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Day2 03 Shelter and settlement options

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					p 87   Shelter and settlement options
       This session introduces the six
       transitional settlement options for
       displaced populations

                                                 USA, 2005




                                                                  based on content developed by

       Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
Session objectives
The key learning objectives of this session include:


1.    The choices facing displaced populations can be
      categorised into six options

2.    The advantages and disadvantages of both dispersed and
      grouped types of settlements

3.    Displaced populations will move between different
      transitional settlement options as needs and situations
      change over time




                                                           based on content developed by

Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
Session objectives
The key learning objectives of this session include:


1.    The choices facing displaced populations can be
      categorised into six options

2.    The advantages and disadvantages of both dispersed and
      grouped types of settlements

3.    Displaced populations will move between different
      transitional settlement options as needs and situations
      change over time




                                                           based on content developed by

Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
Six transitional settlement options
The choices open to displaced populations can be categorised into
six options:

                              Host families


                              Urban self-settlement


                              Rural self-settlement


                              Collective centres


                              Self-settled camps


                              Planned camps



                                                           based on content developed by

Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
Six transitional settlement options
These six options are presented in:


       Transitional                  Transitional          Handbook for the
       Settlement:                   settlement and        Protection of
       Displaced                     reconstruction        Internally
       Populations                   after natural         Displaced Persons
       (Corsellis and                disasters             (Global Protection
       Vitale, 2005)                 (United Nations,      Cluster Working
                                     2008)                 Group, 2007)




                                                                   based on content developed by

Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                     Assessing options
Handbook for the
Protection of        As part of a contingency or strategic plan, each of the six
Internally
Displaced Persons    transitional settlement options should be assessed in relation to:
(Global Protection
Cluster Working
Group, 2007)
                     •     its capacity

                     •     the speed at which it can be accessed

                     •     any limits on the duration of its use

                     •     its suitability for particular groups of the affected population

                     •     its capacity for expansion

                     •     the protection it can provide




                                                                                     based on content developed by

                     Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
p 93                Host families
Host families
                    Host families
                    Shelter on the land or property of local families


                    Advantages of the host families option include:

                    •     is the most readily available solution to immediate
Afghanistan, 2004         settlement needs

                    •     increased support of existing coping strategies
                    •     keeps families together and in a stable household
                          environment




                                                                                based on content developed by

                    Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                    Host families: operations
Host families
                    Operations for effective shelter with host families involve:

                    •     developing integrated and equitable systems of support

                    •     promoting and supporting methods of livelihood provision
                          for both beneficiary groups
Afghanistan, 2004
                    •     increasing awareness of the rights of both the affected and
                          host population

                    •     ensuring the participation all stakeholders in the
                          assessment of host and displaced population needs




                                                                                   based on content developed by

                    Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                 Experience with host families
Discussion
w/ facilitator
                 A show of hands:

                 1. who has worked in
                    an operation
                    involving host
                    families?

                 2. who has supported
                    an operation
                    involving host
                    families?


                                                                            based on content developed by

                 Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
p 95              Urban self-settlement
Urban self-
settlement        Urban self-settlement
                  Informal occupation of non-reclaimed properties or land


                  Advantages of urban self-settlement include:

                  •     greater diversity of livelihood opportunities and increased
Indonesia, 2005         opportunities for self-sufficiency

                  •     integration with the local population and facilitation of a
                        wider social support network

                  •     close proximity to the local population can enable trade of
                        goods and services




                                                                                  based on content developed by

                  Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                  Urban self-settlement: operations
Urban self-
settlement        Operations for effective urban self-settlement involves:

                  •   support the upgrade of basic service infrastructure to meet
                      the needs of both the displaced and host population

                  •   identify structures for food warehousing and distribution
Indonesia, 2005
                  •   obtain official list of land and property ownership

                  •   support established methods of livelihood production

                  •   provide appropriate sanitation, water provision and access to
                      health facilities in line with internationally agreed standards




                                                                             based on content developed by

                  Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                 Experience with urban self-settlement
Discussion
w/ facilitator
                 A show of hands:

                 1. who has worked in an
                   operation with displaced
                   populations choosing
                   urban self-settlement?

                 2. who has supported an
                   operation with displaced
                   populations choosing
                   urban self-settlement?


