Presidential Roles and Powers by alicejenny


									Presidential Roles
   and Powers
Official Qualifications
•Natural-born citizen
•14 years U.S. residency
•35 or older
 •OLDEST: REAGAN (69/73)
Term of Office
•POTUS serves 4-year terms
•Max # of terms: 2½
•Salary: $400,000/year (set by Congress;
 cannot be changed during Presidential
 term) – 2001 increase first raise since 1969
•Annual Expense Account: $50,000 (non-
•Pension: $143,800/year plus post-POTUS
 perks: speaking fees , memoirs, corporate
 boards of directors
Salary History
•1789: $25,000
•1873: $50,000
•1909: $75,000
•1949: $100,000 + $50,000 EA
•1969: $200,000 + $50,000 EA
•2001: $400,000 + $50,000 EA
•VP: $208,100 + $10,000 EA
Eschewing Presidency
•Before the end of his/her term, the
 POTUS can de-President through:
•In which case, Presidential Succession
 comes into play
Presidential Succession
1. VPOTUS (who then nominated a
   successor for Congressional
2. Speaker of the House
3. President Pro Tem of Senate
4. Secretary of State
5. Secretary of Treasury
6. Secretary of Defense
7-19. the rest of the Cabinet secretaries
   in order of the creation of their offices
Presidential Disability
• Disability is when the POTUS temporarily
   relinquishes his duties (usually due to
• Takes effect in one of two ways (25th
1. POTUS informs Congress in writing that
   he is “unable to discharge powers and
   duties of office” or
2. VPOTUS and Cabinet majority inform
   Congress in writing
Presidential Roles

•The President’s functions are
 subdivided into roles, all of which
 he/she performs simultaneously
Chief Executive
• Powers:
  •Enforces Laws, Treaties, Court Decisions
  •Appoints officials to office and can fire them
  •Issues executive orders (which have force of
    laws but does not need Congressional

• Assisted by:
  •Congress, Chief of Staff, Senior Staff
Chief Legislator
 •Proposes legislation
 •Vetoes legislation Calls special
  sessions of Congress
 •Makes State of the Union Address to
Commander in Chief
 •Head of the armed forces (link with
   civilian supremacy)

•Assisted by:
 •JCS, Secretary of Defense, Pentagon

 •Congress appropriates funds for military
 •Congress declares war
 •War Powers Act of 1973
Chief Diplomat
 •Sets overall foreign policy (confirmed
  by U.S. v. Curtiss-Wright, 1936)
 •Appoints and receives ambassadors
 •Negotiates treaties and executive
  agreements (have force of treaties
  but do not require Senate ratification)
 •Gives diplomatic recognition to
  foreign governments
Head of State
 •Ceremonial leader of nation: tosses
  out first pitch, bestows medal of
  honor, visits natural disaster sites
 •Most nations separate Chief
  Executives and Chief of State roles

•Assisted by:
 •VPOTUS, First Family, White House
  staff (Protocol, Kitchens, etc.)
Chief Jurist
 •Appoints federal judges
 •Issues pardons, amnesty, commutations,
   reprieves (to people convicted of federal
•Assisted by:
 •Justice Department, Congress
 •Senate can reject judicial appointments
 •Senate can place “holds” on appointments
Chief Administrator
 •CEO of federal bureaucracy
 •3M employees; $1.7T annual budget

•Assisted by:
 •OMB, Chief of Staff

 •Congress appropriates funds
Non-Constitutional Roles
•Head of Political Party:
 •Selects party’s national committee
 •Selects Vice Presidential nominee
 •Midterm election support
 •Primary fundraising force

•Chief Economist:
 •Responsible for overall economic health
 •Appoints Fed chairman
 •Proposes federal budget

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