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           MOLE XXI


            20TH - 23RD JULY, 2010
MOLE XXI Conference Report

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS .................................................................................................... II
CONFERENCE COMMUNIQUE ................................................................................................................ 1
1       INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................. 5
    1.1      BACKGROUND ................................................................................................................................. 5
    1.2      SCOPE OF THE CONFERENCE ........................................................................................................... 6
    1.3      OBJECTIVES ...................................................................................................................................... 6
    1.4      CONFERENCE APPROACH ............................................................................................................... 7
2       OPENING CEREMONY ...................................................................................................................... 8
    2.1      OPENING REMARKS ......................................................................................................................... 8
    2.2      WELCOME STATEMENT ................................................................................................................... 8
    2.3      KEY NOTE ADDRESS ........................................................................................................................ 9
    2.4      GOODWILL MESSAGES..................................................................................................................... 9
    2.5      CLOSING REMARKS.......................................................................................................................... 9
3       CONFERENCE THEME ADDRESS ................................................................................................ 10
4       SUMMARY OF PRESENTATIONS ................................................................................................ 12
    4.1 PRESENTATION ON WASH ACTIVITIES FOR THE SECTOR .............................................................12
       4.1.1 Regional/Global Perspectives of WASH Activities ...............................................................12
       4.1.2 Presentation by CWSA .........................................................................................................13
       4.1.3 Presentation by EHSD ..........................................................................................................14
    4.2 CLIMATE CHANGE AND IWRM .....................................................................................................16
       4.2.1 Water Safety, Climate Change and IWRM ...........................................................................16
       4.2.2 Water Governance in River Basins .......................................................................................18
       4.2.3 Case Studies on Adaptation to Climate Change ....................................................................19
    4.3 PLENARY PRESENTATIONS AND DISCUSSIONS ..............................................................................21
       4.3.1 The Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) Compact ..............................................................21
       4.3.2 Overview of Local Impacts Climate Change ..........................................................................22
       4.3.3 Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Ghana .......................................................23
       4.3.4 Climate Change Impacts, Migration and Conflict ................................................................25
       4.3.5 Role of Early Warning Systems.............................................................................................26
    4.4 NATIONAL WASH EMERGENCY CLUSTER INITIATIVE .................................................................30
    4.6 CLIMATE CHANGE ROUND TABLE DISCUSSION ............................................................................36
       4.6.1 Integrating Climate Change Challenges and Development Planning...................................36
       4.6.2 Climate Change Impacts, Flood Preparedness and Management..........................................38
       4.6.3 Gender, Climate Change and WASH Vulnerability & Adaptation ......................................39
    4.7 NATIONAL OVERVIEW ON THE STATUS OF GUINEA WORM ERADICATION .................................41
    4.8 THEME PRESENTATION BY YOUNGEST PARTICIPANT....................................................................42
    4.9 DEVELOPMENT PARTNERS & CIVIL SOCIETY THEMATIC DIALOGUE............................................42
5       CLOSING CEREMONY .................................................................................................................... 44
    5.1      AWARDS CEREMONY ......................................................................................................................44
    5.2      CONFERENCE COMMUNIQUÉ .........................................................................................................44
    5.3      HANDING OVER CEREMONY .........................................................................................................45
    5.4      CLOSING REMARKS.........................................................................................................................46
ANNEXES ...................................................................................................................................................... 47

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 CC                       -    Climate Change
 CLTS                     -    Community Led Total Sanitation
 COM                       -   Community Ownership and Management
 CONIWAS                  -    Coalition of NGOs in Water and Sanitation
 CSO                      -    Civil Society Organisation
 CWSA                     -    Community Water and Sanitation Agency
 DA                       -    District Assembly
 DANIDA                   -    Danish International Development Assistance
 DP                       -    Development Partner
 DWST                     -    District Water and Sanitation Team
 EHSD                     -    Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate
 EPA                      -    Environmental Protection Agency
 EWS                      -    Early Warning System
 GWCL                     -    Ghana Water Company Limited
 IPCC                     -    Inter-Governmental Panel on Climate Change
 MDG                      -    Millennium Development Goals
 MLGRD                    -    Ministry of Local Government and Rural Development
 MWRWH                    -    Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing
 NDPC                     -    National Development Planning Commission
 NGO                      -    Non-Governmental Organisation
 RCN                      -    Resource Centre Network
 SWA                      -    Sanitation and Water for All
 UN                       -    United Nations
 WASH                     -    Water, Sanitation and Hygiene
 WATSAN                   -    Water and Sanitation Committee
 WRC                      -    Water Resources Commission
 WSDB                     -    Water and Sanitation Development Board
 WSMP                     -    Water and Sanitation Monitoring Platform

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The Mole XXI was held under the auspices of the Executive Committee of
CONIWAS. The Planning Committee of the Mole XXI Conference did a great job in
the selection of the theme and the calibre of presentations made at the conference.
The members of the Planning Committee are as follows:

    Bishop Nathaniel Adams
    Capt. Fred Quaah-Afful (Rtd)
    Eugene Larbi
    Patrick Apoya
    Charles Nachinab
    Kwesi Crampah
    Cecilia Mensah
    Margaret Jackson
    Abu Wumbei
    Basilia Nanbigne
    Babatunde Tijani
    Aku Sika Afeku

Special mention goes to Mrs. Margaret Jackson of Rainbow Consult for her untiring
efforts in getting the conference organised. Kudos to Basilia, Babatunde, Aku Sika
and Douglas, for their able assistance to all and sundry in varied ways to make the
conference a success.

Facilitation of the Conference was by Mr. Harold Esseku, Director of Rapha
Consult. He was assisted by Ms. Rosalyn Abayateye.

The collation, preparation and editing of the Conference Report was carried out by
Harold Esseku with support from the secretariat of Rapha Consult.

The Mole XXI Conference was sponsored by the following:

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                                                    MOLE XXI

                  SECTOR IN GHANA”

                                             Erata Hotel, Accra
                                            20th to 23rd July, 2010


We, the participants of the Mole XXI Conference,

Recognising the importance of Climate Change as being “the Defining Human
Development Issue of Our Generation”;

Having realised that the effects of climate change affects all persons, especially
the vulnerable, including women, children and the physically challenged;

Having deliberated on Climate Change and how it impacts on Water, Sanitation
and Hygiene Services;

Having realised that sustainability of facilities provided by Government, Civil
Society and other stakeholders is paramount;

Do hereby agree to the conclusions of the conference and issue this communiqué
as follows:


Decision Point 1

There should be intensified awareness creation campaigns to bring to the general
populace, including children, the opportunities, dangers and challenges of
climate change and the need for behavioural and attitudinal changes.

Responsibility – Ministry of Education/MLGRD/Civil Society/NCCE

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Decision Point 2

Government and civil society should actively promote rainwater harvesting as
one of the practical adaptation options in the water supply, agriculture and
construction industries, among others. This can support in minimizing over-
reliance on ground and surface water resources.

Responsibility – CONIWAS/MWRWH/MOFA

Decision Point 3

Government and civil society should incorporate and implement climate change
adaptation strategies and action plans in various policies, strategies and projects
to insulate Ghana from the threats of climate change.

Responsibility – Civil Society / Government of Ghana

Decision Point 4

There should be improved collaboration and regular dialogue among Water and
Sanitation service providers and the Meteorological Services Agency, as well as
the Water Resources Commission, Hydrological Services Department,
Universities, Development Partners, etc in researching, investing and responding
to climate change and adaptability issues, research and indigenous knowledge
sharing among others.

Responsibility – Civil Society/Knowledge Management Institutions

Decision Point 5

Government should demonstrate more commitment both locally and
internationally to the Sharm El-Sheikh declaration made by the Heads of State
and Government on Water and Sanitation Goals in Africa especially the
commitment to the Africa Water Vision 2025; the Sirte Declaration on
Agriculture and Water in Africa; the Declaration on Climate Change in Africa;
and the Millennium Development Goal on Water Supply and Sanitation.

Responsibility – MoFEP/MLGRD/MWRWH

Decision Point 6

Government should engage in consultation and encourage active participation of
stakeholders at all levels in the WASH sector on the Sanitation and Water for All
(SWA) Compact to get the maximum benefits and impacts and also ensure that

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commitments reflected in it include efforts at minimizing the negative impacts of
climate change.

Responsibility – MoFEP/MLGRD/MWRWH

Decision Point 7

The Community Ownership and Management (COM) concept should not be
compromised in project interventions in the rural sub-sector and should be
devoid of undue influences from traditional authorities, donors and politicians
etc., to ensure sustainability of services provided.

Responsibility – MLGRD/CWSA

Decision Point 8

Government should ensure that a comprehensive national disaster management
strategy with adequate funding be put in place, with an effective emergency
response system, to ensure citizens are not overtaken by extreme events due to
climate change, particularly in areas concerning water safety and sanitation.

Responsibility – Ministry of Interior/NADMO /MLGRD/MWRWH

Decision Point 9

Civil Society Organisations should include education on Climate Change in their
activities to improve the knowledge and to change attitudes and practices that go
to exacerbate the effects of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation measures
pertaining to Climate Change should be disseminated, in addition to applying
indigenous ways of dealing with Climate Change.

Responsibility – CONIWAS

Decision Point 10

There is the need to document approaches used in water and sanitation
interventions by various actors at all levels to ensure that best practices can be
shared and utilised in project interventions.

Responsibility – CONIWAS/RCN/Knowledge Institutions

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Decision Point 11

To achieve sustainability of systems, government should ensure that project
designs make adequate funding for post construction support and management.
Funding should also be put in place for project learning, capacity building and
refresher training for WSDBs and WATSANs.

Responsibility – MoFEP/MWRWH/CWSA/DAs

Decision Point 12

Civil Society Organisations should work with their partners to ensure that
project proposals are done in line with national systems to fit in the National
Programmes as a priority before other considerations are made.

Responsibility – CONIWAS


The conference acknowledged the effects of Climate Change on the WASH
Sector and pledged to ensure that the appropriate adaptation and mitigation
measures will be employed by Civil Society. The conference also acknowledged
the tremendous improvement in the relationship between Government and Civil
Society over the years. However, all stakeholders should continue to partner
with each other with the aim of providing sustainable and affordable services for
the Ghanaian populace.

Accra – Greater Accra Region, July 23, 2010

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1.1 Background
In 1989, a group of non-state actors in the water and sanitation sector in Ghana
organised a national conference in the Mole1 Game Reserve bringing together
policy makers and practitioners in the sector. The objectives were to create a
forum for dialogue on sector issues; and to build the capacity of local
organisations in sharing their experiences and articulating key emerging issues
to government for redress. Participants included local NGOs, WaterAid and
special interest individuals. Following the success of this forum (dubbed Mole I),
a decision was taken to make it a permanent feature in the work of NGOs in the
water and sanitation sector to be organised annually. After consultations with
relevant stakeholders, a conference theme is chosen and key contemporary and
the key issues to be addressed. The practice has been to decide on a suitable
venue on a rotational basis for the hosting of the conference.

The subsequent years since 1989 have witnessed a consistent growth of interest
and importance of this forum (through Mole I to the now Mole XXI) among civil
society, policy makers, local government and development partners alike. The
Mole Series, as it is known today, has evolved from what was primarily an NGO
forum into perhaps the most important multi-stakeholder platform within the
WASH Sector. Over the years, the conference has attracted government actors,
donors and other stakeholders (including local authorities to deliberate on
critical issues affecting the sector. The conferences are designed to encourage
maximum involvement from all participants. At the end of each conference a
communiqué capturing the key issues and decisions is agreed and widely
disseminated among stakeholders and in the national media.

From humble beginnings, the Mole series has increasingly served as a platform
for strengthening collaboration and co-ordination between sector stakeholders.
The series has served as an important forum for highlighting and consensus
building on the key issues and challenges within the Sector. Its achievements and
potential impact on the sector have been recognized at the national and
international levels.

1Mole is the biggest game reserve in Ghana, situated just 18 kilometers from Damongo, the District capital of the West
Gonja District. The reserve offers a serene atmosphere and good facilities for reflective work, such as retreats, workshops
and meetings. This is where the first conference in the Mole series (so named after the very first venue) was hosted.

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1.2 Scope of the Conference
The theme for this year‟s conference was “GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE: A
retained its normal focus of knowledge sharing and advocacy and devoted about
seventy percent of the period to sharing lessons on trends, case examples of
impacts, identifying stakeholder roles and seeking consensus on priority actions
for the sector. Historically, the Mole conference has often focused on issues
relating to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene. The conference for the first
time put greater emphasis on water as a resource and then built linkages with the
other services. To this end, the Water Resources Commission (WRC) played a
major role, whilst the GWCL/AVRL, CWSA and the Environmental Health and
Sanitation Directorate of the Ministry of Local Government and Rural
Development provided different perspectives to the subject. Key questions the
conference addressed included:

    How does Climate Change as a global phenomenon manifest impact locally?
    To what extent are commonly cited trends such as droughts, floods and
     lowering of groundwater table attributable to climate change? Are these a
     part of natural cycles of nature that go and come, or permanent changes that
     require special effort to reverse?
    To what extent will hand dug wells and surface dug outs continue to be
     considered sustainable sources of water supply to rural communities and
     towns respectively?
    What are the priority actions for stakeholders in the WASH sector to
    Members are adequately given orientation on climate variability and change
     issues as the first step towards assisting communities to adopt effective
     adaptation strategies.

1.3 Objectives
The objectives of the conference were to:

        i.     Increase understanding of all stakeholders in the WASH Sector on the
               subject of climate change
       ii.     Make a linkage between the global picture of climate change and its
               local impacts at the national and community levels.
      iii.     Improve collaboration and improved dialogue between the various
               sub-sectors within the WASH sector on the subject of climate change.
      iv.      Share knowledge on the key challenges that affect the sector and
               embark on an energized campaign to raise the profile of the Sector
               among politicians.

