Morals and Ethics

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					Ethics and Leadership
                       Outline
   Moral Development
       Freudian Theory

       Kohlberg’s and Gilligan’s Levels

       Social Learning Theory
           Psychodynamic Theory
   Sigmund Freud: Three part construction of personality

   Id
        Home of primitive animalistic energy and subconscious drives
         such as hunger and sex.


   Ego
        The conscious, rational aspect of personality which mediates
         between the demands of the id and the behavioral expectations
         of the world. The ego exercises reason and sanity, evaluates
         consequences, and determines a course of action.


   Superego
        Develops between ages 3-5 – one’s conscience. An internalized
         sense of morality learned from one’s parents. Yields guilt when
         disobeyed.
           Critical Assessment of
              Freudian Theory
   On what evidence is Freudian theory
    based?
       Freud’s experience was largely limited to
        troubled, wealthy women. He never worked
        with children.
       There is no empirical evidence supporting
        many of his theoretical constructs
       Lacking empirical verification, many of his
        theories are not clearly defined or explained.
               Kohlberg’s Levels
• Kohlberg’s theory has 3 levels (6 stages)
  of moral development
       Focuses primarily on moral values such as
        fairness, justice, equity, and human dignity
   Assessing development level
       Heinz dilemma
       It is the reasoning of their responses, not the
        answer itself.
            Heinz’s Dilemma
In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind
of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought
might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist
in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was
expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten
times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for
the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the
drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to
everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could
only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it
cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and
asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the
druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going
to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and
broke into the man's store to steal the drug for his wife.
Should the husband have done that?
Kohlberg’s Levels

                      Morality of abstract
Postconventional      principles: to affirm
      level         agreed-upon rights and
                   personal ethical principles



 Conventional         Morality of law and
    level             social rules: to gain
                       approval or avoid
                          disapproval


Preconventional    Morality of self-interest:
     level           to avoid punishment
                   or gain concrete rewards
                Kohlbergs Theory
   Level I: Preconventional
       Morality externally controlled-
               punishment = bad reward=good

       Stage I: Punishment and obedience
        orientation….
              obey due to superior power and rules
              Fear of authority and avoid punishment
              Ignore peoples intentions –can not see two points of
               view
              Level I Kohlberg
   Stage II: Individualism, Instrumental
    purpose, and exchange…
          Immediate interest; what is good brings good results
          Reciprocity beginning—equal exchange of favors
          Start to understand that people can have different
           perspectives in a dilemma
                 Kohlberg’s Theory
   Level II-Conventional Morality
       Preserving societal order---sustaining
        relationships

       STAGE 3: Interpersonal Expectations and
        Conformity
               ―good boy/bad girl‖ maintain affection and approval of
                significant individuals
               Promotion of social harmony
               Begin to understand idea behind the golden rule—ideal
                reciprocity
              Level II Kohlberg
   STAGE 4: Social-order Maintenance
          Moral actions are defined by larger social groups—fulfill self-
           defined duties and uphold laws
          Societal laws taken into consideration and can not be broken
           for any reason
                 Kohlberg’s Theory
   Level III: Post Conventional Morality
       More abstract principles rather than rules that
        apply to many situations

       STAGE 5: Social Contract
               Imagine alternatives to social order, rules are a contract
                that can be changed—free and willing participation
               Laws need to be consistent with human rights
             Level III Kohlberg
   STAGE 6: Universal Ethical Principles
          Self-chosen ethics –system of values and principles—
           respect for the worth of individuals
          Respect for worth and dignity of each individual
Moral Development
    Evaluating Kohlberg’s Theory
   Cross-cultural validity
       Non-western cultures rarely above stage 4
       Socialist people and the Heinz dilemma
       Buddhist monks
   Family influences
       Family plays an important role (ignored in Kohlberg’s
        model)
       Study of parents talking to children about dilemmas
    Gender and Kohlberg’s scale
   When Kohlberg’s instrument was administered on
    a large scale, it was discovered that females often
    scored a full stage below their male counterparts.

   The moral reasoning of women and girls was
    more likely to value looking for a solution that
    preserved connections. This often looked like the
    ―good girl‖ orientation, Level 2.

   Gilligan’s argument
          Men: justice and fairness
          Women: responsibility to show care and avoid harm
Differences between Men’s Moral
Voices and Women’s Moral Voices
Men                              Women
   Justice                         Care
   Rights
                                    Responsibility
   Treating everyone fairly
    and the same                    Caring about
   Apply rules impartially to       everyone’s suffering
    everyone                        Preserve emotional
   Responsibility toward            connectedness
    abstract codes of conduct
                                    Responsibility toward
                                     real individuals
Differences between Men’s and
   Women’s View of the Self
Men                             Women
   Autonomy                       Relatedness
                                   Interdependence
   Freedom
                                   Emotional connectedness
   Independence
                                   Responsiveness to needs of
   Separateness
                                    others
   Hierarchy
                                   Web of relationships
   Rules guide interactions
                                   Empathy & connectedness
   Roles establish places in       guide interactions
    the hierarchy
                                   Roles are secondary to
                                    connections
Gilligan
            Social Learning Theory
                 Perspective
   Modeling and Positive Discipline

   Reinforcement (positive discipline):
       Our parents teach us that it is good to be helpful-- we are
        rewarded for helping and punished for not helping


   Model characteristics that promote imitation
       warmth and responsiveness
       competence and power
       consistency between assertions and behavior
   Positive discipline helps children acquire positive behavior
                    Punishment
   Promotes only momentary compliance
   Undesirable side effects:
       Adult models of aggression
       Learn to avoid the punishing adult
       Offers immediate relief to parents (reinforced
        for using coercive discipline), so that parent is
        more likely to punish with greater frequency
        over time (can spiral into serious abuse)
       Social Learning Theory:
               Example
The Salvation Army Santa Claus study:




  When a confederate walked out of a store in
  front of a SS and gave a dollar to Santa Claus,
  the SS was more likely to give a dollar himself
  than when there was no confederate
        Social Learning Theory:
                Example
Rushton & Campbell, 1977:

SS and confederate interacted in the lab
   Left the study together and passed a blood donation booth
   2 conditions: Confederate volunteered to give blood or not




Results:
   Model = 67% agreed to donate--33% followed through
   No model = 25% agreed to donate-- 0% followed through
                   Discussion
   How do these theories of moral development
    relate to the study of leadership?

       Be sure to address both the leader and the
        follower in your discussion

				
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posted:10/6/2011
language:English
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