Docstoc

Sample preparation of feeds and forage for NIR analysis

Document Sample
Sample preparation of feeds and forage for NIR analysis Powered By Docstoc
					Digital Re-print - September | October 2011
Sample preparation of feeds and forage for NIR analysis



      Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom.
      All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,
      the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of
      information published.
      ©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form
      or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872




                              www.gfmt.co.uk                                                                                       NEXT PAGE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          GFM0
     FEATURE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            M
                                                                                                                                                                                 Whereas an inhomogeneous sample                 10 times, the
                                                                                                                                                                             leads to systematic errors in the subsequent        spectrometer                                                                                  Good
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Agricultural
                                                                                                                                                                             analysis, a sample, which is too coarse causes      was refilled
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Practice
                                                                                                                                                                             statistical errors. This will be explained in the   for       every                                                                                                            Fo
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                New Delhi I Mexico City I Cape Town I Sao Paulo I Cairo I Warsaw I Atlanta I Bangkok
                                                                                                                                                                             following.                                          measure-                                                                                                                   ot
                                                                                                                                                                                 The penetration depth of NIR radiation          ment.                                                                                                                      wh
                                                                                                                                                                             in grain or forage is up to 1mm, measured in            The sam-                                                                                                               pu

                                                                              Sample                                                                                         diffuse reflection.
                                                                                                                                                                                 Thus, the composition of the sample’s
                                                                                                                                                                             deeper layers is not detected. That is not a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ples
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 pulverized
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           were

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 in Retsch’s
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            m



                                                                              preparation                                                                                    problem if the sample/pellet is homogeneous
                                                                                                                                                                             in itself. When examining pellets coated with
                                                                                                                                                                             fat or grains and seeds, however, the ingre-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 cyclone mill
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Twister. This
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 mill was spe-

                                                                              of feeds and                                                                                   dients of the analyzed layers are over repre-
                                                                                                                                                                             sented in relation to the complete sample.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 cially designed
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 for sample
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Coming Your Way
                                                                              forage for NIR
                                                                                                                                                                                 If the material is homogeneous but does         preparation
                                                                                                                                                                             not have the required analytical fineness, the      of food and
                                                                                                                                                                             surface actually analysed is reduced. This          feed for sub-               Everything you need to know about
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Good Agricultural Practice Certification

                                                                              analysis
                                                                                                                                                                             is due to the fact that the light inside the        sequent NIR
                                                                                                                                                                             sample is scattered and not returned back           analysis. In                at a place near you!                                                                           Th
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            pr
                                                                                                                                                                             to the detector.                                    the Twister
                                                                                                                                                                                 The same happens with light, fibrous sam-       size reduction                                                                                                             M
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Register now on www.tour2011.org
                                                                                                                                                                             ples with a low bulk density. As this effect is     is     effected
                                                                              by Dr Andreas Theisen, Sales &                                                                 influenced by the filling level of the sample       by      impact              Meet us in one of the following cities:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Would you like to know more about the
                                                                              Application, Retsch GmbH, Haan,                                                                container and the surface actually analyzed,        and friction                 New
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             	 Delhi – India, 1/2 March 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            GLOBALG.A.P TOUR 2011?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Mexico City – Mexico, 11/12 April 2011
                                                                              Germany                                                                                        the statistic error is rather big in such cases.    between the                 	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             	 Town – South Africa, 11/12 May 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cape                                          Then please see www.tour2011.org or contact
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Te
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 rotor       and                                                            Nina Kretschmer: kretschmer@globalgap.org
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Sao
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             	 Paulo – Brazil, 6/7 June 2011
                                                                                                                                                                             Test series with different samples                  the friction                                                               Follow us on Twitter@GLOBALGAP!                 Fa
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Cairo – Egypt, 12/13 July 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             	
                                                                                                                                                                                 The different properties of ground and          surface of the               Warsaw – Poland, 14/15 September 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             	                                                                                             E-