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1.4 Conference Approach
The conference approach and components included the following:

    Knowledge Sharing Sessions: Papers on selected thematic areas were
     presented by key national and international sector experts as well as sector
    Structured Discussions: Key issues emanating from the conference were
     discussed in plenary.
    Expert Panel Discussions: Knowledge sharing events included expert panel
     discussions on key identified issues. Discussions sought in-depth expert
     opinions and generated dialogue among participants.
    Structured Media Events: The Mole XXI conference received media coverage
     and reportage before, during and after the conference. The use of the national
     media and the internet played a key part in the planned advocacy objectives
     of the conference. Daily conference updates were prepared and shared to the
     media and participants.
    Conference Communiqué: A key output was the Conference Communiqué
     which captured briefly the outcomes and key decisions from the conference.
     A press conference expected to be widely covered by the media will be
     organized within two weeks following the end of the conference to
     disseminate the Conference Communiqué and officially bring the
     proceedings of the conference to a close.
    Conference Report: A Conference Report will be produced and circulated to
     all participants after the workshop. This report is a summary of main
     Conference Report.

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                                               DAY ONE
2.1 Opening Remarks
The opening ceremony was chaired by Mr. Edem Asimah, the Member of
Parliament for South Dayi. He serves as the deputy chairman of the
Parliamentary Committee for Works and Housing and is also a Board Member of
the Community Water and Sanitation Agency. In his remarks, he stated that the
theme for the conference was very important and relevant because all over the
world there is a huge problem as a result of climate change. He gave the recent
floods in parts of Accra and other parts of the country as examples of the effects
of climate change. The weak and vulnerable, including women, children and the
physically challenged are those most affected by the effects of climate change.

He further went on to state that he had attended about seven Mole Conferences
and that it was a great learning platform for all in the sector. Outputs from the
conferences have helped shaped national policies in the past, and he was of the
opinion that the outputs of this conference could affect government policies with
respect to climate change.

2.2 Welcome Statement
The outgoing Chairman of CONIWAS, Mr. Thomas Imoro Sayibu presented the
Welcome Statement. The key issues in his presentation were as follows:
                                        Climate change was being focused
                                          on for the first time in a Mole
                                        Policy discussions will go a long
                                          way towards the creation of the
                                          enabling framework to guide and
                                          support efficient adaptation to
                                          climate change within the WASH
                                          and IWRM sectors;
                                        The need for awareness raising on
                                          issues of climate change and
                                        Government should stay committed
          Mr. Thomas Imoro Sayibu             to the commitments made by the
          Heads of States and Governments of the AU at Sharm El Sheikh in Egypt.

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2.3 Key Note Address
The Keynote Address was presented by the Deputy Minister for Water
                                           Resources, Works and Housing,
                                           Hon. Dr. Hannah Louisa Bissiw, on
                                           behalf of the Minister, Hon. Alban S.
                                           K. Bagbin. She paid tribute to the
                                           pioneers of the Mole Series Concept
                                           for their ingenuity and initiative.
                                           She quoted the UN Secretary
                                           General Ban Ki-Moon‟s concern that
                                           “climate change is a threat to
                                           development       everywhere;       its
                                           adverse impacts could undo much
                                           of the investment made to achieve
                                           the    Millennium       Development
          Hon. Dr. Hannah Bissiw           Goals”. She gave a number of
                                           consequences of climate change and
implored CONIWAS as advocates for water and sanitation to use the advantage
they have in advocacy to sensitise communities and the population at large to the
imminent threat posed by climate change to livelihoods and the wellbeing of

2.4 Goodwill Messages
There were a number of goodwill messages from stakeholders and partners in
the sector. These included the following:
    Water Directorate, MWRWH;
    Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate, MLGRD;
    Environmental Protection Agency/MEST;
    Development Partners (Represented by CIDA);
    Water Resources Commission;
    Community Water and Sanitation Agency;
    WaterAID;
    Plan Ghana;
    Relief International; and
    Kasa Ghana.

2.5 Closing Remarks
In his closing remarks, the chairman thanked the minister for her presence and
motivation and for outlining the various plans government has for the water
sector. He stated that the MOLE Conferences over the twenty one years since its

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inception, has created a platform for key and pertinent issues to be discussed. He
                                         said “bravo” to those who started
                                         CONIWAS and all other partners that
                                         have been of great support. He stated that
                                         the relation between CONIWAS and
                                         government is one of collaboration and
                                         cooperation and not confrontation as
                                         mentioned by the Director for Water in his
                                         goodwill message. He reiterated that
                                         climate change if not well discussed
                                         would be a great problem for the sector
                                         and that there is the need for awareness
                                         creation on the challenges that climate
                                         change will bring to the sector and the
    Hon. Edem Asimah; Chair for Mole XXI   country as a whole.

The MC for the Opening Ceremony, Mr. Martin Dery, delivered the vote of

The conference theme address was presented by Mr. Ben Ampomah the
Executive Director of the Water Resources Commission. The presentation
                                           focused on the perspectives of
                                           climate change and the current
                                           state of knowledge on climate
                                           change. He stated that available
                                           knowledge on climate change
                                           seems to be quite complex and
                                           suggests some degree of
                                           uncertainty. He mentioned that
                                           the potential impacts of climate
                                           change on WASH Delivery,
                                           both direct and indirect can be
                                           disaggregated      under    four
                                           components namely, water
           Mr. Ben Ampomah                 sources, infrastructure, demand
                                           and access.

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He stated that the challenge of global climate change to the WASH sector
impacts on components of water supply and sanitation systems and there is
therefore the need to adjust and develop diverse but well coordinated strategies
to mitigate or adapt to the new conditions. The fundamental challenge would be
the development of water governance systems to ensure that strategies are based on
a solid understanding of the impacts of climate change on WASH services
delivery systems.

He stated that the way forward would be to:
    Improve WASH governance systems;
    Adopt and implement IWRM;
    Adopt the principles of adaptive management;
    Strengthen WASH sector capacity;
    Build Information Knowledge Systems;
    Secure additional and innovative financing mechanisms; and
    Network among stakeholders in the sector.

The conclusion to the theme address was as follows:
    Great deal of uncertainty in climate change predictions manifest as a
      governance and management challenge to the WASH sector.
    Gear action towards improving WASH governance in tackling more
      immediate WASH challenges in the face of climate change.
    WASH professions ought not to stick their heads in the sand. They should:
         – Be more involved in the climate change discourse,
         – Seek and have access to relevant information
         – Be also a provider of information, where feasible
         – Shape better-informed decisions and solutions.

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4.1     Presentation on WASH Activities for the Sector

4.1.1 Regional/Global Perspectives of WASH Activities

The presentations for the first session of the afternoon of the first day focused on
WASH activities in the sector. The head of the International Water Management
Institute (IWMI) in Ghana, Dr. Liqa Rashid-Sally gave a presentation on “Climate
                                                   Change Impacts on Urban-Rural
                                                   Interactions of the Water Cycle –
                                                   Concepts that Influence Water

                                                                        The presentation began with the
                                                                        definitions of Weather and
                                                                        Climate as follows:

                                                                        Weather: It is the short term (i.e.
                                                                        minutes to days) status of the
                                                                        atmosphere in terms of pressure,
                                                                        humidity,       cloud       cover,
              Dr. Liqa Rashid- Sally                                 temperature, etc:

Climate: Is defined as the long-term average weather (IPCC, 1997). The
statistical description of the mean and variability of temperature, precipitation,
humidity, wind, and other climatic variables over several decades (typically 3 or
more as defined by WMO) defines the climate of a region.

She also defined Climate Change and Climate Variability as follows:

Climate Change: Refers to a change in the state of the climate that can be
identified statistically, by the change in the mean and/or the variability of its
properties, and that persists for an extended period, typically decades or longer.

Climate Variability: Refers to variations in the mean state and other statistics
(such as standard deviations, the occurrence of extremes, etc.) of the climate on
all spatial and temporal scales beyond that of individual weather events

She stated in the presentation that cities consume large amounts of water (real
and virtual) and produce large amounts of waste water which have to be dealt
with effectively. Most cities, especially in developing countries are unable to

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meet the present urban water demand and waste water management needs. This
situation is aggravated by climate change. She posed two questions on the
consequences of climate change on water resource availability and wastewater

She described the Rural-Urban interface of water and food for cities. Water
systems are anchored beyond the urban area and often include rural areas, and
Basin boundaries go beyond administrative boundaries. Food inputs extend
beyond city boundaries into the peri-urban and rural areas often depending on
the same water resource (or wastewater). Migration from rural to urban areas
may be aggravated by severe climate variability and change. She mentioned that
the treatment of rural and urban areas as two distinct phenomena, create
peculiar vulnerabilities arising from these rural-urban linkages, and these are
often not sufficiently addressed.

Two climate change scenarios were presented as follows:

Scenario 1: Rainfall events becoming more intense and frequent (city level).
Scenario 2: Dry periods becoming more severe (drier) and recurring more often
(catchment level).

She gave four principles for successful urban adaptation to climate impacts on
the water cycle as follows:

    Make the connections between urban and rural and understand the links both
     hydrological and institutional.
    Address water management through a holistic and integrated approach (city
     in the basin context).
    Working through scenarios because of the uncertainties involved.
    Strong SH partnerships with inclusion of vulnerable groups.

4.1.2 Presentation by CWSA

Mr R. K. D. Van-Ess, Director of Technical Services, CWSA gave a presentation
on “WASH Activities of CWSA and the Impact of Climate Change”. He began
by giving the mandate of CWSA as to facilitate the provision of safe water and
related sanitation services to rural communities and small towns. He presented
the various technologies in use for water supply under the NCWSP. He gave the

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effects of climate change on groundwater resources, surface water resources and
sanitation as follows:

                                                                      Dry hand dug wells
                                                                      Dry boreholes
                                                                      Low yielding boreholes
                                                                      Poor water quality due
                                                                       to flooding
                                                                      Low production from
                                                                      Flooding of pit latrines
                                                                       resulting in
                                                                       contamination of surface
                                                                         and ground water
                        Mr. R.K.D. Van-Ess

He gave the results and effects of Climate Change as follows:
 Low coverage (access) to safe water and decent sanitation facilities
 High cost of operation and maintenance (energy cost, treatment cost, spare
 Additional investment from GoG and DPs

He concluded by saying that climate change resulting in drought or flooding is a
major threat to water and sanitation services delivery and that there is the need
for concrete actions at the national regional, district and community levels to
mitigate the threat.

4.1.3 Presentation by EHSD

The Director of the Environmental Health and Sanitation Directorate of the
MLGRD made a presentation on the activities of the directorate and the impact
of climate change. He briefed the conference on the revised Environmental
Sanitation Policy and the status of environmental sanitation in the country.

He gave some of the serious challenges of sanitation in Ghana as follows:
 Close to 85 % of all refuse generated in Ghana is currently not collected or
   disposed of in a proper manner.

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                                                                        Concerning            excreta
                                                                         management, 26 % of the
                                                                         population still have to rely
                                                                         on pit or pan latrines, if
                                                                         used at all.
                                                                        The sewerage coverage is as
                                                                         low as 4.5 %.
                                                                        Average national coverage
                                                                         estimate for sanitation is 55
                                                                         %, with very low numbers
                                                                         for some regions.
            Mr. Naa Demedeme: Director for EHSD    Only 7 out of 44 sewage
     treatment plants in Ghana work, as MMDAs and institutions generally do not
     have the capacity to operate and maintain them.

He gave the specific effects of climate change on sanitation as follows:
 Flooding and heavy rainfall may lead to contamination of water with
   chemicals, heavy metals or other hazardous substances, either from landfills,
   or from chemicals already in the environment (e.g., pesticides).
 Flooding of landfills may furthermore result in breakdown of leachate
   collection systems and control systems for greenhouse gases.
 An area of concern is the future performance of storm water drainage
   systems. In regions affected by increasingly intense storms, the capacity of
   these systems will need to be increased to prevent local flooding and the
   resulting damages to buildings and other infrastructure.
 Drainage and storm water management is important in low income urban
   communities, as blocked drains can cause flooding and increased
   transmission of vector-borne diseases. Cities with combined sewer overflows
   can experience increased sewage contamination during flood events.
 Flooding, and severe storms pose the greatest risks of damages to buildings
   in both developed and developing countries, because housing and other
   assets are increasingly located in coastal areas, on slopes, in ravines and other
   risk-prone sites.
 Higher precipitation in cities may affect the performance of sewer systems;
   uncontrolled surcharges may introduce microbial and chemical pollutants
   into water resources that are difficult to handle through the use of
   conventional treatment processes.

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    A significant proportion of notified water-borne disease outbreaks are related
     to heavy precipitation events, often in conjunction with treatment failures.
    The consequences of climate change may alter the reliability of current water
     management systems and water-related infrastructure. It is very likely that
     hydrological characteristics will change in the future. There is a need to
     improve modelling of climate changes related to the hydrological cycle at
     scales relevant to decision making.

The conclusions and recommendations of his presentation are as follows:
 There is a need to improve the status of environmental sanitation through
   strengthening of institutions and enforcement of laws.
 There is a need to improve the management of existing waste disposal site to
   control greenhouse gas emissions and groundwater contamination and take
   into account possible effects of climate change on the design and construction
   of new ones.
 There is an urgent need to implement the master plans for drainage for towns
   lacking proper drainage systems and reinforce the maintenance of existing
   drainage systems. Furthermore, for major towns not having master plans they
   should be prepared.
 There is a need to review local bye laws in relation to spatial distribution of
   residential, commercial, industrial and recreational areas and improve them
   in order to take into account possible effects of climate change.

4.2 Climate Change and IWRM
The second session of the afternoon of Day 1 focused on Climate Change and
Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM). The presentations were all by
personnel of the Water Resources Commission (WRC).

4.2.1 Water Safety, Climate Change and IWRM

The presentation on “Water Safety, Climate Change and IWRM” was by Ms.
Adjoa Paintsil of the WRC. She started by saying that there is evidence that the
climate of the world is changing and that this will impact on water safety and
lead to a wide range of climate related factors including:
 Changes to the hydrological cycle

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                                                              Changes in seasonal distribution
                                                               and amount of precipitation
                                                              Changes in the balance between
                                                               snow and rain
                                                              Increased evapo-transpiration and a
                                                               reduction in soil moisture
                                                              Changes in vegetation cover
                                                               resulting from changes in
                                                               temperature and precipitation.
                                                              Accelerated melting of glacial ice
                                                              Increases in fire risk in many areas
                                                              Increased coastal inundation and

                Ms. Adwoa Paintsil            wetland loss from sea level rise
                                           Effects of CO2 on plant physiology,
     leading to reduced transpiration and increased water use efficiency.

