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					     Module 5:

    A special partnership between the
 Georgia Department of Education and the
Educational Technology Training Centers in
 support of the 8th Grade Physical Science
Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Physical Science – Grade 8
                            Unit: Sports
                            General Task

       Machines are Marvelous
S8P2. Students will be familiar with the forms and transformations of energy.
      a. Explain energy transformation in terms of the Law of Conservation of Energy.

S8P3. Students will investigate relationship between force, mass, and the motion of objects.
      b. Demonstrate the effect of balanced and unbalanced forces on an object in terms of gravity, inertia
         and friction.
      c. Demonstrate the effect of simple machines (lever, inclined plane, pulley, wedge, screw, and wheel
         and axle) on work.
S8CS1. Students will explore the importance of curiosity, honesty, openness, and skepticism in science and will exhibit these traits in their
own efforts to understand how the world works.
          a. Understand the importance of—and keep—honest, clear, and accurate records in science.
          b. Understand that hypotheses can be valuable even if they turn out not to be completely accurate.
S8CS2. Students will use standard safety practices for all classroom laboratory and field investigations.
          a. Follow correct procedures for use of scientific apparatus.
          b. Demonstrate appropriate techniques in all laboratory situations.
          c. Follow correct protocol for identifying and reporting safety problems and violations.
S8CS4. Students will use tools and instruments for observing, measuring, and manipulating equipment and materials in scientific activities
utilizing safe laboratory procedures.
          a. Use appropriate technology to store and retrieve scientific information in topical, alphabetical, numerical, and keyword files, and create
             simple files.
S8CS5. Students will use the ideas of system, model, change, and scale in exploring scientific and technological matters.
          a. Observe and explain how parts can be related to other parts in a system such as the role of simple machines in complex machines.
          b. Understand that different models (such as physical replicas, pictures, and analogies) can be used to represent the same thing.
S8CS6. Students will communicate scientific ideas and activities clearly.
          c. Organize scientific information in appropriate tables, charts, and graphs, and identify relationships they reveal.
S8CS9. Students will understand the features of the process of scientific inquiry.
Students will apply the following to inquiry
          b. Scientific investigations usually involve collecting evidence, reasoning, devising hypotheses, and formulating explanations to make sense of
             collected evidence.
Enduring Understanding:
• Simple machines are all around us and can make work
  easier to perform.

Essential Questions:
• How do simple machines contribute to the operation of a
  bicycle, and car engine, and which simple machines are
• How do simple machines contribute to playing sports that
  use sports equipment and sports that don’t require
  equipment (the human body is the only equipment)?
1. How are balanced and unbalanced forces
   demonstrated in the game of football,
   riding a bicycle, and driving a car?

2. Describe the energy transformations that
   are taking place when someone is
   involved in those activities.
Simple Machines Videos
Work through the following stations

    The Sport of Bicycling
                              Auto Racing   Develop your Plan
          Mr. Fizzix

     The Sport of Bicycling    What simple machine do these
      Propelled by Pedals        sports have in common?
                   Mr. Fizzix
Answer the following:
  1. Explain the role of gravity when riding a
  2. Explain how friction is useful to bicyclers in a
  3. If you were going to buy a bicycle for racing,
    what type of material would you want your
    frame to be made of and why?
  4. Explain the role of friction in the brakes.
               Electric Cars

Answer the Following:
  1. What simple machines exist on an
  2. What energy transformations take place in an
    electric car?
  3. What type of engine would a race car have?
         Develop your Plan
Develop a plan that contains the following:

               blueprint (sketches)
             construction procedures
        rules and strategies for game play
       Present for teacher approval prior to
            constructing your prototype.
          Propelled by Pedals

  1. How can a force produce motion on a bicycle?
  2. What do a bike and a gyroscope have in common?
  3. What is inertia? Explain the concept.
  4. Would you ride your bike on ice? Why or why not?
    (Explain your answer in terms of friction.)
      What simple machine do these
        sports have in common?
Ice Hockey:




Answer The Following:

1. Which simple machine do all these sports have in common?
2. How does this machine do work in this sport?
3. Name 2 ways this machine makes work easier for you.
4. Choose one sport and name two energy transformations that take place.
            Teacher Reflection
What were the “Big Concepts” in each activity?

How will students make sense of these concepts?

Discuss real-world examples that may reinforce students’

Homework, accommodations for students with disabilities, gifted
students, ELL

What other standards and elements might one introduce at this
time to unify the concepts?

What are some common student misconceptions and how can
these activities facilitate the student’s proper conception and

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