T
      he feed quality has a decisive
                                                    Table 1: The measurement results of various parameters in ground and unground rabbit food
                                                                                                                                                                             unground samples when analysed with NIR             fixed grinding               Atlanta – USA, 17/18 October 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             	                                                                                             w
      influence on the productivity                                                                                                                                          are demonstrated exemplarily with three             ring.                        Bangkok – Thailand, 22/23 November 2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             	
                                                    pellets only show slight differences
      of livestock farming. However,                                                                                                                                         different materials: rabbit food pellets, wheat         The feed
high-quality   forage    considerably                 Parameter               Ash         Moisture        Fiber             Fat          Protein                             grains and hay. The samples were analyzed           material pass-
adds to the costs of stock breeding.                                                                     content
Consequently, economic consider-
ations focus on the quality and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Grain     &feed millinG technoloGy
quantity of the components used
                                                                                                                         Ground rabbit food pellets
                                                                                                                                                                    Best For Quality Control
                                                                Average           8.58          10.20         11.68               3.11       13.70
in the production process.
                                                      Standard deviation          0.07           0.23           0.34              0.03          0.18                Make every batch in spec...
                                                                                                                                                                                       n e                                                   GFMT11.05.indd 7
    This includes reliable analyses of feed-                                                                           Unground rabbit food pellets                                ...in real-time at lower cost
stuff and ingredients from receipt of goods                     Average           8.67          10.81         11.46               3.16       13.19
to final inspection as the best way to
                                                      Standard deviation          0.10           0.15           0.59              0.03          0.13
ensure a balanced feeding of the animals
while keeping cost and profit orientation
in focus.                                      determination of protein content, moisture,       such as Kjeldahl is the simultaneous deter-
    Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) is the    fat and ash in feeds and forage.                  mination of several parameters. Moreover,
most important analytical method for the           The advantage over classical methods          NIR spectroscopy is a quick method, which
                                                                                                 requires neither consumables nor reagents.
                                                                                                     Therefore it is used whenever high
                                                                                                 sample throughput and great flexibility are
                                                                                                 required. The identification and qualification
                                                                                                 of raw materials as well as the quantitative                                                                                                                                                          Waiting is over.
                                                                                                 analysis of convenience products can be                                                                                                                                                               tango. anaLYsis to go.
                                                                                                 carried out within seconds to guarantee
                                                                                                 highest product quality and safety.                                Feed & Petfood
                                                                                                     A much discussed issue related to NIR                          •   Intake qualification & sorting
                                                                                                 analysis is the necessity of sample prepara-                       •   Mixing with controlled addition
                                                                                                 tion. Users often face the problem of hav-                         •   Extruding & pelletizing conditioning                                                Faster, simpler, more secure - with TANGO your NIR analysis speeds up.
                                                                                                 ing to decide whether sample preparation                                                                                                                   TANGO has exactly what users require of an FT-NIR spectrometer suitable
                                                                                                                                                                    •   Final product qualification
                                                                                                 is required or not.                                                                                                                                        for a feed analysis lab: robustness, high precision and straightforward
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            operator guidance.
                                                                                                 What does sample preparation                                        proven solutions for monitoring & control                                              An intuitive user interface with touch screen operation makes the analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            of feed ingredients and finished feed available to everybody.
                                                                                                 for NIR analysis involve?                                          NIR-Online GmbH
                                                                                                    Sample preparation for NIR does not                             SAP Partnerport
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Contact us for more details:
                                                                                                 require digestion or extraction; it is mainly                      Altrottstraße 31
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            www.brukeroptics.com • www.tango-nir.com
                                                                                                 about size reduction of the sample material.                       D-69190 Walldorf
        Figure 1: Fiber content of the ground (blue) and unground (green) wheat                  This involves two aspects:                                         Tel.: +49 (0) 6227 732 660
    sample resulting from 10 measurements. The analysis of the unground sample                    1. Homogenising the sample                                        Fax: +49 (0) 6227 732 670                                                                                                                                               F T- NIR
                                                                                                                                                                    Email: info@nir-online.de                               www.nir-online.de               Innovation with Integrity
                 clearly shows a systematic as well as a considerable statistic error.            2. Achieving the required grind size