Increased urbanization and human activity aggravate these and impact
negatively on water resources. Some of the effects are as follows:
 Freshwater bodies have a limited capacity to process the pollution stemming
   from expanding urban, industrial and agricultural uses.
 Water quality degradation can be a major source of water scarcity.
 A decline in water quality can result from the increase in runoff and
   precipitation- more nutrients, pathogens and pollutants.
 When drought conditions persist and groundwater reserves are depleted, the
   residual water that remains is often of inferior quality.
 This is a result of the leakage of saline or contaminated water from the land
   surface, the confining layers, or the adjacent water bodies that have highly
   concentrated quantities of contaminants.
 This occurs because decreased precipitation and runoff results in a
   concentration of pollution in the water, which leads to an increased load of
   microbes in waterways and drinking-water reservoirs.
 The increase in water temperatures can lead to a bloom in microbial
   populations, which can have a negative impact on human health.
 Additionally, the rise in water temperature can adversely affect different
   inhabitants of the ecosystem due to a species' sensitivity to temperature.
 Poor water quality leads to a wide variety of diseases that affect humans.

She identified major challenges for water managers as follows:
 Securing water for people
 Securing water for food production
 Developing other job creating activities
 Protecting vital ecosystems

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    Dealing with variability of water in time and space
    Managing risks
    Creating popular awareness and understanding
    Forging political will / traditional authority to act
    Ensuring collaboration across sectors and boundaries

She concluded with the following statement from the World Water Commission
in The Hague, March 2000; “Every human being, now and in the future, should
have enough clean water for drinking, appropriate sanitation, and enough food
and energy at a reasonable cost. Providing adequate water to meet these basic
needs must be done in a manner that works in harmony with nature.”

Water Governance in River Basins
Mr. Aaron Aduna of the White Volta Basin of the WRC made the presentation on
                                      “Water Governance in River Basins,
                                      using the White Volta as a case study.
                                      He defined water governance as “The
                                      range of political, social, economic, and
                                      administrative systems put in place to
                                      regulate    the      development      and
                                      management of water resources and for
                                      the provision of water services at
                                      different levels of the society.        It
                                      includes the processes that exist to

                 Mr. Aaron Aduna     promote popular participation in
                                     designing water and sanitation systems
and where decisions about those systems are made as well as how and by

He stated that effective water governance:
 Builds institutional capacity from the local level upwards
 Empowers stakeholders with knowledge and the ability to make decisions
   about matters that directly affect their lives
 Promotes the equal participation of women and men in decision-making.

He gave the following as the reasons for Basin-Level Governance:
 Integration of downstream and upstream, quantity and quality, surface water
   and groundwater issues.
 Integration of land use and water resources in a practical manner.
 Integration of environmental and socio-economic issues into evolving
   management plans and regulatory decisions.

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 Facilitates the practical integration of downstream and upstream as well as
  basin-wide issues.
 Addressing the linkages between water resources management and the
  management of land and other related resources.

He presented the composition of White Volta Basin Board (WVBB) as being very
diverse. The major challenges facing the WVBB are as follows:
 Diversity in institutional mandates and interests
 Financial
 Linking water governance to the MDGs
 Administrative boundary thinking and planning.

4.2.2 Case Studies on Adaptation to Climate Change

Mr. Joachim Abungba presented a case study on “Adaptation to Climate Change
Impact in the Water Resources Sector.” He stated that climate change is real and
displayed pictures showing floods, drought, water shortages and reduction in
rainfall and humans and animals competing over scarce water resources. He
implied that these could all be attributed to climate change. Communities are
living with the changes and adapting (sometimes without knowing). Some of
                                          the adaptation methods include:

                                                                    Early planting
                                                                    Intensive dry season farming in
                                                                     surroundings of water bodies
                                                                    Use of river or stream water,
                                                                     White Volta, Black Volta, for
                                                                     farming with spots of shallow
                                                                     ground water usage – e.g.
                                                                     Atankwidi river basin
                                                                    Using local early warning systems
                                                                     (knowledge systems workshops).
             Mr. Joachim Abungba

The WRC through the CCAP has undertaken the following:
 Raising awareness on climate change variability and information in the three
   Northern regions
 Supporting vulnerable communities to reduce livelihood vulnerability
 Helping communities develop adaptive and coping strategies in water
   resources use through integrated water resources management (IWRM)

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Some of the measures adopted include the following:
 Water harvesting structures
 Water conservation
 Catchment protection
 Reorienting communities‟ attitude towards water resources management
 Reducing impacts through flood control structures e.g. Kukobila.

The implementation strategy used is as follows:
 Employing “food for work” as the model for implementation for
   sustainability and ownership
 Directly supporting communities with tools and equipments for work
 Technically assisting communities where necessary
 Collaboration with all stakeholders already on the ground eg, traditional
   authorities, DAs, MOFA, HSD and UDS
 Effective community mobilization for climate change adaptation
 Reducing flood impacts through flood control and water storage and
   conservation structures
 Supporting communities by building a dug out for water harvesting and
 Awareness creation on adaptation to climate change impacts
 Supporting with seedlings to bring back farmers to the communities
 Supporting communities with drinking water.

Lessons Learnt
 Communities aspirations are usually high based on previous activities with
   some development partners
 The commitment of any community to any development work or project is
   somehow equivalent to the benefits to be derived from the projects
 The local people or communities have all it takes to execute any development
   work based on the basic point that; development workers must see
   themselves as being part of the community in all aspects but not as a “book
   long” type. In simple terms, to dance their dance.
 There is a high potential for the replication of these pilot activities in other
   communities not only in Upper East region but the Upper West as well.
   Communities usually behave like laggards to long term hard labor
   developmental project but once results are beneficial to one, they turn to
   quick adaptors.

 Community engagement is slow and time consuming
 Their level of engagement is somewhat proportional to the livelihood benefits
  they receive

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    As a result, it is expensive and require sustainable mechanisms to manage the
     initial benefits they derive
    Change of attitudes to communities to environmental management is not

                                              DAY TWO
4.3 Plenary Presentations and Discussions
The morning session of the second day of the Mole XXI Conference was a series
of plenary presentations and discussions. The presentations were all followed by
frank discussions on issues that had been raised. Participants engaged in lively

4.3.1 The Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) Compact

Details on the Sanitation and Water for All (SWA) Compact was presented by
Naa Lenason Demedeme, Director, EHSD/MLGRD. He defined the SWA
Compact as a global partnership between developing countries, donors, multi-
lateral agencies, civil society and other DPs, working together to achieve
universal access to sanitation and water. It provides a framework that addresses
gaps in policy and planning, financing information, and technical assistance that
is impeding global progress. SWA aims to increase political prioritisation for
sanitation and water through high level discussion and public focus, and
generate advocacy for strong international, regional and national commitments
to sanitation and water goals.

The underpinning principles of SWA are as follows:
● Sanitation and water is a priority sector and underlies achievement of the
● Sanitation and water is a sector which requires political prioritization,
   institutional capacity building and investment.
● Efforts should focus on targeting the unserved before improving service for
   the already served.
● Accountability, mutually with donors and to the country‟s own citizens, is
   necessary to achieve sanitation and water for all.
● One national plan and planning process is necessary for sanitation and water,
   including detailed sector investment requirement, targets and capacity needs.
Potential area for SWAs contribution in Ghana
● Investment and action planning – harmonization and alignment

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●    Advocacy and resource mobilization – improve prioritization and funding
●    Emergency preparedness and response – effective disaster management
●    Water and sanitation sector coordination
●    Research and knowledge management – evidence building
●    Service delivery – improving access

If all the areas are tackled progress would be made to enable Ghana achieve the
MDGs, especially for sanitation which is off track.

4.3.2 Overview of Local Impacts Climate Change

Mr. Lawrence Kotoe of the EPA gave the presentation on an “Overview of the
Local Impacts of Climate Change and the Role of National Interventions
(NCCAS)”. He defined climate change and stated that in Ghana the adverse
impacts are already being felt. These include recurrent drought, flood and
climate induced diseases such as malaria and cerebrospinal meningitis in most
parts of the country and the associated loss of property and lives can be ascribed
to climate change.

He identified potential threats and challenges as follows:
 Shortage of Water
 Food Security
 Energy
 National Security and
 Health.

The Way Forward
 Awareness creation and climate change campaigns
 Management of watersheds to enhance water quality and quantity
 Identification and protection of areas of high biodiversity
 Partnership between all stakeholders

He concluded by saying that the challenges and threats of climate change have
been known for many years now. What is lacking is implementation of suitable
adaptation programs in the various sectors of the Ghanaian economy. It is
believed that the implementation of the National Climate Change Adaptation
Strategy (NCCAS) will provide a climate proof economy for the country.

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4.3.3 Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Ghana

Dr. Barnabas A. Amisigo of WRI-CSIR presented on “Climate Change Impacts
on Water Resources in Ghana”. He stated in the introduction that water is the
                                        basis    of     the    socio-economic
                                        development of any country. He
                                        defined water use areas as hydro
                                        power,       agriculture     including
                                        irrigation and animal husbandry,
                                        fishery, industry, transport and
                                        recreation, and domestic including
                                        sanitation. He stated that climate
                                        change would have adverse impact
                                        on our water resources. Knowledge
                                        on the direction and magnitude of
                                        these impacts would be vital in
          Dr. Barnabas Amisigo          developing the necessary responses
                                        to the challenges posed.

He gave the following as climate change impacts on water resources:
 Impacts on surface water availability (e.g. stream flows)
 Impact on ground water recharge
 Impact on flooding, drought and water pollution
 Impact on sea water intrusion on inland water bodies

Climate change impacts on surface water availability (mainly stream run-off) and
groundwater recharge. The impacts of climate change can be assessed using
hydrological modeling. Temperature and rainfall changes extracted from the
climate change scenarios for the basins for the years 2020 and 2050 and used for
the simulation. The hydrological model is run using the optimized parameters
obtained from its calibration and validation. Simulations made for Low
Sensitivity, Medium Sensitivity and High Sensitivity climate change scenarios
over the base period 1961-1990 are as follows:

Results - Surface Water I
River Basin     Low Sensitivity                        Medium Sensitivity    High Sensitivity
White Volta                        -8.8                              -15.8         -22.9

Pra                               -12.3                              -17.3         -23.1

Ayensu                             14.0                              -19.6         -26.2

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Results - Surface Water II
River Basin     Low Sensitivity                        Medium Sensitivity    High Sensitivity
White Volta                       -24.0                              -37.1         -50.9

Pra                               -22.0                              -32.5         -42.7

Ayensu                            -24.1                              -36.6         -47.8

Results - Ground Water I
River Basin    Low Sensitivity                         Medium Sensitivity    High Sensitivity
White Volta                       -16.5                              -22.3         -29.6

Pra                               -12.8                              -17.6         -19.4

Ayensu                             -7.0                              -4.8          -25.4

Results - Ground Water II
River Basin    Low Sensitivity                         Medium Sensitivity    High Sensitivity
White Volta                       -27.8                              -40.3         -53.7

Pra                               -22.0                              -30.0         -39.4

Ayensu                             44.9                              -35.7         -37.8

There are two main ways of responding to the challenges of climate change.
These are Mitigation and Adaptation. The measures that can be adopted include
the following:
 Promotion and adoption of water conservation and use efficiency.
 Rainwater harvesting techniques for both potable and non-potable use.
 Water recycling techniques for both industrial and non-potable domestic use.
 In-field rainwater and runoff harvesting techniques for soil moisture
   augmentation and conservation for agricultural production.
 Streambed and groundwater storage systems to make water available in the
   dry periods with little loss to evaporation.
 Development or selection of drought resistant and other crop varieties that
   enable the production of food with less water.
 Promote cross-sectoral water resources development in order to avoid the
   dominance of a single water use sector.
 Raise the awareness of the general population on the impacts of climate

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    Build the capacity of all sectors of the populace to participate in the
     formulation and implementation of sustainable water resources management.
    Ensure both economic efficiency and socially equitable water resources
    Adequately protect water bodies and ecosystems.

 Climate change impacts adversely on future runoff and groundwater
  recharges in all three river basin systems of the country.
 The water resources and the socio-economic activities that depend on them
  are vulnerable to climate change
 Integrated Water Resources Management, emphasizing equitable water
  allocation and water conservation and use efficiency, is advocated as a prime
  adaptation measure.

4.3.4 Climate Change Impacts, Migration and Conflict

Climate Change Impacts, Migration and Conflict – Vulnerability and Adaptation:
by Abu Mumuni, Regional Institute for Population Studies (RIPS), University of
                                        Ghana. He stated that “Population
                                        mobility is probably the demographic
                                        process that has received the most
                                        attention    within the field of
                                        population-environment studies in
                                        recent times (Adamo, 2008)”.       He
                                        identified three basic responses to
                                        climate    change     as   Adaptation,
                                        Migration or Death.

                                                                The presenter undertook a study on
                                                                climate change and migration in a

               Mr. Abu Mumuni                                   number of communities in the Brong-
                                                                Ahafo Region. Some of his findings
were as follows:
 Migration was not mentioned as a conceivable option. Few households stated
  that they would leave the community in the event of severe flood or drought
  but would come back as soon as the situation is over.
 People migrate for various reasons – economic, social, political and
  environmental issues.

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    The impact of climate related environmental events in explaining the decision
     to migration at the household level reduces when other reasons for migrating
     are controlled.
    Whilst experience of flood or drought may trigger households in Buoku to
     migrate, households in Bofie-Banda will only migrate when there is frequent
     occurrence of both events.

He identified some impacts of climate change as
 Conflict
 Deterioration of rural livelihoods
 Loss of income
 Hunger
 Malnutrition
 Creation of slums encumbered by poor sanitation

He stated that all sections of the society, women, children and men are
vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. Some specific adaptation measures
in the study areas of Buoko and Bofie-Banda are:
 Cultivation of cashew
 Cultivation of new yam varieties
 Cultivation of cassava
 Cultivation of tiger nuts
 Female migration (Bofie-Banda)
 Male migration (Buoko).

 Climate change is a development issue that requires attention of all sectors of
  the economy.
 Adaptation is key to addressing the issue of climate change impact.
 Migration is an option and should not be seen entirely as something negative.
 Making climate change information available to the population will help in
  developing better adaptation options.

