. The list and grew dramatically. In 1900, the life
could extend for many pages. Expan- expectancy of a newborn was 47.3
Forces of change sion of the paid workforce was certainly years;37 in 1999 it was 77.0.38 In 1900,
What forces underlie the changes of facilitated by these labor-saving goods 80 percent of American children had a
the workforce in the 20th century? and devices that were introduced into working father and a stay-at-home
Technology, capital, demography, im- the home in the 20th century. mother, however, by 1999, that figure
migration, education, and government Likewise, technological improve- was only 24 percent.39 The population
intervention are often mentioned. In ments have worked their way through- at the beginning of the century was 76
most cases, it is impossible to point to out the economy. Medical advances million, but approached 280 million by
a single force or action that led to have extended the life span of individu- the end of the century. (The official 1999
changes in the workforce. Most als and have led to fewer and less se- Census count is 273 million, but the
changes reflect the confluence of sev- vere illnesses, allowing workers to work 2000 Census counted 281 million).40
eral factors or events. longer with fewer debilitating illnesses. Immigration was crucial to the de-
Technology entered the workplace Those injured on the job were more velopment of the U.S. economy and the
in a massive way in the 20th century. likely to return to work sooner. There workplace in the 20th century. In 1900,
The list of technological improvements was a host of new drugs and medical 448,572 individuals passed through im-
in the workplace in the last century is procedures; and new contraceptives migration control, and for the decade
almost endless: Communication de- facilitated family planning, especially as a whole (1900-9) there were 8.2 mil-
vices, measuring devices, computer impacting women workers. Major lion.41 Those of work age had come to
controlled equipment, the x-ray, wind changes in transportation, primarily the find employment and a stake in a better
tunnel, arc welder, circuit breaker, tran- use of the automobile, led to massive job. Most were laborers or listed no
sistor, geiger counter, laser, neon lamp, shifts in the location of the workplace. occupation on their entry documents.42
teletype, fiber optics, stainless steel, Factories were resettled to areas of (Recent numbers are only slightly larger
and the atomic clock. The list goes on cheap land and built on single levels. and, as a proportion to the overall
and on. At the turn of the century, only No longer were factories tied to the city. population, a great deal smaller.) In
5 percent of the Nation’s factories used The explosion of communications per- 1998, there were 660,477 legal immi-
electricity to power their machines.32 mitted further dispersal of the work- grants; and for the decade as a whole
However, by the end of the century, place. The automobile also led to dis- (1990-99), there were close to 10 mil-
electrical powered machines were om- persion of the home and shopping. lion.43 During the 1930s and 1940s, in
nipresent; and heating, air condition- Computers were a major factor in the contrast, immigration dropped to less
ing, and air filtration were common in economic growth of the last decade of than 100,000 per year, as a result of the
the workplace. And technological im- the 20th century, but the overall impor- strict quota system established under
provements often resulted in improved tance of computers in the economy and the National Origin Act of 1929. But
safety in the workplace, as technology workplace will not be known for de- the Immigration and Naturalization Act
replaced the worker in some of the more cades.34 of 1965 removed racial quotas and
dangerous tasks. To put the new technology to work opened the doors to a large number of
Additionally, technological im- often required massive amounts of capi- non-European immigrants. Immigration
provements that entered the home in tal. In 1996, for example, investment in laws had a major impact on the labor
the 20th century led to major changes information technology per worker was force. Indeed, one observer suggests
in the workplace, as more homemakers $29,200 for telecommunications; $7,600 “that quotas restricting the less-skilled
were able to shift some of their time for real estate; and $4,600 for rail- immigrant labor were the single most
from home production to paid jobs. At roads.35 While real capital input in- important piece of labor legislation in
the same time, new industries were cre- creased 3.8 percent per year between the twentieth century.”44
ated to serve the home; and existing 1948 and 1998 for the private sector, However, it was not just immigra-
industries expanded. Electricity was in information equipment and software tion that changed the workplace in the
less than 10 percent of the Nation’s increased 11.4 percent per year; and 20th century. Education played an im-
homes at the turn of the century, but it computers and related equipment soft- portant role in the advancement of the
was almost universal by the end of the ware increased 27.8 percent per year. 36 individual worker, the workforce, and
Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001 5
the economy; and during the 20th cen- Bill, and the Civil Rights Act. Studies according to Bernard Baruch, Chairman
tury, there was a steady increase in show that the Civil Rights Act of 1964, of the War Industries Board.57 War-
educational attainment. In 1900, less specifically Title VII, had an important time needs led to a massive expansion
than 14 percent of all Americans gradu- affect on hiring of black workers.5 3 of statistical data. Prices and wages
ated from high school.45 By 1999, that Other actions that impacted the were of immediate concern, since wage
figure had increased to 83 percent.46 workforce indirectly include the fund- rates needed to be adjusted to keep
In 1910, the first year for which esti- ing and building of the interstate high- pace with inflation. In 1918, wage and
mates are available, less than 3 percent way system, funding of research and hour surveys were expanded to 780
of the population had graduated from development, and enforcing patent and occupations in 28 industries, covering
a school of higher learning.47 By 1999, copyright laws. 2,365 establishments in 43 States.5 8
the figure was 25 percent.48 Further- There was also increased interest in in-
more, increased education resulted in Counting the changes formation on strikes and lockouts. With
substantial monetary payoff for the in- Much of what we know about the im- the termination of the war, statistical
dividual worker. Men with college de- provements in the workforce came from budgets were trimmed, and the wage
grees earned 62 percent more and the advancements that were made in and hour program was reduced to its
women 65 percent more in hourly com- counting the workforce in the 20th cen- prewar level.
pensation than did those with a high tury. Important developments came in The next surge of interest in labor
school degree at the end of the cen- methodology and data gathering. In statistics came in the latter part of the
tury (1997).49 A substantial part of the addition, there was a major expansion 1920s. By 1927, there was monthly re-
growth of the economy is attributable of the data collection effort. Here, we porting of employment on 54 manufac-
to increased education.50 briefly touch on some of these improve- turing industries covering 11,000 estab-
There is no question about the in- ments and the underlying forces that lishments; and in 1928-29, agriculture,
creasing role of government during the set the stage for these developments. mining, construction and trade were
20th century.51 But what impact did Details are discussed in the articles of added to the reporting. Several stud-
government intervention have on the this issue. ies addressed the issue of how to col-
workplace and on the workforce? This Statistics are often lacking on the lect unemployment statistics, a continu-
question is not easily answered. Even American workforce at the beginning ing and unresolved issue at that time.59
when there was workplace legislation, of the 20th century as workforce data The Great Depression provided the
one cannot ascribe changes in the were restricted largely to special stud- next great push to improved labor force
workplace to changes in the law. As ies that addressed subjects like child statistics. Modern-day employment
one observer notes, “government in- labor, immigrant labor, and pensions. statistics, unemployment statistics,
tervention often reinforced existing Rudimentary statistics were produced occupational statistics, and the like
trends, [such as in the case of] the de- on wages and hours in manufacturing grew out of the Great Depression. The
cline of child labor, the narrowing of in 1904, but these series were discon- creation of the Central Statistical Board,
the wage structure, and the decrease tinued in 1908 for more investigative in 1933, led to a number of new statisti-
in the hours of work.”52 In addition to reporting.54 cal initiatives. One created the Inter-
workplace legislation, there was legis- Wage and hours surveys were re- departmental Committee on Industrial
lation directed at larger societal issues sumed in 1913, but resources permit- Classification, in 1937, that resulted in
that had a dramatic impact on the work- ted only 10 industry studies every the creation of the Standard Industrial
place. other year. 55 These studies focused Classification (SIC) system. This was
A number of pieces of legislation on industries, or industry groups, such the first time that the United States had
dealt with the workforce and workplace as cotton, wool and silk. For each study, produced a comprehensive industry
in the 20th century. In addition, there data were collected and published on classification system. Until that point,
was general societal legislation that had hourly wage rates, full-time weekly industry data collection was pretty
an impact on the workforce and the earnings, fluctuations in employment much ad hoc, responding to immediate
workplace, although the focus of the during the year, volume of employment, needs and what could be collected,
legislation was elsewhere. Social in- and productivity. In 1916, the Bureau given the time and available funding.