18 | September - october 2011                                                                               Grain  &feed millinG technoloGy                                  Grain   &feed millinG technoloGy                                                                                                         September - october 2011 | 19

                                                                                                                                                       NIRonline_90x132_finalV2.indd 1                                                25.02.2011 14:19:22
     FEATURE




“NIR spectroscopy is a simple and
suitable method to determine a series of
relevant parameters in forage and grain.
The general opinion is that it doesn’t
require any sample preparation”

     Table 2: The analysis of wheat grains shows a considerable difference in the ash and fiber            ground and unground samples hardly show
     content of the ground and unground sample                                                             any difference.
     Parameter              Ash           Moisture            Fiber            Fat             Protein
                                                             content                                       The results for wheat are
                                                                                                           different
                                                                                                               The table shows a considerable discrepancy
                                                                                            Ground wheat   between ground and unground sample, par-
             Average              2.80            9.68              1.10             1.17           9.02   ticularly with regards to ash and fiber content.
   Standard deviation             0.03            0.09              0.05             0.03           0.07   This is due to the fact that only the surface of
                                                                                                           the unground wheat grains is analysed resulting
                                                                                        Unground wheat
                                                                                                           in an over representation of the kernel shell.
             Average              0.10            9.80              6.90             1.38           8.46
   Standard deviation             0.10            0.25              0.62             0.16           0.45   The third analyzed sample is hay
                                                                                                              This sample shows a substantial dif-
                                                                                                           ference for the average and the standard
     Table 3: The analysis of hay shows a strong difference in the protein content and standard
                                                                                                           deviation of the protein content. This is
     deviation between ground and unground sample
                                                                                                           because of the varying bulk density of the
     Parameter              Ash           Moisture            Fiber            Fat             Protein     unground sample.
                                                             content
                                                                                                           Conclusion
                                                                                              Ground hay       NIR spectroscopy is a simple and suitable
                                                                                                           method to determine a series of relevant
             Average              9.53            5.70             28.56             1.36           6.17
                                                                                                           parameters in forage and grain. The general
   Standard deviation             0.07            0.12              0.29             0.04           0.12   opinion is that it doesn’t require any sample
                                                                                            Unground hay   preparation.
             Average              9.31            6.25             26.26             2.44           9.94       The results presented in this article show,
                                                                                                           however, that it does make a difference if the
   Standard deviation             0.07            0.09              0.68             0.18           0.43
                                                                                                           samples are ground in a suitable laboratory
                                                                                                           mill before being analysed, particularly if they
es through the hopper (with splash-back pro-             the sample and the grinding tools which helps     are inhomogeneous.
tection) onto the rotor, which is rotating with          to preserve the moisture content. The sample          Only then is it possible to guarantee
high speed, and is thus submitted to preliminary         properties to be determined are not altered in    meaningful and reliable analysis results.
size reduction. The sample is then thrown out-           any way. The ground material is separated in
                   wards by centrifugal accel-           the cyclone and collected in a sample bottle.
                   eration and is pulverized             The cyclone mill Twister is also suitable for       More    inforMation:
                   between rotor and grinding            processing large numbers of different materials     Dr Andreas Theisen, Sales
                   ring. The two-step grinding           as no cleaning between samples is required.         & Application, Retsch
                   ensures particularly gentle              The quantitative measurements were               GmbH, Haan, Germany
                   but fast processing so that           carried out with the NIR spectrometer                 Tel: +49 2129 /55610
the feed material only remains in the grinding           TANGO from Bruker Optik GmbH.                         Email: mk@retsch.com,
chamber for a very short time.                              The first sample to be analysed was rabbit         website: www.retsch.com
    The integrated cyclone provides cooling of           food pellets. The measurement results of the