4.3.5 Role of Early Warning Systems

The Role of Early Warning Systems: by A. A. Juati, Ghana Meteorological
Agency. The presenter defined a disaster as follows:
A disaster, precipitated by a natural hazard, can be defined as a “serious
disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread
human, material, economic and environmental losses which exceed the ability of
the affected community or society to cope using its own resources” [ISDR 2004].

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                                                              A disaster thus arises from the
                                                              combination of the hazard event or
                                                              episode, the conditions of vulnerability
                                                              to that hazard and the inefficiency of
                                                              capacity or measures to cope with the
                                                              hazard. From this definition the term
                                                              natural disaster is an oxymoron, as the
                                                              vulnerability and coping factors in the
                                                              equation are within human control to
                                                              some degree and therefore are not

               Mr. A.A. Juati                                 Reasons for increased disasters

 Increasing populations.
 Degradation of natural environments such as flood plain settlement, coastal
  exploitation wetland destruction, river channeling, deforestation, soil erosion
  and fertility decline.
 Vulnerability to hazards is exacerbated by poverty, disease, conflict, and
  population displacement.

Key requirements of good early warning systems
Early warning systems require a broad multidisciplinary knowledge base,
building on the substantial existing discipline-based research in the geophysical,
environmental and social science fields. There is a need for more systemic, cross-
cutting and applied research, including the following topics:
 Development and use of geospatial data models, risk maps and scenarios,
 Cost-effective observations systems,
 Data generation and assimilation (e.g. bathymetry for tsunami models),
 Improvement of core prediction system models and prediction tools,
 Warning decision system tools for disaster managers,
 Management under warning uncertainty,
 Evaluation and comparison of warning communication methods,
 Models of human response behavior including evacuations,
 Visualization of impacts and response options for community preparedness,
 Operationalization of the „all-hazards‟ approach,
 Role of early warning as an adaptation to climate change,
 Warning system performance, indicators benchmarks, and

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 Economic Assessments of warning system effectiveness.

Early warning systems and their elements
 The expression “early warning system” is used in many fields to mean the
   provision of information on an emerging dangerous circumstance where that
   information can enable action to be taken in advance to reduce the risks
 Early warning systems exist for natural geophysical and biological hazards,
   complex socio-political emergencies, industrial hazards, personal health risks
   and many other related risks.
 However, in the present setting, we are concerned with geophysical hazards-
   storms, floods, droughts, landslides, volcanic eruptions, tsunamis etc and
   related hazards that have a geophysical component, such as wild fires, locust
   plagues and famines.
 The ISRD defines early warning as “the provision of timely and effective
   information through identified institutions that allows individuals exposed to
   a hazard to take action to avoid or reduce the risk and prepare for effective
   response (ISRD, 2004).
 The concerns of early warning system researchers and practitioners therefore
   span the natural and social sciences and theoretical practical matters.
 To be effective and complete an early warning system needs to interact four
   (4) interacting elements:

          - Risk knowledge
          - Monitoring and warning service
          - Dissemination and communication
          - Responsive capability

Basics of an Early Warning System (EWS)
 Risk knowledge
 National Disaster Management Organization (NADMO)
 Local communities
 NGOs
 Others

He gave the list of various agencies/organisations for the monitoring and
warning service, dissemination and communication and those with response
capability. Various models of Early Warning Systems were also presented.

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Most common and current view of EWS
 View of early warning systems comprises a “warning chain”, a linear chain”,
  a linear set of connections from observations through warning generation and
  transmittal to users.
 In the meteorological community the term „end-to-end‟ warning system is
  often used. The end-to-end concept aims to make forecast and warnings
  more relevant and useable to end-users.
 It makes better practical use of the probabilistic and weekly predictive
  seasonal forecasts of the El Nino phenomenon
 It emphasizes the necessity to have all the links in the early warning chain in
  place and systematically connected.
 At the heart of all early warning systems is some sort of model that describes
  the relevant features of the hazard phenomenon and its impacts, particularly
  their time evolution
 It stresses on feedbacks which are very important

Four developmental stages can be distinguished:

 Pre-science early warning systems. Warnings, if any may be based on
  unrelated factors such as meteor occurrence, plant flowering or fruiting
  performance, etc, but also may be based on indigenous observations of
  relevant factors such as the state of the oceans or visibility of the stars,
 Ad hoc science-based early warning systems. These are systems such as are
  often established on the initiative of scientists or community groups
  concerned with particular hazards, such as near-earth space objects, a nearby
  volcano or a flood-prone river,
 Systematic end-to-end early warning systems. The best known and most
  developed are those of national meteorological services, for weather-related
  hazards. Typically these systems operate under a country-wide mandate and
  involve the organized, linear and largely uni-directional delivery by experts
  of warning products to users, and
 Integrated early warning systems.            This emphasizes the following
  characteristics: the linkages and interactions among all the elements necessary
  to effective early warning and response, the role of the human elements of the
  systems and the management of risks rather than just warning of hazards.

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 Awareness and interest in disasters and EWS is high and the time is ripe for
  bold action to implement the globally comprehensive, systematic and people-
  centered EWS for all hazards for all countries.
 There is a strong technical and institutional basis for progress but there are
  also some glaring gaps and shortcomings that need to be addressed.
 A new broad “systems” agenda is required and more needs to be done to
  strengthen the scientific and institutional mechanisms involved and to ensure
  proper inputs from both the natural and the social sciences.
 Everything must therefore be done to keep focused on the ultimate goal- the
  reduction of disasters.

4.4 National WASH Emergency Cluster Initiative
The Afternoon Session commenced with a presentation on the “National WASH
Emergency Cluster Initiative” by Michael Forson, WASH Specialist, UNICEF.
                                 The presentation gave highlights on Global
                                 WASH Cluster, led by UNICEF, which was
                                 established as part of an international
                                 humanitarian reform programme, and
                                 provides an open and formal platform for all
                                 emergency WASH actors to work together.

                                                     He stated that the appropriate Cluster
                                                     coordination arrangements will depend on
                                                     the scale, phasing, and anticipated response
                                                     duration from the onset of the emergency.

             Mr. Michael Forson     Other    factors  to   consider      include
                                    government, UN and NGO response capacity
and the presence and effectiveness of existing coordination mechanisms.
Whatever the structure adopted, it must be flexible enough to suit all stages of
the emergency response e.g. expanding during intensive relief activities and
scaling back as the Cluster merges or phases out.

He gave examples of Clusters as follows:
 Existing government coordination supported by WASH Cluster
 WASH Cluster coordination alongside government
 Coordination established through the WASH Cluster

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He elaborated on coordination at sub-national level as follows:
    Sub-national level coordination focuses on the detail of planning and
      implementation of WASH related activities, i.e. who is doing what, where.
      It is also at this level that early recovery, emergency preparedness, and
      capacity building measures can practically be achieved. An effective
      Cluster coordination structure at sub-national level will help facilitate
      effective information exchange, monitoring of the emergency situation,
      progress of the WASH response, and adherence to agreed standards.
    Depending on the nature, scale, duration, and phasing of the emergency,
      there may be a requirement for dedicated field coordination staff.

4.5 Sector Learning/Civil Society Networking in WASH & Climate Change
The last session for the second day was organised by the Resource Centre
Network and was facilitated by Mr. Patrick Apoya of CONIWAS. The session
discussed key issues affecting the sector and focused on sustainability and
climate change. The session was chaired by Mr. R. K. D. Van-Ess of the CWSA.
The other key discussants were as follows:
 Mrs. Vida Affum Duti – Triple S
 Mr. Kojo Thompson – CWSA Eastern Region
 Mrs. Theodora Adomako-Adjei – CWSA Head Office
 Mr. Martin Dery – Pronet North
 Mr. Alexander Obuobisa-Darko – WashCOST
 Mr. George Addo – DWST/Akwapim South

From Left: Mr. Kweku Thompson, Ms. Vida Duti, Mr. R.K.D. Van-Ess,
Mr. Martin Dery and Mr. Sofo Ali

The first discussant was Mrs Vida Duti who gave a brief on Sustainable Services
at Scale (Triple S). She said there were two dimensions of sustainability of Rural
Water Supply and these are:

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  Maintaining the natural water resources in order to ensure continuous water
   supply for the present and future generations.
 Maintaining water systems to ensure regular, reliable, affordable and quality
   water services over time.
The presentation focused on maintaining water systems.

Issues of Sustainability of Rural Water Service
 Presently, about 30-33% of water systems are non-functional.
 Many more system are unreliable.
 Focus on construction of infrastructure rather than service or post
    construction support.

Issues on post construction support
Institutional Arrangements (structure and roles):
 How integrated are water governance institutions into existing
    governmental/decentralized institutions?
 Are roles and responsibilities clearly defined especially for post construction
 Who is responsible for maintenance, upgrading and replacement
 Are water governance institutions adequately resourced
 How effectively are they performing their roles?

 Are tariffs, taxes and transfers policies supportive of sustaining rural water
 Is our planning, budgeting and funding address sustainability?
 Transparency and accountability?

 Appropriateness
 Availability
 Efficiency of the distribution system

Service Delivery Approach
 Is there a national consensus on service delivery approach?
 Where is the emphasis?
       - Infrastructure or Service
 Issues of Sustainability of Rural Water Service


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    Who has the mandate to ensure compliance of standards and norms?
    Is this being done effectively?
    Are there regulations, guidelines, manuals etc?
    Are stakeholders aware of these service delivery regulations and guidelines?
    Is there capacity building for adoption of service delivery guidelines?
    Are there adequate technical backstopping services for decentralized
    Any supervision, monitoring and feedback systems?

How to increase sustainability?
 By adopting a service delivery approach
 By improving harmonisation and alignment
 By supporting a strong learning and adaptive capacity of the water sector.
 Build on sector strength and improve from there.

Adopting a service delivery approach
 A shift from project to services
 Taking the perspective of a service instead of a project ( or group of projects
  under programmes)
 Framework in which policy, institutional, planning, financing and
  governance of the sector all support water service at scale for rural

Improving harmonization and alignment for water service delivery
 Greater harmonization of donor efforts at both operational and national levels
 Better coordination and alignment of these effort behind government led
  strategies for service delivery

Supporting a Strong Learning and Adaptive Capacity for Water Service Delivery
 Sector with capacity to learn, innovate and adapt to changing circumstances
 Demands that are necessary to ensure that service delivery approaches
   continue to be maintained for the rural population
 Supporting a strong learning and adaptive capacity of the water sector
 Regular analysis of strengths and weaknesses of sector policy, strategy,
   planning, management etc.
 Learn from success and from failure
 Continuous training and capacity strengthening
 Knowledge management and information sharing
 Adapt service delivery to changing circumstances
 Well-informed decision-making
 Constantly improve service delivery

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The chair for the session, Mr. R. K. D. Van-Ess gave a brief on the concept of
Community Ownership and Management (COM).
 The COM concept provides for communities to be the owners and be
   responsible for the management of the systems provided. The private sector
   is engaged to provide O&M as well as specialist services to ensure
 Systems must be operated and maintained to ensure water provision 7 days a
 At the onset of the NCWSP in 1994, districts were made to form a three
   member District Water and Sanitation Team (DWST) to be responsible for
   M&E at the district level.
 CWSA plays a monitoring role on the activities of the DWSTs.
 The focus now is how to strengthen institutions with structures in place.

Mr. Martin Dery spoke on various strategies and interventions that have taken
place over the years. He mentioned that each strategy has had its ups and
downs. He was of the opinion that different strategies will work under different
circumstances and there is no one-cap-fits-all solution. He gave an example on
household latrine programmes and said that the subsidy approach had worked
in some communities and CLTS has also worked in some communities. Both
strategies had also been bedevilled with a myriad of challenges in other
communities. He urged stakeholders not to discard any strategy but to use them
as appropriate after the relevant feasibility analyses have been undertaken.

Mr. Kweku Thompson of CWSA stated emphatically that there could be no
sustainability without the COM concept. He was of the opinion that all the
required steps if followed diligently without cutting corners will ensure systems
are operated effectively and efficiently. He mentioned that the rigorous
community selection process if adhered to was one of the key ways of ensuring
that selected communities are aware and fully committed to the various
operation and maintenance issues.

He was strongly supported by Mr. Van-Ess and Mrs. Theodora Adomako-Adjei
who gave examples on how the process had been used effectively in a number of
communities. They mentioned that the process should be rid of political and
traditional influences if it is to remain effective.

Mr. Steve Ntow focused on the issue of hand dug wells. He stated that the policy
direction on the construction and use of hand dug wells should be made very
clear to ensure sustainability and viability.

Mr. Alexander Obuobisa-Darko of WASH Cost focused on the life cycle costs of
the various systems under consideration. He stated that if the various costs are

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well known, stakeholders will use the awareness to plan adequately to ensure

Mr. Sofo Ali expressed the sentiment that past experiences are important to the
discussion on sustainability. He said that there should be clarity on whose
perspective sustainability is being looked at. He stated that maintenance of
water facilities should be made a cardinal activity and responsibility of every
community in the country. Experiences from other sectors which have been
successful should be introduced into the water sector with the relevant

Mr. Owusu Sekyere was of the opinion that there should be ongoing activities in
mobilisation and sensitisation of communities at all times so that new project
interventions are not sprung on communities at short notice especially when a
donor has a limited time frame for outputs and results.

Mr. Oduro Donkor stated that collaboration between all sector stakeholders is
critical to the overall sustainability in the sector. Maintenance and monitoring
systems should be undertaken regularly. Capacity building of different
categories of sector players should be undertaken regularly.

The panellists summed up the discussions. Mr. Van-Ess stated that all
stakeholders must play within the rules. The process of putting in place
Legislative Instruments to guide sector operations is far advanced.

Mrs. Vida Duti commented on the various practical examples given by various
contributors. She opined that there is the need for the rich experiences shared to
be documented in a manner that will benefit people all around the country and
beyond. A platform should also be created for the sharing of new ideas.

Mr. Kweku Thompson and Alexander Obuobisa-Darko talked about funding for
post construction support. They stated that there is currently very little funding
for post construction support. The main sources are from Internally Generated
Funds and from the District Assemblies Common Fund. These two sources have
several competing needs and are therefore not very reliable funding sources.

