Nothing in biology makes sense except in the - Department of by zhangyun


									“Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light
                  of evolution.”

                                - T. Dozhansky
Greek Gods
Norse Gods
Raelian leader says cloning first step to
Saturday, December 28, 2002 Posted: 2:08 AM EST (0708 GMT)

MIAMI, Florida (CNN) -- The leader of a religious sect that claimed
to have created the first human clone Friday called the
development "just the first step" toward human immortality
through cloning.

Former French journalist Claude Vorilhon, who now calls himself Rael,
claims to be a direct descendant of extraterrestrials who created
human life on Earth through genetic engineering. A company founded
by his followers announced Friday that the first human clone has been
born -- a 7-pound baby girl dubbed "Eve."
Raëlians on the origin of life

      Origin hypotheses

             God       space aliens

?                           ?

     Life          Humans
    mainstream biology


   God                         Humans
space aliens
  Genesis God



space aliens
 Raëlian hypothesis

                     space aliens
            Life on earth      Humans
 the materialist hypothesis

  universe     natural

                 Life         natural
space aliens
Distant creator God



space aliens
Watchmaker God


 universe      natural

space aliens
Other hypotheses?

                    space aliens


             Life             Humans
            Rael: No DNA test for baby Eve
Sect leader vows to guard identity of alleged human
Friday, January 3, 2003 Posted: 11:05 AM EST (1605 GMT)

SHERBROOKE, Quebec (CNN) -- A company founded by
members of a sect that believes mankind was created by
extraterrestrials says what it calls the first human clone will not
undergo testing to verify her genetic makeup.

The head of the Raelian movement, who calls himself "Rael," said
Thursday that he has told Clonaid's leader not to perform DNA tests
on the infant girl, nicknamed "Eve."
      Raelian cloners 'have two staff and no lab'

[WASHINGTON] Clonaid, the company that announced last
December that it had cloned a human, seems to have no lab
space and only two employees, according to court documents
obtained by the Boston Globe.

Clonaid was founded by a religious sect known as the
Raelians, who believe that the human race was cloned from
aliens. The company's managing director, Raelian bishop
Brigitte Boisselier, has said that so far a dozen clients have
each paid $25,000 or more for the group's cloning services.

Nature 423, 8 (01 May 2003); doi:10.1038/423008a
           What do you think?

Do you think the Raëlians cloned a human?

Did space aliens create all life on earth?
How do you know?
         How do you know?

• Because you’ve seen it yourself.
• Because someone you trust told you.
• Because it makes logical sense.
      Why do you believe someone?

• They are a relative.
• They have moral or religious authority.
• They are scientists.
• They offer verifiable evidence in favor of
  their for their idea.
• They offer verifiable evidence against
  alternative ideas.
      Why do you believe someone?

• They are a relative.
• They have moral or religious authority.
• They are scientists.
• They offer verifiable evidence in favor of
  their for their idea.
• They offer verifiable evidence against
  alternative ideas.

           That’s science
               Scientific hypotheses

Hypothesis: a potential explanation for some observation or

Scientific hypothesis: a hypothesis that could be rejected
      by some conceivable observation.

Useful scientific hypothesis: a hypothesis that can be
      rejected by some conceivable observation
      RIGHT NOW.
Text, Fig. 1.19
                Limits to science

Many interesting hypotheses are not necessarily

• What does pain feel like?
• Did space aliens take Raël to another planet?
• Did God create humans?

Not everything that is true is subject to scientific
I. The Concept of Evolution up to Darwin’s Time
         A. Greek Philosophy
         B. Christian Theology
         C. The Enlightenment
II. Evolution Before Darwin
         A. Lamarck
         B. State of knowledge at Darwin’s time
III. Darwin and the theory of Evolution By Natural Selection
         A. Voyage of the Beagle
         B. Formulation of the theory
IV. The Theory
         A. Essential elements
         B. Contrast with views of the time
V. Darwin’s Evidence
         A. Artificial selection
         B. The fossil record
         C. Comparative anatomy
         D. Embryology
         E. Biogeography
Greek Philosophy

Modern remnants of the great chain of being
Surprising things about this discovery

           Homo floresiensis in the context of the evolution and dispersal of the genus Homo.
           a, The new species as part of the Asian dispersals of the descendants of H.
           ergaster and H. erectus, with an outline of the descent of other Homo species
           provided for context. b, The evolutionary history of Homo is becoming increasingly
           complex as new species are discovered. Homo floresiensis (left) is believed1 to be
           a long-term, isolated descendant of Javanese H. erectus, but it could be a recent
           divergence. 1, H. ergaster/African erectus; 2, georgicus; 3, Javanese and Chinese
           erectus; 4, antecessor; 5, cepranensis; 6, heidelbergensis; 7, helmei; 8,
           neanderthalensis; 9, sapiens; 10, floresiensis. Solid lines show probable
           evolutionary relationships; dashed lines, possible alternatives. Nature 431:1043.
 James Hutton
 1726 - 1797

Gradualism Natural
laws are invariant.
Change results from
the accumulation of
slow continuous
Charles Lyell
1797 - 1875

the rate of geological
activity on Earth is
Similarity among the limb bones of organisms that use them for
              different purposes – Buffon 1760
Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck
1744 - 1829

 . . . time and favorable
 conditions are the two
 principal means which
 nature has employed in
 giving existence to all her
 productions. We know
 that for her time has no
 limit, and that
 consequently she always
 has it at her disposal.
Charles Darwin
Voyage of the HMS Beagle
Thomas Malthus
1766 - 1834

Populations can
increase faster than
their resources
Alfred R. Wallace
1823 - 1913
More offspring are born than can survive to reproduce

 Parent         Offspring    Parent
Individuals within a species vary
Traits are heritable

Parent        Offspring

Parent        Offspring
Individuals with some traits reproduce more than others

  Parent        Offspring

  Parent        Offspring
Traits that enhance reproduction become more common
                     each generation

 parents       offspring    parents      offspring
generation    generation   generation   generation
    1              1           2             2
Artificial selection
has produced
different, true-
breeding varieties
of “fancy” pigeons
from a single
ancestral form
Fossils - preserved evidence of previously living things
Fig 22.17   A fossil whale with hind legs
Homology - similarity caused by common ancestry
Evidence for evolution from comparative embryology

Early embryos of diverse groups share many features. As development
proceeds, embryonic forms diverge and become more similar to adults of
their own species (von Baer’s law)
Finches of the Galapagos Islands
Molecular evidence

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