                                                                            based on content developed by

                 Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
p 98                Rural self-settlement
Rural self-
settlement          Rural self-settlement
                    Settlement on collectively owned land


                    Advantages of rural self-settlement include:

                    •     increased opportunities for self-sufficiency and possible
Timor Leste, 2006         development of alternative settlement options

                    •     integration with the local population
                    •     facilitation of a wider social support network

                    •     close proximity to the local population can enable trade of
                          goods and services




                                                                                 based on content developed by

                    Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                    Rural self-settlement: operations
Rural self-
settlement          Operations for effective rural self-settlement involve:

                    •     identifying the needs of both the host and displaced
                          population

                    •     identifying and negotiating with the owner of land and
Timor Leste, 2006
                          resources

                    •     negotiating land for grazing and other livelihood activities of
                          the affected population

                    •     assessing land use, resource availability and methods of
                          livelihood support




                                                                                  based on content developed by

                    Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                 Experience with rural self-settlement
Discussion
w/ facilitator
                 A show of hands:

                 1. who has worked in an
                   operation with displaced
                   populations choosing
                   rural self-settlement?

                 2. who has supported an
                   operation with displaced
                   populations choosing
                   rural self-settlement?


                                                                            based on content developed by

                 Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
p 100                Collective centres
Collective centres
                     Collective centres
                     Shelter in pre-existing structures and facilities


                     Advantages of collective centres include:

                     •     ease of beneficiary identification and assessment
USA, 2005
                     •     ease of distribution of food and other supplies

                     •     facilitates the identification of vulnerable groups and
                           individuals




                                                                                 based on content developed by

                     Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                     Collective centres: operations
Collective centres
                     Operations for effective collective centres involve:

                     •     identifying appropriate follow-on transitional settlement options

                     •     formulating intention agreements for the occupation of the
                           building
USA, 2005
                     •     developing an information and community plan to involve
                           the local population

                     •     supporting and improving existing infrastructure and
                           facilities to meet the needs of the host and affected population

                     •     consider methods of compensation for those who have had
                           livelihood disrupted by the occupation of the building




                                                                                    based on content developed by

                     Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                 Experience with collective centres
Discussion
w/ facilitator
                 A show of hands

                 1. Who has worked in
                    operations where there
                    were collective centres for
                    displaced populations?

                 2. Who has supported
                    operations where there
                    were collective centres for
                    displaced populations?


                                                                            based on content developed by

                 Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
p 103                Self-settled camps
Self-settled camps
                     Self-settled camps
                     Grouped settlement established independently of assistance


                     Advantages of self-settled camps include:

                     •     increased opportunities for self-sufficiency
Liberia, 1998
                     •     allows for the maintenance of existing methods of
                           livelihood support and social structures
                     •     possible development of alternative settlement options

                     •     keeps families and communities together




                                                                                based on content developed by

                     Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                     Self-settled camps: operations
Self-settled camps
                     Operations for effective self-settled camps involve:

                     •     deciding whether to support the selected site or relocate the
                           affected population to a more appropriate location

                     •     supporting established methods of livelihood production
Liberia, 1998
                     •     developing the camp rapidly, with the displaced community
                           and government, to meet national and international standards

                     •     supporting and improving existing infrastructure and
                           facilities to meet the needs of the host and affected population

                     •     considering methods of compensation for those who have
                           had livelihood disrupted by the occupation of the site




                                                                                   based on content developed by

                     Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                 Experience with self-settled camps
Discussion
w/ facilitator
                 A show of hands:

                 1. who has worked in an
                   operation with displaced
                   populations choosing to
                   self-settle in camps?

                 2. who has supported an
                   operation with displaced
                   populations choosing to
                   self-settle in camps?