Steve Ntow stated that CWSA should strengthen the mechanisms for the
provision of spare parts for communities.

Mrs. Theodora Adomako-Adjei stated that all activities undertaken during
project implementation ultimately affect the sustainability of the systems
provided. All stakeholders should ensure that they operate within the national
strategy to ensure sustainability.

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The chairman for the session, Mr. R. K. D. Van-Ess was grateful for a fruitful
discussion. He was of the opinion that the objectives for the session had been
achieved. He stated that the contributions will be taken on board and used to
enhance the existing mechanisms in place for sustainability of systems.

                                                    DAY 3
4.6 Climate Change Round Table Discussion
A roundtable discussion on key climate change issues was held on the morning
of the third day. The initial presentations were on the following:
 Integrating Climate Change Challenges and Development Planning: by
    Winfred Nelson, NDPC.
 Climate Change Impacts, Flood Preparedness and Management: by Naa
    Dokurugu, NADMO.
 Gender, Climate Change and WASH Vulnerability and Adaptation: by Ms.
    Anna Antwi, CIDA/PSU.

                    Mr. Naa Dokurugu of NADMO and Ms. Anna Antwi from CIDA/PSU

4.6.1 Integrating Climate Change Challenges and Development Planning

Mr. Winfred Nelson introduced the topic by stating the following:
 National Development Goals could be hampered by ignoring Climate and
   disaster risk reduction issues
 Much less attention has been paid to making development more resilient to
   climate change, its related disasters and impacts.

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    Current efforts appear to be largely driven by emergency and hardly
     considers the long-term rippled implications on life and property
    Several approaches but fragmented

He defined climate change mainstreaming as follows:
It is simply making climate change a normal thing in the national development
planning process. It is taken as the consideration and incorporation of climate
change as a vital component in the decision making process. A comprehensive
integration and inter-weaving of climate change and other environment and
socio-economic themes and dealing with the trade-offs in the complete planning
process – formulation, planning and budgeting, implementation and monitoring
and evaluation.

He identified the following as challenges:
 Balance between the short-term poverty reduction and long term
 Weak Coordination
 Inadequate financing
 Inadequate Capacity building and retention
 Opportunities
 Improving sources of funds
 Carbon trading
 Minimizing loss of life and property

Way Forward
 Increase the understanding and knowledge of climate change nationwide.
 Coordination-Ghana National Climate Change Committee-National Climate
  Change Plan.
 Capacity enhancement-Training-Learn by Doing, on the job training.
 Mass sensitisation.
 Improve observation and early warning systems.
 Strengthen the research base.
 Enhance partnership and international cooperation.

 Impacts could be minimised through proper planning and integration of
  climate change and disaster risk reduction measures into all facets of national
  development planning particularly at the district level and across sectors.
 Let us utilize the opportunity to mainstream and protect quality of life for
  future generations for Prevention Pays.

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4.6.2 Climate Change Impacts, Flood Preparedness and Management

Naa Dokurugu gave the following as impacts of climate change by 2100
according to experts:
 Water – There would be increased water availability in moist tropics and high
   latitudes, with decreasing water availability and increasing drought in mid-
   latitudes and semi-arid low latitudes.
 Ecosystems – Increasing amphibian extinction and increased coral bleaching.
 Food – Crop productivity in low latitudes – decreases for some cereals, but
   increases for some cereals in mid to high latitudes.
 Coast – Increased damage from storms. The ice will melt hence more and
   more people at risk of coastal flooding each year. Loss of coastal wetlands.
 Health – Increasing burden from malnutrition, diarrheal, cardio-respiratory
   and infectious diseases. Increased morbidity and mortality from heat waves,
   floods and droughts.

NADMO has developed a National Contingency Plan. The overall objective of
the plan is to mount a timely, consistent, effective and coordinated response to
floods in order to minimize the potential humanitarian, economic and
environmental consequences.

The strategies in the plan include the following:
 Development of Regional and District Plans for emergency preparedness and
 Development of sectoral plans
 Pre-positioning of emergency supplies (strategic stock)
 Surveillance and monitoring of key emergency indicators
 Intensification of service delivery to minimize the impact
 Awareness creation for prevention of floods

Way Forward
 We must harvest water – roof top and run off
 Drainage should be considered in the planning stage of development – be it
  farming or construction
 Dredge lagoons, dams and storm drains. People to distinguish between
  gutters and streams/rivers
 Sanitation – periodic cleaning and desilting of drains

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    Waste collection must improve, MMDAs to be proactive and budget for
     collection of garbage disposal
    Haphazard settlement – all unauthorized structures to be demolished and
     debris cleared
    Building codes/regulations to be enforced to the letter
    Relocation of communities in flood zones
    Relief Distribution Plan – NADMO to develop one in conjunction with the
     NGO consortium
    Disaster Fund – There is the urgent need for a National Disaster Fund so that
     relief response can be timely
    Capacity building – Disaster Volunteer groups should be trained on Search
     and Rescue.

Unsustainable development in the past and the present is the root cause of
climate change. Climate Change is a development issue and only sustainable
development can confront the challenge.

4.6.3 Gender, Climate Change and WASH Vulnerability & Adaptation

Ms. Anna Antwi of CIDA/PSU defined climate change and gave a number of
factors accounting for the human activities that contribute to climate variability
and change. These are:
 Population growth, economic development, migration and urbanization are
    causing relatively rapid increases in water demand
 Agricultural, domestic, mining and industrial sectors
 As well as the hydropower generation and energy use
 These uses conflict with each other. In addition, urban and industrial
    pollution is reducing the quality of land (sand winning, use of non
    biodegradable plastic bags etc) and availability of water resources.

She stated that the main climate change related drivers are temperature,
precipitation, sea level rise, atmospheric carbon dioxide and other green house
gases and incidence of extreme events like flood and drought. These impact on
availability of water for agric production and have implication for health and
nutrition. The various areas affected include:
 Water for food production
 Agric and livelihood sources
 Natural resources and ecological zones

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In gender and livelihood mapping of Ghana, women and men all contribute to
agric production but in different ways and so are affected differently.

Challenges of Climate Change to Gender
 The challenges of Climate Change are not gender neutral
 Women and men have different vulnerability and capacity to adapt to the
  effects of climate due to differing roles opportunities and access to resources.

There are distinct roles for women, men and children in the economy due to
division of labour at household and societal levels.

Access and Opportunities
There are gender differentials in:
 Access to and control of (productive) resources- extension, credit, inputs;
   access to economic opportunities and benefits, information, education.
 Presence and involvement in Public life and Politics and therefore decision
   making processes and implementation of policies (e.g. parliament, DCEs,
   Ministers, Trade Unions etc).

Effect of changes on the poor and vulnerable
The changes in climate variability coupled with poor and vulnerable people‟s
weak political and socio-economic situation implies that should any disaster (be
it man made – bush fires etc or natural - flood, drought, storm etc) occur, it is
likely to be worse for such people in society - physically challenged, women etc.

Effect of climate change on the agric sector
 Reduction in yields, productivity, and high production cost (crops, livestock
   and poultry)
 Increased incidence of pest attack and diseases
 Limit the availability of water and exacerbation of drought/flood
 Reduction in land quality (soil fertility)
 Reduced availability of human resources: may cause manifestation of
   water/vector and water/vector borne diseases which affect humans who
   contribute labour to agric.

Way forward
 Develop and implement gender-sensitive adaptation strategies (participation
  of all)
 Adaptation measures must focus on strengthening existing measures already
  in place and used by the local people such as sustainable and ecological
  farming practices to ensure food security, agric and rural development

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    Systems to identifying climate change prone areas and disaster risk
    Adapt better land and water use practices
    Agric must contribute to reducing GHG emissions: develop agro-forestry
     systems for food and energy use, reduce deforestation, improve pasture/
     fodder management, conservation of biodiversity, etc
    Is production of “biofuel” the solution in Ghana?: when forests are cleared,
     economic trees that women depend on for their livelihoods are pulled down,
     biodiversity destroyed, water bodies and land are polluted etc.
    Community managed biofuel production may be the answer
    Political and economic management strategies are needed to increase water
     use efficiency
    Ecosan is option for both rural and urban dwellers
    Local authorities in drought prone areas to consider appropriate water
     harvesting techniques, simple affordable cost effective irrigation systems and
     extension methods
    Enforcement of regulations to protect the environment and judicious use of
     natural resources.

Participants held detailed discussions on the presentations.

4.7 National Overview on the Status of Guinea Worm Eradication
Key highlights
 Ghana recorded 8 guinea worm cases January 1, 2010 – June 31, 2010. 97%
   reduction in cases over same period where 228 cases were recorded
 All 8 cases were recorded in the northern region
 No guinea worm case recorded in Central Gonja which was the most endemic
   district 2009
 Diare in Savelugu – Nanton district is currently the most endemic village in
 Cases recorded are; Bunkwa 1, Karaga town 1, Dipali 2, Diare 4

Major Challenges
 Shifting demographics
 Hidden ponds

Surveillance projects
 Sensitization of health staff on IDRS/GWE project
 Training and equipping VVs

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    Monitoring, supervision and feedback

Community Sensitization
 BCC strategy
 Meeting with children

Significant achievement since 2005: sensitivity of surveillance, rate and quality of
containment and case reduction has improved.
Remaining challenge: comprehensive surveillance countrywide, with proper
documentation, record keeping and easy retrieval.
More resources needed: commitment of all partners and timely release of
adequate funds.

4.8 Theme Presentation by Youngest Participant
Master Mordecai Nyamekye gave a brief presentation on the theme for the
                                     conference. Key issues he raised were
                                     as follows:
                                      Indiscriminate disposal of plastic
                                         materials choke drains and cause
                                      Increased incidence of malaria
                                      Indiscriminate felling of trees.
                                     He urged participants to take the
                                     issues discussed seriously and do
                                     away with the lack of maintenance
                                     culture which is affecting the WASH
                                     sector also.

          Master Mordecai Nyamekye

4.9 Development Partners & Civil Society Thematic Dialogue
A discussion on the activities of various stakeholders was facilitated by Ms. Esi
Johnson of Kasa Ghana. The session sought to bring out the activities
undertaken by various actors and how they would score themselves and others
on scale of 1 to 5.

Lead Discussants of the session included:
 CIDA: Aoife Gibbons
 UNICEF: Michael Forson
 DANIDA: Veronica Ayi-Bonte
 Relief International: Gordon Mumbo

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    WaterAID: Ibrahim Musa

From Left: Mr. Ibrahim Musah, Mr. Michael Forson, Ms. Aoife Gibbons,
Ms. Veronica Ayi-bonte and Mr. Gordon Mumbo

The areas identified and the average score by DPs and Participants are in the
table below:

                                                                       DPs   Participants
Data Collection by CONIWAS                                              2          2
Project type approach by DPs                                            2          3
Sensitization and attitudinal change (CONIWAS)                          3          3
Incorporation of Indigenous Knowledge                                   3          3
Lobbying (CONIWAS)                                                      4          3
Networking                                                              3          3
Lack of communication                                                   4          4
Developing coping strategies                                            2          2
Sustainability                                                          2          2

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5.1 Awards Ceremony
The closing ceremony was chaired by Mr. Minta A. Aboagye, Director (Water) in
the MWRWH. Presentations were made to individuals who had made the Mole
Conference a success by going an extra mile. They were:
 Mr. Steve Ntow: Former Country Representative of WaterAID
 Mr. R. K. D. Van-Ess: CWSA Director of Technical Services
 Mr. E. F. Boateng: CWSA Volta Region Director.

Mr. Stephen Ntow,(Receiving his award) Ms. Theodora Adomako Adjei (Receiving for Mr. Van-Ess) and Mr.
Amanor (Receiving for Mr. Boateng)

5.2 Conference Communiqué
The conference communiqué was read by the outgoing vice chairperson of
CONIWAS. It was accepted as representing the key decisions arrived at the

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5.3 Handing Over Ceremony
The outgoing executives introduced the new executives of CONIWAS as follows:
 Mrs Victoria Daaku – Chairperson
 Mr. Farouk Braimah – Vice-Chairperson
 Mr. Illiasu Adam – Northern Zone
 Mr. Kwesi Crampah – Central Zone
 Mr. Owusu Sekyere – Southern Zone

From Left: Mr. Mintah Aboagye (swearing in the new CONIWAS Executives),
Mr. Owusu Sekyere, Mr. Farouk Braimah, Ms. Victoria Daaku and Mr. Kwesi Krampah

The chairman for the closing ceremony congratulated the new executives and
urged them to collaborate with government. He stated that CONIWAS has come
to stay and government will want them to play the role the play best, which is

The new chairperson gave a brief acceptance speech. She thanked CONIWAS for
the work that had been done so far and hoped that it would not end but would
continue. She asked for collaboration and engagement with government to help
the work being done to go on. She stressed that attitudinal and behavioural
change desired should start with CONIWAS members. She requested support
from all members for the next two years to enable CONIWAS attain new heights.
She said it is not an easy thing to do but when we, at the conference can start
from here, progress could be made. She ended by saying that, “we should do
talking for action”.

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5.4 Closing Remarks
The representative of the Development Partners, Ms. Aoife Gibbons, gave the
closing remarks. The key issues she raised included a focus on decentralisation,
engagement of the private sector, using other forums like the Ghana Water
Forum to debate issues. She concluded by saying there should be collaboration
between stakeholders and not confrontation.

The Director of Water at the Ministry of Water Resources, Works and Housing,
congratulated all participants for a successful conference. He stated that a lot of
things are happening in the sector, there should be strategising to make sure
there is progress. A Strategic Plan is being developed to guide sector activities.
He also stated that the implementation of a strategic management development
plan will be one of the tools to be used to deal with sector issues. He urged all in
the sector to work with one voice since everyone has agreed to collaborate on all
sector issues. He congratulated all participants again and declared Mole XXI
officially closed.

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Mr Chairman, Colleague Minister(s), representatives of various NGOs,
Distinguished sector players, our friends from the media, special invited guests,
ladies and gentlemen.

It is with great pleasure and appreciation that I join you this morning to
participate in the 21st Mole Conference. Let me extend my gratitude to the
organisers for providing me with the opportunity to interact and share a few
thoughts with a wide range of stakeholders in the water and sanitation sector.

