A Movement that gave birth to the
Foundations of Modern Society
The Enlightenment was a logical
extension of the Scientific Revolution
The Scientific The Enlightenment
Revolution used used reason to
reason to challenge challenge
assumptions about assumptions about
the natural world. government and law.
The scientists paved The philosophes
the way for the paved the way for
development of new new patterns of
scientific fields. government.
Two Views of the English Civil War
Thomas Hobbes John Locke
Hobbes saw the event Locke saw it as proof
as proof of the that authority comes
necessity of absolutism. from serving the people
People need to be All people have natural
controlled or they will rights which are part of
turn into animals human dignity
Locke inspired the Enlightenment:
Locke held that all people have a natural rights
to life liberty and property.
Locke saw the purpose of government as the
protection of those rights for its citizens.
He also advocated a system of checks and
balances against absolutism, religious freedom,
and the separation of Church and State.
His theories were embodied in the American
Revolution design of the U.S. Constitution.
The French Philosophes
Advocates of the Enlightenment in France were
known as the philosophes.
They gathered in the salons of wealthy
educated people and shared ideas which
challenged the social order of their time.
Denis Diderot collected these ideas and other
scientific facts and published them in the first
This work helped to spread Enlightenment
Ideas throughout Europe.
The Ideals of the Enlightenment
Reason: This was seen Progress: This was a
as the only certain positive belief that
source of truth. humanity would get
Nature: This was order better and better until it
by design which was the reached its inevitable
source of all law and perfection.
propriety. Liberty: This was seen
Happiness: This was as the only way that
seen as the proper goal progress would take
of life which was place. If people had the
attainable if one lived freedom to learn and
according to their grow then society would
nature. get better.
He was a French jurist and He was a famous French
Baron who criticized the writer and satirist who made
political system of France. fun of the intellectuals and
He advocated a Separation political system of his era.
of Powers for which he He advocated freedom of
believed the Parliamentary thought, freedom of
System of England to be the expression, and freedom of
best model. religion.
Jean Jacques Rousseau Cesare Beccaria
Rousseau saw the structure Beccaria held that the justice
of human society as the root system would fail as long as
of humanity’s problems it acted with injustice.
He felt that the government He argued for the abolition
which governs least governs of torture and cruel or
best. unusual punishments
The Impact of the Enlightenment
The Enlightenment challenged the roots of
the political and social order of the era.
This served as an inspiration for Eastern
European Monarchies to attempt reform.
It provided the inspiration for the American
and French Revolutions.
This served as the foundation for the creation
of the United States of America.
It brought about the birth of modern
feminism as the first challenge of the
traditional male-dominated social system.
Frederick II of Catherine II of Joseph II
Prussia Russia Holy Roman Emperor
(1712-1786) (1729-1796) (1744-1790)
He was a great military She restructured the He tried to reform
and political leader who legal system and
Church and State,
made Prussia into a introduced limited self
European power and government. Her eliminate censorship.
reformed the legal reforms were stopped His reforms were resisted
system to administer due to a rebellion in and ultimately reversed.
equal justice for all. the empire.
Thomas Jefferson James Madison Simon Bolivar
(1743-1826) (1751-1736) (1783-1830)
Author of the Declaration Author of the Federalist The Great Liberator of
of Independence, Papers, framer of the South America who
founding father of the U.S. Constitution and helped Venzuela,
American Revolution and the Bill of Rights. He Columbia, Ecuador &
the 3rd President of the was the 4th President Peru to gain
United States. of the United States. Independence from
Foundations of Modern Feminism
Olympe de Gouges Mary Wollstonecraft
She wrote “Declaration of She wrote “A Vindication of
the Rights of Women”
the Rights of Woman and
Inspiring Women’s Rights
the Female Citizen” and was
groups all over Europe by
executed in the Reign of Terror
challenging the male dominant
of the French Revolution.
1) What was the relationship between the
Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment?
2) Whose view of the English Civil War set the
stage for the Enlightenment?
3) What was the role of the Philosophes in the
4) What revolutions were inspired by the
5) Who were the “Enlightened Despots”?
6) Who set the foundations of Modern
A. Contrast Thomas Hobbes and John Locke
and their view concerning proper
B. Explain how Four of the Enlightenment
Ideals are a part of the modern view of life.
C. Describe the contributions of the early and
later Philosophes to the modern concept of
D. Explain the impact of the Enlightenment on
the History of Western Civilization.
(Choose any Two to write as a Paragraph)