surance legislation, such as Social Se- of Labor Statistics (BLS) began to pub- The result was different data definitions
curity and Medicare, had a profound lish monthly employment series for five and overlapping data collection. The
affect on the workforce and workplace industries.56 This was the start of the SIC underwent four major revisions
by providing many workers a retirement establishment series on employment before being replaced in 1997 by the
stipend and health insurance for the and payrolls. North American Industry Classification
first time. Other legislation that had a Gaps in labor force statistics became System (NAICS).
profound impact on the workforce in- apparent, with the mobilization for The Great Depression spawned a
cludes the 1990 Americans with Dis- World War I. Federal statistics were number of new laws, such as the Fair
abilities Act, the post-World War II GI “woefully incomplete and inadequate” Labor Standards Act, which required
6 Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001
new statistics on the labor force. Col- monthly reporting of industrial injuries. President’s Concentrated Employment
American Labor in the 20th Century
lection of unemployment statistics re- Statistical data collection and re- Program led to a series of studies on
mained an unresolved issue in the ports were cut back following the con- employment in poverty areas, and BLS
1930s. After many studies—and false clusion of WWII; in fact, BLS staff was introduced a quarterly series that
starts—a household survey was un- cut by 40 percent.63 Data collection tracked the situation in poverty areas
dertaken; and national unemployment activities that remained were redirected in the United States. The Comprehen-
estimates were produced, for the first from wartime to post-war problems. At sive Employment and Training Act of
time, in 1940. In 1938 the Central Statis- about the same time, the Council of 1973 required information on unem-
tical Board and the American Statisti- Economic Advisers and the Joint Eco- ployment and poverty by detailed geo-
cal Association moved to develop an nomic Committee were created. Almost graphic area.67 This was also a period
occupational classification system that immediately, these two organizations when inflation was a major economic
reflected the similarity of work, educa- focused attention on gaps in workforce and political issue, and the Cost of Liv-
tion requirements, skill levels, and so- data, leading to further changes in data ing Council was established to provide
cioeconomic class. This new classifi- collection and analysis. Worker bud- guidelines on wage and price escala-
cation was used in the 1940 census and get estimates were revised and calcu- tion that put renewed emphasis on
the development of the Occupational lated for large cities, benefit studies price, wage and productivity statis-
Outlook Program. With the outbreak of were undertaken, and industry produc- tics.68
World War II, the statistical focus tivity studies were re-instituted. In The rest of the 20th century saw
changed from recession and depres- 1948, General Motors and the United continuing improvement of workforce
sion to wartime needs.60 Auto Workers agreed to use the CPI to statistical data. These changes were
There was need for greatly ex- establish a wage-escalator clause, evolutionary. While the decennial cen-
panded labor force statistics in World which gave new emphasis to the CPI, sus collected data on occupations, it
War II, as in World War I. United States at a time when there was serious was not until 1977 that the first Stan-
statistical data collection and analyses thought in cutting back funding of the dard Occupation Classification manual
shifted to focus on defense industries index. 64 Occupational studies initially was published. The manual grew out
and the wartime economy. Wages and focused on veterans’ re-entry into the of the Bureau of the Budget’s Office of
prices were controlled, and many items labor force; later, studies reverted to Federal Statistical Policy and Standards
were rationed. At the beginning of the their prewar focus of providing data for initiative to develop a single occupa-
war, employment and wage data were counseling young people in their tional classification system that would
collected on 90 industries; at the end choice of careers. be used by all major U.S. statistical or-
of the war, data were collected on 180 With the advent of the Korean War, ganizations. It was at this time that oc-
industries. New defense-related indus- there were demands to update much of cupational statistics were updated
tries sprung up overnight.61 There was the statistical program, especially the through a series of industry studies,
need for detailed, recurring data on price and wage statistics which were and an industry-occupation matrix was
price and wage changes. Occupational needed to set price and wage guide- developed for the first time. These sta-