I wish to pay tribute to the pioneers of the Mole concept for their ingenuity
initiative. Today I am happy to observe that MOLE has not only just come to
stay, but is very active and making positive contributions to Ghana‟s water and
sanitation agenda.

The evolution from what was primarily a local NGO forum into an
internationally recognised multi-stakeholder platforms for government, policy
makers, development partners, civil society and local government, is highly
commendable. It has, by that recognition, attracted participation from other
similarly disposed international bodies. I wish, once again, to commend highly,
the originators and initiators for this noble venture which has contributed to
putting Ghana highly on the water and sanitation map.

I wish to thank all participants for your responsive and warm embrace to the call
for a collective and integrated approach to addressing the challenges facing the
water and sanitation sector in the country. That many of us are here today
demonstrates our commitment to the sector and to the overall socio-economic
development of the country.

It is an undeniable fact that as we continuously strive to ensure that all
Ghanaians have access to basic water and sanitation services, our partnership
with you is crucial in fulfilling this mandate.

Mr Chairman, the theme for this year‟s conference “The Global Climate Change:
A Challenge for the WASH sector in Ghana”, is not only timely but also
appropriate. The choice of this theme underscores our recognition of the reality
of climate change and the need for concerted action to mitigate its potentially

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devastating impact on our livelihoods and wellbeing, and indeed on the

Research has established that climate change will result in the intensification of
occurrence of extreme hydro-meteorological events such as increasing global
temperatures, floods, droughts, hurricanes, and even heightened oceanic
activities. All these will impact on us in one way or the other, but what would be
at risk most is, perhaps our water resources.

As I always want to remind myself of the precarious nature of the worlds water
resources and indeed that of our own country Ghana, which has influenced my
passion for issues affecting water availability, I would also want to be
continuously reminded of the situation to further gird and heighten your
concerns for water issues, most importantly in this case, the source for supply
which would be greatly affected by this case, the source for supply which will be
greatly affected by this phenomenon of climate change.

Mr Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, of the world‟s water availability only 2.5%
is fresh water. Out of this amount, only 0.5% is available to us directly as fresh
water. The remaining 2.0% is trapped in the polar ice caps or as ground water.
So for all the water available on earth, only 0.5% is what we depend on for
drinking, washing, growing our crops, for livestock, and to grow our industries,
amongst others. With increasing population especially in our part of the world,
more demand is being made on the available fresh water resources thereby
creating opportunity for conflict in water use. Aggravating this situation is this
phenomenon of climate change. It is therefore appropriate that you are going to
deliberate on the issue and provide some answers in tackling the ensuing
adverse effects.

Mr Chairman, water security is fundamental to all poverty reduction and socio-
economic development efforts and we cannot allow the impact of climate change
to derail the modest gains we have already achieved. Experts estimate that
globally, not less than 1.7 billion people suffer from water scarcity, and if climate
change continues, the figure will rise to 5 billion by 2025. As a global concern,
the UN secretary general, Ban Ki-Moon reiterates that “climate change is a
serious threat to development everywhere; its adverse impacts could undo much
of the investment made to achieve the millennium development goals”. There is
very little argument that the greatest defining human development issue of our
generation is the threat posed by climate change.

Mr Chairman, an analysis of the potential impact of climate change on humanity,
and in particular poor counties, gives cause for great concern. The repercussions
on the water sector and the economy could include the following:

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● Changes in rainfall patterns, melting ice patterns and glacier reduction will
  affect the levels of rivers and lakes, limiting access to drinking water. What
  this means is that inhabitants of dry lands are likely to face more frequent and
  long-lasting droughts.
● The rise in temperature will lead to an increase in water demand for drinking,
  for agriculture and industrial purposes. This will lead to over-exploitation of
  wetlands which tends to weaken river and stream flow.
● Climate change will also accelerate the loss of vegetation and thus cause
  desertification. Raining seasons become shorter and droughts increase, while
  land erosion and infertile soils become a norm.
● Climate change will have direct and indirect impacts on human health. Based
  on predicted climate change scenarios for Ghana, increased temperature and
  reduced rainfall will increase risk of guinea worm infestation. Indirect
  impacts of climate change could include a worsening of existing problems
  with hunger and malnutrition resulting from decreasing food supplies as a
  result of drought and extreme water conditions.
● As water resources and productive land become scarcer, it is likely that
  people will migrate to areas perceived to have more resources. Conflicts
  between nomadic groups (e.g. Fulani herdsmen) and local farmers could
  worsen particularly over access to water resources and grazing pasture.
  Internationally, the impact of climate change could also include trans-
  boundary conflicts between us and our Northern neighbors, Burkina Faso,
  over the use of the Volta River resources.
● The impact of climate change on marginalized groups, including women and
  children could also affect their health and wellbeing as they are generally
  more vulnerable to the threat of climate change. Moreover, health risk will be
  worse and in children due to limited water, nutrition and immunity.
● According to the water and sanitation monitoring platform (WSMP 2009),
  79% and 68% of urban and rural populations respectively use an improved
  water source. While rural populations generally rely on ground water
  resources, the urban population relies on surface water. Reduction in rainfall
  which is already evident and is expected to continue as a result of climate
  change, will negatively impact both surface and ground water sources. This
  will potentially limit availability of water for various uses.

Mr Chairman, while we should be worried that these repercussions could
seriously worsen the incidence of poverty in various sectors, we should be
particularly concerned about the potentially negative effects on the water sector.
As a strategic resource this does not only give life but that also serves as a
catalyst for development, any adverse impact on our water resources will trigger
adverse effects on sanitation, on hygiene, on health, on poverty reduction and
generally on our socio-economic development.

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It is at this point that I wish to implore CONIWAS as advocates for water and
sanitation to now use the advantage you have in advocacy to sensitize
communities and population at large to the imminent threat posed by climate
change to our livelihoods and wellbeing, and champion adaptation strategies
that will save us from catastrophic events generated by climate change. I will
therefore like to see you partner the water resources commission which is
mandated to institute and oversee measures to protect and conserve our water
resources, in creating the necessary awareness, and also introduce adaptive
measure to mitigate the effects of this phenomenon on our people, especially the
vulnerable. It is my hope that you will take time to also address specific issues of
floods, its causes and impacts on the lives of our people and come out with
tangible recommendations to help government improve on its developmental

Mr Chairman, let me conclude by making reference to a statement made by His
Excellency President John Atta Mills at the 2009 UN General Assembly where he
maintained that “putting on hold actions on climate change will be disastrous”.
The President has therefore committed to making actions on climate change an
inseparable entity of our development agenda.

On this note, I have the singular honour and privilege to declare MOLE XXI
officially opened, and to leave you with this quote by President Barak Obama of
the United States of America and I quote:
“...the threat from climate change is serious, it is urgent, and it is growing. Our
generation‟s response to this challenge will be judged by history, for if we fail to
meet it – boldly, swiftly, and together – we risk consigning future generations to
an irreversible catastrophe”.

Thank you for your kind attention and God help us to overcome this impending
catastrophe through our collective effort to avert the known adverse effects of
climate change.

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It is universally acknowledged that climate change is one of the major drivers of global
change that would have a profound effect on sustainable development. Indeed, climate
change is real and it is already underway. The point has been underscored that water is
the primary medium through which climate change influences earth‟s ecosystem [see
Box 1] and thus the livelihood and well-being of societies. However, while the wider
water resources management implications of climate change have been dealt with
elsewhere (UN-Water, 2010), climate change impacts on drinking water and sanitation
services and the scope for adaptation have thus far received little attention.
This is particularly the case for developing countries such as Ghana, which are likely to
be most adversely affected by climate change and where progress has been most limited
in the delivery of drinking water and sanitation services. Despite the current
unequivocal focus on climate change, it should be considered and treated as one of the
many significant and uncertain external factors that can have an intense direct or
indirect consequence on WASH services delivery.
This paper/address seeks to discuss the challenge(s) that the impacts of climate change
poses and how the WASH sector should respond to such a challenge especially within
the Ghanaian context. In order to better appreciate the main thrust of this discussion it
is important to have a clear overview of the state of knowledge of climate and water as
well as the potential impacts of climate change on WASH service delivery.

A review of current knowledge on the state of climate
change and water (IPCC, 2008) relevant to WASH service               Box 1 – Climate Change and
delivery within the African context indicates that:                  Water
                                                                     “Observational records and
      Precipitation will increase in high latitudes and             climate projections provide
       parts of the tropics, and decrease in some sub-               abundant     evidence     that
       tropical and lower mid-latitude regions;                      freshwater    resources    are
      Annual average river runoff and water availability            vulnerable and have the
       are projected to increase as a result of climate              potential to be strongly
       change at high latitudes and in some wet tropical             impacted by climate change,
       areas, and decrease over some dry regions at mid-             with       wide       ranging
       latitudes and in the dry tropics;                             consequences     for    human
                                                                     societies and eco-systems”
      Increased precipitation intensity and variability are         (IPCC, 2008)
       projected to increase the risks of flooding and
       drought in many areas;
      Many semi-arid and arid areas are particularly exposed to the impacts of climate
       change and are projected to suffer decrease in water resources due to climate

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      Higher water temperatures and changes in extremes, including floods and
       droughts, are projected to affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water
       pollution - with possible negative impacts on ecosystems, human health, and
       water system reliability and operating costs;
      Current water management practices may not be robust enough to cope with the
       impacts of climate change on water supply reliability, flood risk, health,
       agriculture, energy and aquatic ecosystems. In many locations, water management
       cannot satisfactorily cope even with current climate variability, so that large flood
       and drought damages occur;
      Globally, water demand will grow in the coming decades, primarily due to
       population growth and increasing affluence; regionally, large changes in irrigation
       water demand as a result of climate change are expected;
       Mounting flooding are due not only to changes in intensity and variability, but to
        population growth, urbanization and land use changes that push populations and
        assets into vulnerable areas and thus overstretching sanitation facilities, straining
        existing services and pressure to expand services, particularly to the poor.
      Climate change will influence human health by impacting the nutritional health
       status, exposure to health risks and access to health services for communities
       whose livelihoods are closely linked to changes in aquatic ecosystems; and
       Drought, one of the major indicators of climate change impacts in sub-Saharan
        Africa, has indirect consequences on sanitation through the spread of diseases
        because of inadequate safe water for human consumption, sanitation and hygiene.
The available knowledge on climate change on water and sanitation may seem to be
quite complex and suggest some degree of uncertainty. For instance, it is an
acknowledged fact that the science of the climate in West Africa including Ghana is yet
to be well understood, compared to other areas of the African continent. The Global
Climate Models (GCMs) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
produce varying projections for rainfall change over the West African area. Some
models project dry conditions for the future, while others project wet conditions; any of
them is likely (Kankam-Yeboah et al., 2010).
Yet in another instance, the start and period of the                 Box 2 – Uncertainty in climate
rainy season have become more difficult to predict.                  change: What elements should
In the past, the rainy season started in April and                   we know?
ended around late September or early October.                        „The uncertainty in the knowledge
However, in recent times, the rainy season starts in                 on climate change does not imply
June or July with extreme heavy rainfall in                          that the knowledge is inaccurate or
September or October, often resulting in floods                      incorrect. What is key is for water
that destroy crops and life and worsen sanitation                    practitioners to understand the
conditions or ending abruptly and resulting in                       perspectives from which scientists
drought conditions (Kankam-Yeboah et al., 2010).                     and other experts on climate change
The question is what does this available                             are speaking and to present climate
knowledge in climate change mean to the WASH                         change as a manageable problem‟
sector?                                                              Joyeeta Gupta (2009).

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First and foremost, the likely long-term impacts of climate change regarding the
demands of and threats to water resources should necessarily be of great concern to the
WASH sector since such impacts would have significant and dynamic effects on its ways
of doing things.
Secondly, the uncertainties in the knowledge on climate change do not necessarily mean
that the knowledge is erroneous or inexact and should therefore not be a reason for
inaction [see Box 2].
Of greater importance to the WASH sector and indeed all water practitioners is to be
keenly involved in climate change research and discussions by appreciating the
viewpoints of climate change experts/scientists, improve awareness on climate change
and ultimately consider it as a issue that can be managed (Batchelor et al., 2009; Gupta,

Arguably, the potential impacts of climate change should be seen as only a complement
and not the major contributory factor to the current state and levels of water supply and
sanitation delivery, which still requires greater effort and improvement.
The potential impacts of climate change, both direct and indirect, can be disaggregated
under four main components of a water supply and sanitation system that are also
linked to the end goal of securing water and livelihood securities (Batchelor et al., 2009):
     1. Resources i.e. water sources
     2. Infrastructure
     3. Demand
     4. Access

Resources (Water Sources)
Some of the potential direct impacts on water sources have been touched on earlier
under the current state of knowledge. However, generally in the Ghanaian context, it is
expected that the following impacts would occur:
      Increased precipitation intensity and variability that would increase the risks of
       flooding and drought in many areas. Such risks would potentially increase
       unsustainable use of surface and groundwater resources and overstretch
       sanitation facilities;
      Higher water temperatures would affect water quality and exacerbate many forms
       of water pollution. The indirect impact would be increase in incidence of many
       water-borne diseases with new breeding places for disease-transmitting insects
       also developing;
      Water scarcity may lead to the spread of disease because of inadequate safe water
       for human consumption, sanitation and hygiene;
      Land use change leads to changes in hydrology at local and basin scales; and

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      In areas of groundwater-level decline, increases in groundwater pollution from
       natural contaminants (e.g. fluoride and arsenic) would occur.
The key direct and indirect potential impacts on water and sanitation infrastructure are
summarized as follows:
      Major investments are needed to increase the capacity of storage, supply and
       treatment systems as well as expand sanitation facilities;
      Major investments are also needed to supply WASH services to people migrating
       from flooded areas or areas of absolute water scarcity;
      Destruction of WASH infrastructure and contamination of groundwater occur as a
       result of localized flooding;
      Increased energy costs leading to major increases in the operating costs of WASH
       systems; and
      High levels of expenditure on WASH infrastructure to meet WASH crises
       accompanied by low levels of financial accountability.
Climate change would have potential impact on demand in the sense that:
      Prolonged droughts and increasing temperatures, would contribute significantly to
       increased demand for safe water;
      Increased demand for irrigation and for rain-fed farming would increase the
       competition between WASH and agricultural sectors;
      Increased demand would also lead to increased concerns over maintenance of
       ecological flows and protection of habitats; and
      Increased demands would compound the challenges of water treatment and
       sewage disposal.
User access to water and sanitation services is key. It is anticipated that the access
component of WASH would witness:
      Increasing challenge of ensuring access to WASH services especially during
       periods of droughts;
      Major challenge in WASH service provision to poor and vulnerable social groups,
       especially in areas affected by flooding;
      The poor would increasingly rely on unregulated provision of water services
       including private vendors;
      Reduced or little access to safe sanitation after floods and droughts and personal
       hygiene may compromise basic human health and in particular affect the health
       burden caused by diarrhoeal and Urinary Track Infection (UTI) related diseases in
       communities; and

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      Possible difficulty of protecting the rights of individuals or community to access
       water for different uses.

