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The feed quality has a decisive influence on the productivity of livestock farming. However, high-quality forage considerably adds to the costs of stock breeding. Consequently, economic considerations focus on the quality and quantity of the components used in the production process.
Digital Re-print - September | October 2011 Sample preparation of feeds and forage for NIR analysis Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies, the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published. ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872 www.gfmt.co.uk NEXT PAGE GFM0 FEATURE M Whereas an inhomogeneous sample 10 times, the leads to systematic errors in the subsequent spectrometer Good Agricultural analysis, a sample, which is too coarse causes was refilled Practice statistical errors. This will be explained in the for every Fo New Delhi I Mexico City I Cape Town I Sao Paulo I Cairo I Warsaw I Atlanta I Bangkok following. measure- ot The penetration depth of NIR radiation ment. wh in grain or forage is up to 1mm, measured in The sam- pu Sample diffuse reflection. Thus, the composition of the sample’s deeper layers is not detected. That is not a ples pulverized were in Retsch’s m preparation problem if the sample/pellet is homogeneous in itself. When examining pellets coated with fat or grains and seeds, however, the ingre- cyclone mill Twister. This mill was spe- of feeds and dients of the analyzed layers are over repre- sented in relation to the complete sample. cially designed for sample Coming Your Way forage for NIR If the material is homogeneous but does preparation not have the required analytical fineness, the of food and surface actually analysed is reduced. This feed for sub- Everything you need to know about Good Agricultural Practice Certification analysis is due to the fact that the light inside the sequent NIR sample is scattered and not returned back analysis. In at a place near you! Th pr to the detector. the Twister The same happens with light, fibrous sam- size reduction M Register now on www.tour2011.org ples with a low bulk density. As this effect is is effected by Dr Andreas Theisen, Sales & influenced by the filling level of the sample by impact Meet us in one of the following cities: Would you like to know more about the Application, Retsch GmbH, Haan, container and the surface actually analyzed, and friction New Delhi – India, 1/2 March 2011 GLOBALG.A.P TOUR 2011? Mexico City – Mexico, 11/12 April 2011 Germany the statistic error is rather big in such cases. between the Town – South Africa, 11/12 May 2011 Cape Then please see www.tour2011.org or contact Te rotor and Nina Kretschmer: firstname.lastname@example.org Sao Paulo – Brazil, 6/7 June 2011 Test series with different samples the friction Follow us on Twitter@GLOBALGAP! Fa Cairo – Egypt, 12/13 July 2011 The different properties of ground and surface of the Warsaw – Poland, 14/15 September 2011 E- T he feed quality has a decisive Table 1: The measurement results of various parameters in ground and unground rabbit food unground samples when analysed with NIR fixed grinding Atlanta – USA, 17/18 October 2011 w influence on the productivity are demonstrated exemplarily with three ring. Bangkok – Thailand, 22/23 November 2011 pellets only show slight differences of livestock farming. However, different materials: rabbit food pellets, wheat The feed high-quality forage considerably Parameter Ash Moisture Fiber Fat Protein grains and hay. The samples were analyzed material pass- adds to the costs of stock breeding. content Consequently, economic consider- ations focus on the quality and Grain &feed millinG technoloGy quantity of the components used Ground rabbit food pellets Best For Quality Control Average 8.58 10.20 11.68 3.11 13.70 in the production process. Standard deviation 0.07 0.23 0.34 0.03 0.18 Make every batch in spec... n e GFMT11.05.indd 7 This includes reliable analyses of feed- Unground rabbit food pellets ...in real-time at lower cost stuff and ingredients from receipt of goods Average 8.67 10.81 11.46 3.16 13.19 to final inspection as the best way to Standard deviation 0.10 0.15 0.59 0.03 0.13 ensure a balanced feeding of the animals while keeping cost and profit orientation in focus. determination of protein content, moisture, such as Kjeldahl is the simultaneous deter- Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) is the fat and ash in feeds and forage. mination of several parameters. Moreover, most important analytical method for the The advantage over classical methods NIR spectroscopy is a quick method, which requires neither consumables nor reagents. Therefore it is used whenever high sample throughput and great flexibility are required. The identification and qualification of raw materials as well as the quantitative Waiting is over. analysis of convenience products can be tango. anaLYsis to go. carried out within seconds to guarantee highest product quality and safety. Feed & Petfood A much discussed issue related to NIR • Intake qualiﬁcation & sorting analysis is the necessity of sample prepara- • Mixing with controlled addition tion. Users often face the problem of hav- • Extruding & pelletizing conditioning Faster, simpler, more secure - with TANGO your NIR analysis speeds up. ing to decide whether sample preparation TANGO has exactly what users require of an FT-NIR spectrometer suitable • Final product qualiﬁcation is required or not. for a feed analysis lab: robustness, high precision and straightforward operator guidance. What does sample preparation proven solutions for monitoring & control An intuitive user interface with touch screen operation makes the analysis of feed ingredients and finished feed available to everybody. for NIR analysis involve? NIR-Online GmbH Sample preparation for NIR does not SAP Partnerport Contact us for more details: require digestion or extraction; it is mainly Altrottstraße 31 www.brukeroptics.com • www.tango-nir.com about size reduction of the sample material. D-69190 Walldorf Figure 1: Fiber content of the ground (blue) and unground (green) wheat This involves two aspects: Tel.: +49 (0) 6227 732 660 sample resulting from 10 measurements. The analysis of the unground sample 1. Homogenising the sample Fax: +49 (0) 6227 732 670 F T- NIR Email: email@example.com www.nir-online.de Innovation with Integrity clearly shows a systematic as well as a considerable statistic error. 