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Ocular Pharmacology 1

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					Opthalmology 250
Ocular Pharmacology
OUTLINE I. Routes of Administration II. Topical Ocular Diagnostic Drugs III. Topical Ocular Therapeutic Drugs IV. Systemic Drugs for Ophthalmic conditions How relevant can ocular pharma be to you as a GP? You must be able to answer commonly ask questions such as the ff:  Doc, anong magandang gamot sa sore eyes? o Cold compress, nsaids, antibiotics  Can the wrong eye drops cause blindness? How? o Yes, can cause corneal melting,  What is the worse that can happen from the use of inappropriate eyedrops o death  How do I do no harm when prescribing when prescribing eye drops o Know your side effects and use drugs with the least side effects. As much as possible don’t give steroids right away.  Is it ok to use eye mo regularly? o Use the correct indication for it.

Dr. Ma. Dominga Padilla
Exam # 1
D. RETROBULBAR INJECTIONS
- Made directly through the skin of the lower lid with the point of the needle emerging behind the eyeball into the cone. - Done only by ophthalmologist because you may hit several structures when improperly done - Used in the old cataract surgery, administration of steroids in severe inflammation - Common complication: retrobulbar hemorrhage - a 1 ½ in 25 gauge needle is used.

E. INTRAVITREAL
- Therapeutic agent is injected into the vitreous cavity by means of a needle. - Indications: o Intraocular infection/inflammation like endophthalmitis where antibiotics and steroids are injected o ARMD (Age-related Macular Degeneration) where Anti-VEGFs (Vascular Endothelium Growth Factor) are injected into the vitreous.

I.

Routes of Administration
Greetings!!!!!!!

A. TOPICAL – placed directly into the eye; preferred in
ophthalmology because of its rapid effect and in contrast to systemic, spares involvement of the rest of the body. A. 1. Suspensions – drug particles may remain in the culde-sac after instillation, allowing for prolonged availability of the drug. 2. Solutions – most common form used because it is easily distributed and absorbed 3. Ointments – they have prolonged contact time; however, they may inhibit corneal healing and may cause toxicity in intraocular structures. 4. Gels – same as ointments – contact time is prolonged. 5. Emulsions – a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable) substances.

Hi block 6! Kamusta naman kayo?? Musta SGDs/preceps? Benign ba? O natotoxic na din sa ophtha?? Keri lang yan, Thursday na, Friday na bukas tapos na naman ang isa module. WOW..Nakailan na ba tayong departments??  God bless sa atin sa huling SGD natin at sa exam bukas. Happy aral. Wag magpakatoxic masyado. Gold, bonding tayo block 6 habang di pa tayo ganun ka toxic.hehe.

B. SYSTEMIC – delivery of the drug to the affected area
by way of the bloodstream 1. Oral (PO) - by mouth; for inflammations at the back of the eye that cannot be reached by topicals 2. Intramuscular (IM) – injection into the muscle 3. Intravenous (IV) – injection into the vein 4. Subcutaneous (SC) – injection under the skin

MALAPIT NA MAUBOS ANG BENIGN ROTATIONS NATINNNN!!!!!!!!!!!

BOOOO!!!!!

C. SUBCONJUNCTIVAL INJECTIONS - Made under the conjunctiva to gain access to the deep structures of the eye by absorption into the bloodstream by way of the episcleral and conjunctival blood vessels. - Usually, they are injected as a depot of medications. - Anesthetic is given first before the medication - Advantage: constant delivery of the drug Disadvantage: needs regular monitoring because of possible adverse reactions such that, if the patient reacts, you can’t just stop administration like topical or systemic, but rather, you have to remove the depot invasively or simply wait for the complete consumption of the depot.

2009 August 12, Wednesday

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Description: Ocular Pharmacology