                                                                            based on content developed by

                 Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
p 106               Planned camps
Planned camps
                    Planned camps
                    Grouped settlement on purpose built, serviced sites


                    Advantages of planned camps include:

                    •     ease of distribution of food and other supplies
Humanitarian
Charter and
Minimum
                    •     facilitates the identification of vulnerable groups and
Standards for             individuals
Disaster Response
(The Sphere
Project, 2004)
                    •     camps can be planned to meet the needs of the affected
                          population

                    •     land use can be negotiated with governments without rent or
                          purchase




                                                                                based on content developed by

                    Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                Planned camps: operations
Planned camps
                Operations for effective planned camps involve:

                •     undertaking rigorous site selection and secure guarantees of
                      land use from the government

                •     upgrading infrastructure, such as transport, health care,
Albania, 1999         water and sanitation, schools, power generation and
                      transmission, food production and security, police stations,
                      prisons and courts

                •     establishing the needs of the displaced population and
                      plan the camp appropriately

                •     developing a natural resource management plan

                •     involve both displaced and local populations in construction
                      activities and by facilitating access to local markets

                •     supporting public meetings and other activities involving
                      local and displaced populations
                                                                              based on content developed by

                Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                 Experience with planned camps
Discussion
w/ facilitator
                 Show of hands:

                 1. who has worked in an
                   operation with planned
                   camps for displaced
                   populations?

                 2. who has supported an
                   operation with planned
                   camps for displaced
                   populations?


                                                                            based on content developed by

                 Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
Session objectives
The key learning objectives of this session include:


1.    The choices open to displaced populations can be
      categorised into six options

2.    The advantages and disadvantages of both dispersed and
      grouped types of settlements

3.    Displaced populations will move between different
      transitional settlement options as needs and situations
      change over time




                                                           based on content developed by

Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
Dispersed and grouped settlements
The six transitional settlement options for displaced populations
are classified as either dispersed or grouped:


                                     Host families

   dispersed
                                     Urban self-settlement


                                     Rural self-settlement



                                     Collective centres

    grouped                          Self-settled camps


                                     Planned camps


                                                             based on content developed by

Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
p 89   Dispersed: advantages and disadvantages
       Summary of common advantages:
       •  requires smaller initial investments than grouped settlements
       •  uses existing infrastructure and promotes integration into local
          population
       •  facilitation of a wider social support network
       •  provides greater access to environmental resources
       •  more likely to have conditions appropriate to needs of affected
          populations
       •  usually closer to homes, allowing sooner return
       •  can incorporate developmental objectives with response needs,
          supporting both
       Summary of common disadvantages:
       •  insufficient capacity to assess and assist across a wide area
       •  difficulty in identifying beneficiaries
       •  competition over work, resources and facilities
       •  can disrupt livelihood patterns
       •  risk of physical, sexual and financial exploitation
       •  resentment resulting in disparities in assistance
       •  lack of formal ownership rights for land or property

                                                                  based on content developed by

       Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
p 90   Grouped: advantages and disadvantages
       Summary of common advantages:
       •  can be constructed as a preparedness plan for protection from
          specific hazards
       •  can keep families together
       •  can facilitate in identifying vulnerable groups
       •  ease of distribution of food and other supplies

       Summary of common disadvantages:
       •  may have a short operational life (collective centres)
       •  may extend period of displacement if located far from homes
       •  may increase dependency
       •  competition over resources
       •  require additional communal services and security
       •  limited privacy and concern over the spread of disease
       •  risk of communal and individual psychosocial problems
       •  concentration of environmental damage (camps)
       •  increased vulnerability to internal and external security threats
       •  usually higher initial investment and higher maintenance costs
                                                                   based on content developed by

       Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
Session objectives
The key learning objectives of this session include:


1.    The choices open to displaced populations can be
      categorised into six options

2.    The advantages and disadvantages of both dispersed and
      grouped types of settlements

3.    Displaced populations will move between different
      transitional settlement options as needs and situations
      change over time




                                                           based on content developed by

Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
                 Movement between options
Transitional
Settlement:
Displaced
Populations
(Corsellis and
Vitale, 2005)




                                                                            based on content developed by

                 Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008
Bibliography
                 ‘Transitional Settlement: Displaced
                 Populations’ (Corsellis and Vitale, 2005)




                 ‘Handbook for the Protection of Internally
                 Displaced Persons’ (Global Protection Cluster
                 Working Group, 2007)



                 ‘Transitional settlement and
                 reconstruction after natural disasters’
                 (United Nations, 2008)


                 ‘Humanitarian Charter and Minimum
                 Standards for Disaster Response’
                 (The Sphere Project, 2004)



                                                             based on content developed by

Shelter Training 08b – Belgium, 16th–18th November, 2008

				
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