2. Achieving the required grind size 18 | September - october 2011 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy Grain &feed millinG technoloGy September - october 2011 | 19 NIRonline_90x132_finalV2.indd 1 25.02.2011 14:19:22 FEATURE “NIR spectroscopy is a simple and suitable method to determine a series of relevant parameters in forage and grain. The general opinion is that it doesn’t require any sample preparation” Table 2: The analysis of wheat grains shows a considerable difference in the ash and fiber ground and unground samples hardly show content of the ground and unground sample any difference. Parameter Ash Moisture Fiber Fat Protein content The results for wheat are different The table shows a considerable discrepancy Ground wheat between ground and unground sample, par- Average 2.80 9.68 1.10 1.17 9.02 ticularly with regards to ash and fiber content. Standard deviation 0.03 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.07 This is due to the fact that only the surface of the unground wheat grains is analysed resulting Unground wheat in an over representation of the kernel shell. Average 0.10 9.80 6.90 1.38 8.46 Standard deviation 0.10 0.25 0.62 0.16 0.45 The third analyzed sample is hay This sample shows a substantial dif- ference for the average and the standard Table 3: The analysis of hay shows a strong difference in the protein content and standard deviation of the protein content. This is deviation between ground and unground sample because of the varying bulk density of the Parameter Ash Moisture Fiber Fat Protein unground sample. content Conclusion Ground hay NIR spectroscopy is a simple and suitable method to determine a series of relevant Average 9.53 5.70 28.56 1.36 6.17 parameters in forage and grain. The general Standard deviation 0.07 0.12 0.29 0.04 0.12 opinion is that it doesn’t require any sample Unground hay preparation. Average 9.31 6.25 26.26 2.44 9.94 The results presented in this article show, however, that it does make a difference if the Standard deviation 0.07 0.09 0.68 0.18 0.43 samples are ground in a suitable laboratory mill before being analysed, particularly if they es through the hopper (with splash-back pro- the sample and the grinding tools which helps are inhomogeneous. tection) onto the rotor, which is rotating with to preserve the moisture content. The sample Only then is it possible to guarantee high speed, and is thus submitted to preliminary properties to be determined are not altered in meaningful and reliable analysis results. size reduction. The sample is then thrown out- any way. The ground material is separated in wards by centrifugal accel- the cyclone and collected in a sample bottle. eration and is pulverized The cyclone mill Twister is also suitable for More inforMation: between rotor and grinding processing large numbers of different materials Dr Andreas Theisen, Sales ring. The two-step grinding as no cleaning between samples is required. & Application, Retsch ensures particularly gentle The quantitative measurements were GmbH, Haan, Germany but fast processing so that carried out with the NIR spectrometer Tel: +49 2129 /55610 the feed material only remains in the grinding TANGO from Bruker Optik GmbH. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, chamber for a very short time. The first sample to be analysed was rabbit website: www.retsch.com The integrated cyclone provides cooling of food pellets. The measurement results of the 20 | September - october 2011 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy headsets and catering arrangements involved.” The theme of the conference The GRAPAS Conference Guest - EDITOR’S O N ews September - October 2011 Guaranteeing food and feed safety through greater NEWS for Asia use of technology in the control of product quality at each step of the milling process, from raw material collection-through processing-to-product dispatch. Grain milling focuses on food safety and HACCP programs both a USA and andwith simultaneous The conference will be in English work shop presenter. international Keeping firmly in mind the need to provide informa- translation into/from the Thai language. “Combining those two factors T International Grains (IAOM),” says Mark Fowler, participants and emphasizes the with the access we have to IAOM’s hetion and new ideas in a timely and efficient way, the 2012 GRAPAS Conference will IGP associate director and importance of safe practices details extensive network, it allows us to Program collaborates with be held in two parts on one day Registration and further within industryopening dayto offer exhibition – February 15, 2012; are the industry as a whole. – the organization of the workshop coordinator. “We it offer a course that is really unique For an updated programme, please visit the conference HACCP certification and independent excited to continue this unique website to register this workshop to the industry.” will comprise training on morning and an afternoon ses- Collaborating on http://conta.cc/nneulE There is an early bird discount 33% for go to www.aibonline. workshop that both addresses for a third year has strengthened of To enroll,all delegates food safety in grain milling. can choose to attend either or both parts sions. Delegates the development of a HACCP registering online prior to Novemberorg. 