The reality that climate change could potentially impact on all components of the water
supply and sanitation system and the considerable array and uncertainty of the impacts
are enough challenges to the WASH sector to tackle. In essence, the call is for adjusting
and developing diverse but well coordinated strategies to mitigate or adapt to the new
However, the fundamental challenge would be the development of water governance
systems (sub-sector policies, institutions, rules and regulations, etc.) to ensure that such
cross-sectoral strategies are based on a solid understanding of the impacts of climate
change on the different components of the WASH services delivery system (Batchelor et
al., 2009).

In preparing for potential climate change impacts the WASH sector in Ghana should
take the first step of interacting regularly and effectively with climate scientists and in
relevant research programs. On the other hand, climate change researchers, Ghanaian
researchers being no exception, have a very important role to play by presenting
information in forms and formats that can easily be understood and easily used by non-
specialist players in the WASH sector.
The next move towards preparing to meet the challenges to the WASH sector in Ghana
is to examine the status of water and sanitation governance in relation to climate change
impacts and adaptation. For instance, to what extent are existing institutions in charge
of and engaged in WASH, particularly at the local level, structured and managed to
ensure that they can be adaptive enough to integrate planning and take action on
uncertain climate change impacts?
Secondly, consider the availability or otherwise of any clear-cut climate change sub-
sector policy tailored specifically for the WASH sector in order for all levels to better
appreciate the reality and threats of climate change impacts to the sector?
Thirdly, the adequacy or otherwise of regulatory systems that are aimed at protecting
and improving water and sanitation delivery particularly to the poor and vulnerable
who are likely to be mostly affected by the impacts of climate change; and
Last but not the least; are there water supply and sanitation delivery practices that build
resilience to climate change and that can be promoted or enhanced (e.g. simple
sanitation technologies including temporary raised facilities are resilient and adaptive to
highly vulnerable areas such as flooding areas); consider the gender dimensions of
climate change impacts; and the participation of civil society?

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To overcome the challenge of developing dynamic water and sanitation governance
systems it is advisable to avoid quick fixes and for the WASH subsector to focus efforts
in the following areas:
     1. Improving WASH governance systems: What is clear is that improving WASH
        governance should take account of the increasing risks and uncertainty that can
        be attributed to climate change. Good governance needs to be developed to suit
        local conditions, should be pragmatic, workable and demonstrate that new
        approaches work. The suggested target areas of improving WASH governance
        system are advancing policy direction towards the WASH sector, redefining
        stakeholder dialogue and looking beyond water, targeting evidence based
        decision-making, and adapting to change.
     2. Adopting and implementing IWRM: IWRM, which continues to be the ideal goal
        or direction for improvement of water governance, is a process of getting from
        some existing state to some envisaged and preferred future state, by achieving
        commonly agreed principles or best practices in managing water through the
        involvement of all relevant stakeholders and sectors.
          For this reason, adopting and implementing IWRM would better bring into line
          plans across the whole water sector and other sectors that have an influence on
          water supply (e.g. the energy sector) and demand for WASH services (e.g.
          District Assemblies).
     3. Adopting the principles of adaptive management: Recognize that in a complex
        and rapidly changing phenomenon and situation such as climate change there
        can hardly be sufficient information to reach „optimum or perfect‟ decision.
        Consequently, the WASH sector should rather put efforts into flexible „adaptive‟
        approaches with strong monitoring and information management systems.
     4. Strengthening WASH sector capacity: Capacity, or rather the lack of capacity in
        the WASH sector, is a key issue and often a limitation to tackling both immediate
        and long-term challenges. Clearly, in the context of climate change, a carefully
        targeted awareness campaign is needed and in ways in which it relates to
        people‟s lives and livelihoods. This should be informative and recognize that
        climate change is just one of many important and uncertain challenges faced by
        WASH professionals working in the public and private sectors.
          Similarly, carefully targeted capacity strengthening programs that are
          appropriate to WASH professionals working in different roles and at different
          institutional levels need to be developed and implemented.
     5. Building Information knowledge systems: Better access to information needs to
        be at the heart of any WASH sector response to climate change; the ability of the
        sector to respond effectively to climate change impacts will be determined by the
        accessibility and quality of the information available to them. For this reason, it
        is suggested to develop an information knowledge system that is innovative by
        way of developing scientific knowledge as well as recognizing and taking into
        account the potential of local knowledge systems developed in response to

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          Ghana‟s highly variable climate.
     6. Additional and Innovative Financing: Meeting the challenge of climate change
         would require increased and innovative investment and financing. Existing
         finances have to be spread and used more effectively without compromising
         quality, while innovations such as private ventures, risk insurance, etc. may be
Finally, it is recommended that a climate change thematic network be established within
the WASH sector in Ghana for better exchange of views on climate change and to
promote a more active engagement of the sector in climate change programs including
workshops and policy fora.

It is a fact that water plays a pivotal role and a key driving force of climate change.
Many of the impacts of climate change, including effects on climate variability, will be
apparent on water resources. Fortunately, some considerable knowledge on climate
change is available but explicitly confirming that there is a great deal of uncertainty in
climate change predictions that manifest as a governance and management challenge to
the WASH sector.
Attention by the WASH sector should therefore be geared towards improving WASH
governance and, more specifically, on methods, approaches and tools that support and
improve stakeholder dialogue, decision making, and adapting to change. Adopting
approaches and processes specifically IWRM and adaptive management techniques,
strengthening the capacity of the WASH sector, developing a robust information
management system, and augmenting financial resources are also key elements in
tackling more immediate WASH challenges in the face of climate change.
Lastly, there is no gainsaying the fact that WASH professionals ought not stick their
heads in the sand! All are encouraged to become more involved in the climate change
discourse, seek and have access to relevant information, and contribute (WASH
professionals should not be only users but also providers of information such as
documenting and sharing experiences regarding local knowledge on adaptation
strategies) as well as shape better-informed decisions and solutions in dealing with the
challenges that confront the WASH sector in Ghana.


Batchelor C. et al (2009) Climate Change and WASH Services delivery – Is improved
WASH governance the key to effective mitigation and adaptation? IRC, Netherlands.

BBC World Service Trust (2010) Ghana Talks Climate, The Public understanding of
Climate Change, Research Report, BBC World Service Trust, London

Gupta J. (2009) Perspectives on Climate Change: What the Media Need to Know; in
Broadcast Media and Climate Change, UNESCO 2009, France.

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IPCC (2008) IPCC Sixth Technical Report on Climate Change and Water

Kankam-Yeboah et al, (2010) Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in Ghana,
Ghana National Commission for UNESCO, Accra.

UN-Water (2010) Climate Change Adaptation: The Pivotal Role of Water, Policy Brief

World Water Council et al, (2009) Perspectives on Water and Climate Change
Adaptation: Towards a Framework For Climate Proofing

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Annex 3: WELCOME ADDRESS                                        –    THOMAS   IMORU   SAYIBU,

Mr. Chairman, the Deputy Minister of Water Resources Works and Housing,
Honourable Dr. Hanna Louisa Bisiw, Representatives of our Development
Partners, Distinguished Invited Guests, Members of the Coalition, The Media,
Ladies and Gentlemen.

This year‟s conference is very significant for the sector in both content and
participation. This is because for the first time, CONIWAS is dedicating the Mole
conference solely to the subject of climate change variability and change, and its
impact on the WASH sector under the theme “THE GLOBAL CLIMATE
CHANGE: A Challenge for the WASH Sector in Ghana “. The conference will
provide in depth information on the subject and make the necessary linkages
with drinking water (urban and rural), sanitation and hygiene. Furthermore, the
conference will also share practical lessons on the ground regarding how this
impact is reflected at the community level. Policy discussions during the
conference will go a long way towards the creation of the enabling framework to
guide and support efficient adaptation to climate change.

Mr. Chairman, members of the coalition held our 6th Annual General Meeting
yesterday in this hotel. Among others, we reflected on the affairs of the coalition,
and took critical assessment of our performance and role in the sector, as well as
examined ways for adding value to the sector by way of complimenting the work
of government and development partners in service delivery, whilst engaging
with government on matters of policy and accountability. Election was also held
this year, and the following were elected as new executive committee members:
     Victoria Daaku        Chairperson
     Farouk Braimah        Vice Chairperson
     Illiasu Adams         Northern Zone Co-ordinator
     Kwesi Krampa          Middle Zone Co-ordinator
     Owusu Sekyere         Southern Zone Co-ordinator

We acknowledged that clearly there is the need to raise awareness on climate
change and variability at all levels and CONIWAS sees itself playing a central
role in this endeavour. The coalition is also well positioned to support
communities to reduce use through promotion of participatory and bottom up
dialogue to integrated water resources management. CONIWAS have, since
Mole XXI, covered 8 regions in seeking to validate the existence of our members
in their constituencies, and also reach out to new ones. The remaining two
regions will be covered after this conference. We can report to this conference
that our members and others are active on the ground and committed to
contributing their quota to the sector.

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About 15 new NGO‟S and CBO‟S are attending this conference today for the first
time, a direct outcome of the outreach visits. We endeavoured to link our
members to the various Districts Assemblies to promote collaboration and
accountability. It is our hope that Hon. Minister for LGRD will further encourage
this through his representative in the districts.

Mr. Chairman, at this stage I will like to share some other issues that are of
serious concern and interest to members regarding the sector. On the positive
side, members of the coalition note:
    ● Progress in sanitation policy review
    ● Growing recognition on the need to raise the issue of climate change, and
       interest among stakeholders in exploring ways to tackle the challenges it
       poses effectively.
    ● Progress on SWA
    ● Proactive efforts within the MWRWH, notably the CWSA, WRC, and the
       GWCL in overcoming the challenges to water resources management and
       water supply.
    ● Better leadership, direction and cooperation between and within the two
       lead ministries for water and sanitation (MLGRDE and MWRWH).

Of serious concern to members, however, are the following:
    ● The slow rate of progress on sanitation coverage on several facets.
    ● The deteriorating situation of the urban water crisis, especially in some
       major cities and towns.
    ● The slow rate of response to public outcry for increased government
       investment in the water and sanitation sector over the years.

Mr. Chairman, the cost of addressing these problems may be considered high for
government, but not addressing them is even higher.

Commitments to following up on Mole series decisions.

Mr. Chairman, travelling for 20 years as stakeholders in the Water, Sanitation
and Hygiene (WASH) sector around the mole series is no mean achievement. It is
now a fact that the Mole series has grown beyond the status of civil society event.
It has become one of the most important multi stakeholder forums in the sector.
With this growing importance, we must all begin to consider how decisions we
take collectively at the conferences are pursued. We are of the view that,
beginning with this conference each decision point should be accompanied with
specific group of persons or institute to take responsibility for the follow up.

Conference Expectations

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Mr. Chairman, ladies and gentlemen, based on the objectives set for this
conference it is my expectation that the following be achieved by the end of the

Increased understanding of all stakeholders in the WASH sector on the subject of
climate change.

Thank you

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Mole in Pictures

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The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana   2
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The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana   3
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The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana   4
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The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana   5
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 No Name                                Organisation                 Position          Contact Address            Tel. No.      E-Mail

    1   Dr. Mark Tettey                 ICD                          Director          P.O.Box AX1870, Takoradi   0244 673820
    2   Adam Abdul- Rahman              CLIP                         Coordinator       Box 322, Tamale            0243 973734
    3   Alhassan Fuseini                CLIP                                           Tamale                     0244 425355
                                                                     Chief Executive
    4   Thomas Sayibu Imoro             New Energy                   Officer           PO Box 811 Tamale          0245 367707
    5   Suzzy Abaidoo                   Water Directorate            WASH Officer      MWRWH                      024 3639026
    6   Iliasu Adam                     CLIP                         Coordinator       Box 322, Tamale            0208 161255
    7   Michael Dogbe                   MLGRD                        DREHO             Box196,Accra               0208 224182
        George Ofori
   8    Ankomah                         C.F                          Facilitator       Box 22, Agona Nkwanta      0243 863003
   9    Peter Owusu Antwi               CHF                          Project Officer                              0244 972299
  10    Sabrah Yahaya                   CHF                                                                       0246 987571
                                        World Vision                 Operations                                   0244 425297
  11    Carl Ofori Agyeman              Ghana                        Manager           PMB, Tamale                0208 130000
  12    A.Y.O. Modoc                    APDO                         Director                                     0208 864711
        Donyinah Kwame                                                                 Box AH964,
  13    Alex                            COCRWDP                      Project Officer   Achimota,Accra             0246 545040
        Ellen Dzidudu                   Strong Tower                 Executive                                                  strongtowerfoundation@yahoo.c
  14    Sabuava                         Foundation                   Director          Box MA338, Ho               091 269351   om
  15    Jonas Amanu                     MLGRD                        Director          Box 196, Accra             0244 295313
  16    Robert Adu Inkumsa              RCC/E/R                      R.E.H.O           P.O.Box 303, Koforidua     0244 799761