wage studies were expanded and refo- lines. A revised CPI was instituted; and tistics were necessary ingredients to
cused on the occupational skills collective bargaining agreements were the preparation of the industry and
needed by private industry to meet mili- tracked, summarized, and published. occupational projections. But this was
tary needs. In order to set and control The Wage Stabilization Board used the not all. There were revisions in the in-
wages, wage reports were broken down wage data to establish guidelines.65 dustry and occupational classifications
by area and occupational group. Thou- The Vietnam War did not require the and additional minority and demo-
sands of interplant wage inequity cases massive development of new data, as graphic data collected. Wage data has
had to be heard and resolved, which had the earlier wars of the 20th cen- also undergone major expansion to cap-
required additional labor force informa- tury. But the so-called “War on Pov- ture total compensation. In 1980, the
tion. The Cost of Living Index became erty” introduced a whole new set of Employment Cost Index included ben-
a contentious political issue during the statistical requirements for information efits for the first time; and indexes were
Second World War, because it was used on the poor, unemployed, and minori- calculated and presented by occupa-
to adjust and set wages. Basic issues, ties. The 1963 Vocational Education Act tional group and major industry.69
including changes in the quality of required the States to develop infor-
products and substitution affects, were mation on future occupations. This led What comes next?
the same ones that continue to torment to the development of occupational The following articles discuss work-
developers of these indexes today. In statistics by industry.66 Many of the place compensation, how it evolved,
1945, the name of the index was revisions and improvements in data did and how it was measured in the 20th
changed to the Consumer Price Index. 62 not take place until the 1970s, when century.
The World War II era also saw the ex- new income support and training laws
pansion of productivity studies and prompted more detailed reporting. The
Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001 7
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical 19
Ibid. to 1970, Part 1, Series A 1-5, p. 8; Census
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times 20
Ibid. (visited Jan. 23, 2001), and Monthly Bureau, “Resident Population Estimates of
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 11-25, p. 127. Labor Review, November 2000, table 13, p. the United States by Age and Sex,” on the
Employment and Earnings, January 66. Internet at http://www.census.gov/popula-
2000, p. 10. 21
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical tion/estimates/nation/intfile2-1.txt (vis-
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times ited July 17, 2001); and Census Bureau, “Resi-
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, Part 1, Series M 271-86, p. 607. dent Population of the 50 States, the Dis-
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 152-66, p. 138. 22
“National Census of Fatal Occupational trict of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: Census
Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the Injuries, 1999,” USDL 00-236 (Bureau of La- 2 0 0 0 , ” o n t h e I n t e r n e t a t http://
United States: 2000, tables 656 and 682, pp. bor Statistics, Aug. 17, 2000), table 3, p. 8. www.census.gov/population/estimates/
410 and 426. 23
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical nation/intfile2-1.txt (visited July 17, 2001).
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times to 1970, Part 2, Series Q 398-409, p. 740. Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 11-25, p. 128. Data 24
“National Census of Fatal Occupational to 1970, Part 1, Series C 88-119, p. 105.
are for persons aged 10 years and older re- Injuries, 1999,” USDL 00-236 (Bureau of La- Ibid., Part 1, Series C 120-37, p. 110.
porting a gainful occupation. bor Statistics, Aug. 17, 2000), table 1, p. 6. Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of
Employment and Earnings, January 25
U.S. Department of Labor, “Two Hun- the United States: 2000, table 6, p. 9, and
2000, table A-3, p. 12. dred Years of Work in America,” 1976. U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service,
Caplow, Theodore, Louis Hicks, and Ben 26
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Statistical Yearbook of the Immigration and
J. Wattenberg, The First Measured Century: Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times Naturalization Service, 1998 (Washington,
An Illustrated Guide to Trends in America, to 1970, Part 1, Series D 85-86, p. 135. U.S. Government Printing Office, 2000).