2011. depending on their timetable and their interests. the relationship between the three 30, The course is listed under Grain milling professionals program and fits the organizations and the seminars and courses header. interested in answering the question food safety needs of has allowed them to Those interested in registering of how to apply food safety practices our participants from grow their audience, can also call AIB International at and implement hazard analysis the grain processing while still presenting +1 800 242 2534. critical control points programs industry.” Are you a Perendale bookworm? the curriculum in a This class is just one example of of Grain & Feed mIlling Technology, Perendale Publishers Ltd, the publishershands- on, interactive the partnership courses offered (HACCP) that specifically relate to During the workshop, has set learn grain milling can do so at the Grain participants will up an online Amazon-based ‘Book Shop’ that lets you browse a environment. through IGP. In addition to flour wide range of “AIB books on Grain milling, relaed Milling: Food Safety and HACCP fundamentals of good recently-published reports and International & Feed IGP regularly offers short topics. You will h a s a review before making workshop planned for October manufacturing practices, soon be able to read an extended s t r o n g courses in feed manufacturing your selection and purchasing directly from Amazon. food and grain management, grain 11-13 at the Kansas State University sanitation schedules and presence in International Grains Program (IGP) HACCCP programs safety and the grain marketing and We will undertake to put forward for your consideration the most recent risk management, Conference Center. specificallypublications and as a resultscience department has endless and flour milling and grain related to the flour milling become a reference point for your reading and “This workshop is the result of a industry, and then apply this knowledge resources in grain processing processing. research. partnership between K-State, AIB in designing a HACCP program for the and excellent facilities,” says Bill For more information about IGP International and the International onsite Hal Ross Flour Mill. According Pursley, vice president of food programs, go to the IGP website Association of Operative Millers to Fowler, its curriculum caters to education for AIB International at: www.grains.k-state.edu/igp. book store Big squeeze at Flexicon’s bulk handling test laboratory are a regular occurrence on all four sides for operator safety Flexicon can equip the and includes full-height doors F or many years Flexicon facing many organisations when Bulk Bag Conditioner with a that are interlocked preventing Europe has maintained a bagged bulk materials such as hydraulically-actuated, variable- actuation when the doors are Of course you will be charged for any books purchased, but you will be dedicated test laboratory hygroscopic chemicals, certain height turntable enabling in-frame open. dealing directly with Amazon, which has a world-class ordering/payment to demonstrate the versatility types of spice blends, heat-sensitive bag rotation and conditioning Visitors to the Flexicon Test gateway, packaging and mailing service. and practicality of its bulk products and many more have at varying heights; the height of Laboratory are now able to handling systems and show Consult Perendale Publishers turntable and the at: compacted and solidified during theOnline Book Storenumber of see the Bulk Bag Conditioner how it contributes to improved storage and shipment. 90-degree rotations being user- working alongside other Flexicon distribution of free-flowing and They reach a point at which adjustable. bulk handling systems such as www.perendale.com/books not-so-free-flowing materials to downstream processes or into intermediate storage hoppers. pneumatically actuated flow Having been treated in the Bulk the Company’s flexible screw promotion accessories integral to Bag Conditioner loosened bulk and pneumatic conveyors, bulk bulk bag dischargers are inefficient solid material is then ready for discharger units and bag fillers. or completely ineffective. induction into bulk bag unloaders The functionality of the expanded Last month Flexicon Europe added The Bulk Bag Conditioner with discharge through bag test facility enables Flexicon a hydraulic Bulk Bag Conditioner incorporates two hydraulic rams spouts. to fully trial the handling of to the recently expanded Test Grain&feed materials to maximise with specially contoured end Measuring 2210mm high by specific millinG technoloGy 2 | September - october 2011 Facility at its production plant in plates, which gently press opposing 3378mm wide and 1981mm deep, performance. Kent. sides of bulk bags reinstating a the conditioner is designed to GFMT11.05.inddThe new equipment overcomes 2 more free-flowing material state. accommodate the most popular More inforMation: 04/10/2011 15:14 the problematical occurrence Where more stubborn materials sized bulk bags. It is fully enclosed Website: www.flexicon.co.uk Grain &feed millinG technoloGy September - october 2011 | 9 This digital Re-print is part of the September | October 2011 edition of Grain & Feed Milling Technology magazine. Content from the magazine is available to view free-of-charge, both as a full online magazine on our website, and as an archive of individual features on the docstoc website. LINKS Please click here to view our other publications on www.docstoc.com. October 2011 • See the full issue • Producing Flaked breakfast Cereals In this issue: • Sample • Visit the GFMT website preparation of feeds and forage for NIR analysis • Contact the GFMT Team • Milling Technology Redefined • 15-Year Celebration: Fortifying with folic acid prevents 22,000 birth defects annually • Direct Cold Plasma: • Subscribe to GFMT The innovative answer to odour • Global Feed control in the food and feed Markets: industry Wheat supply grows and grows as corn crop shrinks A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891 GFMT11.05.indd 1 04/10/2011 15:14 To purchase a paper copy of the magazine, or to subscribe to the paper edition please contact our Circulation and Subscriptions Manager on the link adove. 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