The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana                                                                                      1
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 No Name                                Organisation                 Position          Contact Address             Tel. No.      E-Mail
                                                                     Head of
  17    Umar Nuhu                       APDO                         Programmes        Box93, Donkorkrom           0209 004441
  18    Tsekpetse Akuanwah              RCC,E.R                      D. REHO           PO Box 303, Koforidua       0203 311207
  19    A.K.Aning                       WSDB                         Chairperson       Box 13, Brakwa              0243 362937
  20    James Antwi                     MLGRD                        Researcher        Box MB50                    0244 796916
                                                                                       Ashaiman Divisional
  21    Naa Amui I                      COCWRDP                      Partner           Council                     0276 241544
        Alhaji Abdul Rahman                                                            Box TT441, Tema New
  22    Baidoo                          COCRWDP                      Partner           Town
                                                                                       Box TT441, Tema New
  23    Abraham Ankrah                  COCRWDP                      Partner           Town
        Agboson Kwasi                                                                  Box TN 358, Teshi-Nungua
  24    Emmanuel                        COCRWDP                      Partner           Estates, Accra              0244 603789
  25    Alhaji Issah Salifu             CLIP                         Chairman                                      0244 298737
                                                                     Water and
                                                                     Sanitation        PO Box 5051 Accra North,    0302 772524
  26    Michael Forson                  UNICEF                       Specialist        Accra                       024 4315641
        Jonathan Nasonaa                                                               P.O.Box 1151, Tamale.
  27    Zakaria                         CCFC                         Program Officer   N/R                         0243 569865
  28    Mensah Owusu                    PDG                          coordinator       AC493, Arts Center, Accra   0247 411870
                                                                     Programme         Royal Danish Embassy,
  29    Veronica Ayi-Bonte              DANIDA                       Officer           Accra                       024 4311102
  30    Moses Jakpa                     KCODEC                       Coordinator       68, Damango                 0243 604171
  31    Francis Dompae                  Africare                     Assistant         Box 052108                  0242 739800
        George Ofori
  32    Ankomah                         C.F                          Facilitator       22, Agona, Nkwanta          0243 863003

The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana                                                                                         2
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 No Name                                Organisation                 Position        Contact Address             Tel. No.      E-Mail
  33    Adam Abdul- Rahman              CLIP                         Coordinator     Box 322, Tamale             0243 973734
  34    Liqa Raschid-Sally              IWMI                         Researcher      CT112, Accra, Ghana         0243 670783
  35    Obgetey Morris                  GBC                          Reporter        1663,Accra                  0261 245270
        Theodora Adomako-                                            Services
  36    Adjei                           CWSA                         Coordinator     CWSA PMB KIA, Accra         0302 518401
        Kwame Frempah-                                               Coordinator-
  37    Yeboah                          WD/MWRWH                     Rural Water     Box M43 Ministries, Accra   0244 360931
  38    Mahama Ramatu                   New Energy                   SHEP            GES, Walewale               0208 300966

                                        Water Health                 General         PMB 170 KIA Airport,        0244 785277,
  39    Mawunyo Puplampu                Ghana                        Manager         Accra                       0247 751336
                                                                     Project         PO Box CT6135
  40    Abu Wumbei                      RCN                          Coordinator     Cantonments, Accra              
  41    Wumbei Abdul Kofi               New Energy                   CDSM            811, Tamale                 0242 547608
  42    Abubakari S. Fuseini            Simli AiD                    Coordinator     1427, Tamale                0244 157390

  43    Minta A. Aboagye                MWRWH                        Director        MLGRD Box MB43 Accra        0244 321732

  44    Benedict Tuffour                TREND                        Urban Planner   CT6135,Cantoments, Accra    0207 661292
  45    Philip N.J. Amanor              CWSA                         R.D             KF1617, Koforidua           0244 747997
  46    Felix Agyei Amakye              ILGS                         Lecturer        LG549,Legon                 0542 534912
  47    George Freduah                  ILGS                         Lecturer        LG549,Legon                 0543 403964
                                                                     Programme       PO Box 130, Akropong-       0244 714618,
  48    Kwesi Crampah                   ACDEP                        Manager         Akw ER                        081 95406

The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana                                                                                      3
MOLE XXI Conference Report

 No Name                                Organisation                 Position           Contact Address           Tel. No.      E-Mail
                                                                     Head of
  49    Felix Donkor-Badu               CWSA                         Programmes         PO Box 93 Donkorkrom      0209 004441
                                        CARE                         Operations
  50    Ben Arthur                      International                Manager            AT1184,Achimota Accra     0244 682800
        Capt Fred Quaah-                                             Ag. Executive      P.O Box KIA 24 Airport-
  51    Afful                           CONIWAS                      Secretary          Accra.                    0208 112115
  52    Rose Maaliwombu                 SIDSEC                       Officer            536, Wa                   0242 819225
  53    Samuel Sabuli                   AWSDB                        Program Officer    1876,Tamale               0246 666137

  54    Gordon Akon Yamga               CSIR-STEPRI                                     CT519, CANTONMENTS        0243 813550
  55    Maria Don-Chebe                 RUWIDE                       Director           Box 95, Salaga            0208 705026
        Harriet Naa Lamiley                                                                                       0277 706875
  56    Bentil                          Graphic                      Journalist         PO Box 742,Accra          0279 393939
  57    Mariam Kojo                     RUWIDE                       Coordinator        Box 95, Salaga            0242 887724
  58    Bernard Ahiadeke                ORAP                         Manager                                      0244 862909
  59     Evans Sasu Owusu               ORAP                         Operations         MP97,Mpraeso              0244 742159
  60    Joshua J Zaato                  PRONET                       Researcher                                   0268 465855
                                                                                                                  0244 215578
  61    John B. Yorke                   Fountain Life Care           Projects Officer   Box 5, Elubo               027 123502
  62    Sofo Ali-Akpajiah                                            Consultant         Accra                     0203 321586
  63    Simon Y Laari                   CRS                          SPO                Tamale                    0279 239886
  64    Issifu Adama                    CARE Ghana                   Manager            Tamale                    0243 217861
  65    Asana Iddrisu                   New Energy                   Projects Officer   Tamale                    0242 944519
                                        Tuma Kavi Dev.               Correspondence
  66    Ansah Janet                     Assoc.                       Assistant          Tamale                    0244 548495

The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana                                                                                         4
MOLE XXI Conference Report

 No Name                                Organisation                 Position          Contact Address             Tel. No.      E-Mail
                                                                                                                   020 8166776
  67    Moses Jakpa                     KCODEC                       Project Officer   PO Box 1431, Sunyani, BA.   027 9540536
  68    Martin Dery                     PRONET NORTH                 Director          Box 360, UW/R               0244 290439
                                        Media in
                                        Partnership for
  69    Ekow Freeman                    Dev                          G.M               WT445,                      0244 363457
                                        World Vision
  70    Karbo Sotuo John                Ghana                        Data Specialist   Savelugu,                   0201 333578
  71    Paul Dogbe                      EHSD                         EHO               RCC, W/R                    0243 411187
  72    E.M Telly                       PAPADEV                      Secretary         1336,Tamale                 0244 723498
  73    Harold Esseku                   RAPHA Consult                CEO               MD1241, Accra               0208 117978
  74    Rosalyn Abayateye               RAPHA Consult                Consultant        MD1241, Accra               0243 757199
                                                                                                                   0302 414223   rudyamenga@grassrootsafrica.or
  75    Rudy Amenga Etego               Grassroots Africa            CEO               MD187,Accra                 0244 657429

  76    Ole Jenson                      MLGRD/DANIDA                 Consultant        MLGRD Box MB43 Accra        0243 333047
        Hawa Nibi Armenga-                                                                                         0302 414223   grassrootsafrica@grassrootsafrica
  77    Etego                           Grassroots Africa            Director          MD187,Accra                 0246 602183
  78    Martin Amevor                   UNICEF                       Director          Box 202, Cape Coast         0244 884810
  79    Mensah Owusu                    People's Dialogue            Coordinator       AC493, Arts Center, Accra   0247 411870
                                                                     Executive                                     0302 668855
  80    Farouk R. Braimah               People's Dialogue            Director          AC493, Arts Center, Accra   0264 668855
  81    Simon Amoah                     BACH                         Manager           Box181, Bolga               0242 857602
  82    Aaron Adutia                    WRC                          Basin Officer     Box489, Bolga               0242 074137

The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana                                                                                         5
MOLE XXI Conference Report

 No Name                                Organisation                 Position            Contact Address              Tel. No.      E-Mail
                                                                     Assistant Basin
  83    Agbungba Joacim                 WRC                          Officer             Box489, Bolga                0246 737819
  84    Francis Abotsi                  VRCC                         Director            Box 119, Ho                  0244 705126   fabotsi@yahoo.comk
  85    John Kofi Blankson              Carter Center                Data Manager        Box99, Tamale                0242 361243
  86    Michael Anyekase                Carter Center                Water Facilitator   Box99, Tamale                0244 073653
                                                                     Dept. Central
  87    Paul Nutsugah                   EHSD                         Regiona Director    P.O.Box 47, Cape Coast       0244 073653
  88    Ampaabeng Jonathan              GES                          Coordinator         Box111, Cape Coast           0246 208886
  89    John E.Mahama                   Africare                     Health Advisor      Box 2108, Osu Accra          0246 989705
  90    Ibrahim Musah                   WaterAid Ghana               Policy Manager      KIA16185,Accra               0244 207245
  91    Clement Bugase                  CWSA                         CEO                                              0302 518404
  92    Abu Mumuni                      RIPS, UG                     Research Officer    Box96,UG                     0277 385249
  93    Emmanuel Addai                  WSMP                         Specialist          Box M43, Ministries, Accra   0244 430759
  94    Dr.Delali Dovie                 WRC                          CC Coordinator                                   0242 576987
  95    Naa Demedeme                    MLGRD                        Director                                         0244 220564
  96    R.K.D Van Ess                   CWSA                         Director            PMB, Accra                   0206 696468
  97    Edem Asimah                                                  MP                  Parliament House             0244 072772

  98    Theodora Foli                   Relief International         PPP Coordinator                                  0208 136791
  99    Ate Ofosu-Amaah                 Relief International         Coordinator                                      0243 639026

 100    Jennifer Forson                 CONIWAS                                          PMB KA 24 Airport-Accra      0243 548923
 101    Basilia Nanbigne                CONIWAS                      Officer             PMB KA 24 Airport-Accra      0244 595664

 102    Delicia Dery                    CONIWAS                      Intern              PMB KA 24 Airport-Accra      0244 227414

The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana                                                                                            6
MOLE XXI Conference Report

 No Name                                Organisation                 Position            Contact Address            Tel. No.      E-Mail
                                                                     & Campaigns
 103    Janet Dabire                    WaterAid Ghana               Officer                                        0244 293961
                                                                                                                    0302 250816
 104    Patrick Apoya                   CONIWAS                                                                     0244 472784
                                                                     Country             P.O. Box CT 6135,
 105    Alex Obuobisa-Darku             WASHCOST                     Coordinator         Cantonments Accra          0244 816489
 106    Eugene Larbi                    TREND                        Director            CT6135,Cantoments, Accra   0243 728832
                                        Nanumba North
 107    Mohammed Ibn Abass              District Assembly            DCE                 Box 1,Bimbila              0243 419835
                                        Ghana Met.
 108    Ayilari-Naa Joati               Agency                       Director            Box1687, Legon             0244 747052
 109    Lorretta Roberts                UNICEF                       Wash Specialist                                0243 732113   roberts!
                                        WASHealth                                                                                 whsgh@gmailcim or
 110    Stephen Ntow                    Solutions                    Director            AC107,Accra                0244 802265
 111    Gabriel Bernarkuu               Mission of Hope              Director            1694, Sunyani              0352 027118
 112    Godwin Gyasi                    Mission of Hope              Program Officer     1694, Sunyani              0208 614825
 113    Hannah Anongo                   Mission of Hope                                  1694, Sunyani              0244 471539
 114    Mark Amo-Boateng                WASHCOST                     Project Assistant   P.O. Box Bt 622 ,C2,Tema   0207 400936
 115    Margaret Jackson                Consul/Coniwas               Consultant          Accra                      0244 363387
 116    Aku Sika Afeku                  CONIWAS                      Finance Officer     Accra                      0246 422873
 117    Babatunde Tijani                CONIWAS                      Officer             Accra                      0246 394488
 118    Daniel Sarpong                  PLAN                         Advisor             PMB Osu , Accra            0244 488440
        Iddrisu Adam-                                                                                               0243 618719
 119    Sulemana                        DIDO                         Co-ordinator        Box 16 Bimbila             0208 404471

The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana                                                                                          7
MOLE XXI Conference Report

 No Name                                Organisation                 Position          Contact Address           Tel. No.      E-Mail
                                                                                                                 0244 160776
 120    N.N.S Adams                     COCRWDP                      CEO               P.O. Box CE 12043, Tema   0303 302794
 121    Mordecai Nyamekye               SMILE                        Youth             OD 133, Odorkor           0247 012544
 122    Abusah Esther                   WASHCOST                                       Accra                     0243 467746
 123    Jonas Amanu                     MLGRD                        Director          BoxM196, Accra            0244 295313
 124    Kwami Ansre                     KASA Care                                      Accra                     0277 428430
 125    Fredrick Asiamah                Public Agenda                Reporter          Box MP 2989, Accra        0243 957991
                                                                     Senior            Canadian High
                                                                     Development       Commission,Independence
 126    Aoife Gibbons                   CIDA                         Officer           Avenue, Accra             0244 342450
                                        Equities For All             Executive
 127    Josephine Asare                 Foundation                   Director          P.O.Box 1652, Koforidua   0246 385858
                                        Conservation                 Executive                                                 conservation_foundation@yahoo.
 128    O.Y. Owusu Sekyere              Foundation                   Director          Box AH77, Agona Ahanta    0244 239801   com
 129    Charles S.Nachinab              NewEnergy                    M&E Officer       Box 811, Tamale           0243 310878
 130    Osei Kwadjoe                    Rainbow Consult              Finance Officer   Box CS 8553, Tema         0244 593749
 131    Victor Walanyo                  PROWEB                       Advisor           Accra                     0266 461916
                                                                                       P.O Box KIA 24 Airport-
 132    Sophia L . Braimah              CONIWAS                      Intern            Accra.                    0302 250816
                                                                     Admin.            P.O Box KIA 24 Airport-
 133    Douglas Adjei                   CONIWAS                      Assistant         Accra.                    0264 804281

The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana                                                                                       8
MOLE XXI Conference Report

The Global Climate Change: A Challenge to the WASH Sector in Ghana   9

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