The Enlightenment The Enlightenment A

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					 The Enlightenment
A Movement that gave birth to the
  Foundations of Modern Society
      The Enlightenment was a logical
    extension of the Scientific Revolution
   The Scientific            The Enlightenment
    Revolution used            used reason to
    reason to challenge        challenge
    assumptions about          assumptions about
    the natural world.         government and law.
   The scientists paved      The philosophes
    the way for the            paved the way for
    development of new         new patterns of
    scientific fields.         government.
Two Views of the English Civil War

      Thomas Hobbes                      John Locke
        (1588-1679)                     (1632-1704)
   Hobbes saw the event          Locke saw it as proof
    as proof of the                that authority comes
    necessity of absolutism.       from serving the people
   People need to be             All people have natural
    controlled or they will        rights which are part of
    turn into animals              human dignity
    Locke inspired the Enlightenment:
   Locke held that all people have a natural rights
    to life liberty and property.
   Locke saw the purpose of government as the
    protection of those rights for its citizens.
   He also advocated a system of checks and
    balances against absolutism, religious freedom,
    and the separation of Church and State.
   His theories were embodied in the American
    Revolution design of the U.S. Constitution.
          The French Philosophes
   Advocates of the Enlightenment in France were
    known as the philosophes.
   They gathered in the salons of wealthy
    educated people and shared ideas which
    challenged the social order of their time.
   Denis Diderot collected these ideas and other
    scientific facts and published them in the first
   This work helped to spread Enlightenment
    Ideas throughout Europe.
     The Ideals of the Enlightenment
   Reason: This was seen        Progress: This was a
    as the only certain           positive belief that
    source of truth.              humanity would get
   Nature: This was order        better and better until it
    by design which was the       reached its inevitable
    source of all law and         perfection.
    propriety.                   Liberty: This was seen
   Happiness: This was           as the only way that
    seen as the proper goal       progress would take
    of life which was             place. If people had the
    attainable if one lived       freedom to learn and
    according to their            grow then society would
    nature.                       get better.
                Early Philosophes

           Montesquieu                           Voltaire
           (1689-1755)                       (1694-1778)
   He was a French jurist and       He was a famous French
    Baron who criticized the          writer and satirist who made
    political system of France.       fun of the intellectuals and
   He advocated a Separation         political system of his era.
    of Powers for which he           He advocated freedom of
    believed the Parliamentary        thought, freedom of
    System of England to be the       expression, and freedom of
    best model.                       religion.
               Later Philosophes

    Jean Jacques Rousseau                   Cesare Beccaria
          (1712-1778)                         (1738-1794)
   Rousseau saw the structure        Beccaria held that the justice
    of human society as the root       system would fail as long as
    of humanity’s problems             it acted with injustice.
   He felt that the government       He argued for the abolition
    which governs least governs        of torture and cruel or
    best.                              unusual punishments
     The Impact of the Enlightenment
   The Enlightenment challenged the roots of
    the political and social order of the era.
   This served as an inspiration for Eastern
    European Monarchies to attempt reform.
   It provided the inspiration for the American
    and French Revolutions.
   This served as the foundation for the creation
    of the United States of America.
   It brought about the birth of modern
    feminism as the first challenge of the
    traditional male-dominated social system.
               Enlightened Despots

    Frederick II of            Catherine II of              Joseph II
        Prussia                    Russia            Holy Roman Emperor
     (1712-1786)                (1729-1796)                (1744-1790)
He was a great military    She restructured the      He tried to reform
and political leader who   legal system and
                                                     Church and State,
made Prussia into a        introduced limited self
European power and         government. Her           eliminate censorship.
reformed the legal         reforms were stopped      His reforms were resisted
system to administer       due to a rebellion in     and ultimately reversed.
equal justice for all.     the empire.
           Enlightenment Statesmen

 Thomas Jefferson            James Madison                Simon Bolivar
    (1743-1826)                (1751-1736)                 (1783-1830)
Author of the Declaration   Author of the Federalist   The Great Liberator of
of Independence,            Papers, framer of the      South America who
founding father of the      U.S. Constitution and      helped Venzuela,
American Revolution and     the Bill of Rights. He     Columbia, Ecuador &
the 3rd President of the    was the 4th President      Peru to gain
United States.              of the United States.      Independence from
    Foundations of Modern Feminism

   Olympe de Gouges                   Mary Wollstonecraft
      (1748-1793)                          (1759-1797)
She wrote “Declaration of         She wrote “A Vindication of
                                    the Rights of Women”
the Rights of Woman and
                                  Inspiring Women’s Rights
 the Female Citizen” and was
                                  groups all over Europe by
executed in the Reign of Terror
                                  challenging the male dominant
of the French Revolution.
                                  social order.
           Review Questions
1) What was the relationship between the
   Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment?
2) Whose view of the English Civil War set the
   stage for the Enlightenment?
3) What was the role of the Philosophes in the
4) What revolutions were inspired by the
5) Who were the “Enlightened Despots”?
6) Who set the foundations of Modern
        Analysis Questions
A. Contrast Thomas Hobbes and John Locke
   and their view concerning proper
B. Explain how Four of the Enlightenment
   Ideals are a part of the modern view of life.
C. Describe the contributions of the early and
   later Philosophes to the modern concept of
D. Explain the impact of the Enlightenment on
   the History of Western Civilization.
   (Choose any Two to write as a Paragraph)

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