1900-2000 (Washington, AEI Press, 2000) 27
Monthly Labor Review, November 2000, Data is for fiscal year ending September 30.
pp. 44-45. table 1, p. 56. Goldin, p. 53.
Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of the 28
Goldin, Claudia, “Labor Markets in the U.S. Council of Economic Advisors, p.
United States: 2000, table 669, p. 416. Twentieth Century” Working Paper H0058 278.
See U.S. Bureau of the Census, Histori- (Cambridge, MA, National Bureau of Eco- Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of
cal Statistics of the United States, Colonial nomic Research, June 1994) pp. 34-36. the United States: 2000, table 249, p. 157.
Times to 1970, p. 134. 29
Monthly Labor Review, November 2000, Ibid., table 1426, p. 877.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical table 7, p. 61. Ibid., table 249, p. 157.
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times 30
Cycles are counted peak to peak. U.S. Department of Labor, Report on
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 26-35, p. 72. 31
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical the American Workforce, 1999, p. 56.
Employment and Earnings, January Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times Goldin, p. 50.
2000, tables A-3 and A-4, pp. 12-13. to 1970, Part 1, Series D 85-86, p. 135; Ibid., pp. 5-6.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Caplow, Hicks, and Wattenberg, pp. 44-45; Ibid., p. 6.
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times and Bureau of Labor Statistics, on the Internet Ibid., p. 46.
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 59-70, p. 9. at http://stats.bls.gov/ceshome.htm (vis- Goldberg, Joseph P and William T.
U.S. Council of Economic Advisors, ited Nov. 28, 2000). Moye, The First Hundred Years of the Bu-
2000, Economic Report to the President, 32
U.S. Council of Economic Advisors, p. reau of Labor Statistics (Washington, U.S.
2000 (Washington, U.S. Government Print- 279. Government Printing Office, 1995), pp. 37-
ing Office, 2000) pp. 279. 33
Ibid. p. 278. 38.
Caplow, Hicks, and Wattenberg, 2000, 34
Ibid., pp. 100-01 and 281. Ibid., pp. 93-94.
pp. 160-61. 35
Ibid., table 3-2, p. 113. Ibid., p. 97.
Employer Costs for Employer Compen- 36
“Multifactor Productivity Trends, Ibid., p. 101.
sation, 1986-99, text table 1, p. 2. 1998,” USDL 00-267 (Bureau of Labor Sta- Ibid., p. 107.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical tistics, Sept. 21, 2000), table 7, p. 22. Ibid., pp. 128-31.
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times 37
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Ibid., p. 167.
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 905-12, pp. 174- Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times Ibid., p. 165.
75. to 1970, Part 1, Series B 107-15, p. 55. Ibid., p. 158.
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical 38
Census Bureau, Statistical Abstract of Ibid., p. 178.
Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times the United States: 2000, table 116, p. 84. Ibid., p. 179.
to 1970, Part 1, Series D 765-78, p. 168. 39
U.S. Council of Economic Advisors, pp. Ibid., p. 202.
Bureau of Labor Statistics, on the 278 and 280. Ibid., p. 240.
Internet at http://stats.bls.gov/ 40
U.S. Bureau of the Census, Historical Ibid., p. 241.
ceshome.htm (visited Nov. 28, 2000). Statistics of the United States, Colonial Times Ibid., p. 249.
Ibid., pp. 248-49.
8 Compensation and Working Conditions Fall 2001