20 | September - october 2011                                                                                        Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
                                                                                                  headsets and catering arrangements involved.”
                                                                                                     The theme of the conference
                            The GRAPAS Conference




Guest - EDITOR’S O
      N   ews        September - October 2011                                                         Guaranteeing food and feed safety through greater NEWS
                                   for Asia                                                       use of technology in the control of product quality at
                                                                                                  each step of the milling process, from raw material
                                                                                                  collection-through processing-to-product dispatch.
                Grain milling focuses on food safety and HACCP programs both a USA and andwith simultaneous
                                                                                                     The conference will be in English work shop presenter.
                                                                                                                  international
                            Keeping firmly in mind the need to provide informa- translation into/from the Thai language.             “Combining those two factors


                 T
                          International Grains (IAOM),” says Mark Fowler, participants and emphasizes the with the access we have to IAOM’s
                     hetion and new ideas in a timely and efficient way, the 2012
                        GRAPAS Conference will IGP associate director and importance of safe practices details extensive network, it allows us to
                     Program collaborates with be held in two parts on one day                    Registration and further within
                     industryopening dayto offer exhibition – February 15, 2012; are the industry as a whole.
                       – the   organization of the workshop coordinator. “We it                                                      offer a course that is really unique
                                                                                                  For an updated programme, please visit the conference
              HACCP certification and independent excited to continue this unique website to register this workshop to the industry.”
                        will comprise training on morning and an afternoon ses-                 Collaborating on http://conta.cc/nneulE
                                                                                                  There is an early bird discount 33% for go to www.aibonline.
                                                      workshop that both addresses for a third year has strengthened of To enroll,all delegates
              food safety in grain milling. can choose to attend either or both parts
                        sions. Delegates
                                                      the development of a HACCP registering online prior to Novemberorg. 2011.
                        depending on their timetable and their interests.                       the relationship between the three    30, The course is listed under
              Grain milling professionals program and fits the                                                organizations and the seminars and courses header.
              interested in answering the question food safety needs of                                       has allowed them to Those interested in registering
              of how to apply food safety practices our participants from                                     grow their audience, can also call AIB International at
              and implement hazard analysis the grain processing                                              while still presenting +1 800 242 2534.
              critical control points programs industry.”
                                                                  Are you a Perendale bookworm?               the curriculum in a This class is just one example of
                                                                                                               of Grain & Feed mIlling Technology,
                                                                  Perendale Publishers Ltd, the publishershands- on, interactive the partnership courses offered
              (HACCP) that specifically relate to During the workshop,
                                                                  has set learn
              grain milling can do so at the Grain participants will up an online Amazon-based ‘Book Shop’ that lets you browse a
                                                                                                              environment.           through IGP. In addition to flour
                                                                  wide range of                               “AIB books on Grain milling, relaed
              Milling: Food Safety and HACCP fundamentals of good recently-published reports and International & Feed IGP regularly offers short
                                                                  topics. You will                            h a s a review before making
              workshop planned for October manufacturing practices, soon be able to read an extended s t r o n g courses in feed manufacturing
                                                                  your selection and purchasing directly from Amazon. food and grain management, grain
              11-13 at the Kansas State University sanitation schedules and                                   presence in
              International Grains Program (IGP) HACCCP programs                                              safety and the grain marketing and
                                                                  We will undertake to put forward for your consideration the most recent risk management,
              Conference Center.                      specificallypublications and as a resultscience department has endless and flour milling and grain
                                                                   related to the flour milling  become a reference point for your reading and
              “This workshop is the result of a industry, and then apply this knowledge resources in grain processing processing.
                                                                  research.
              partnership between K-State, AIB in designing a HACCP program for the and excellent facilities,” says Bill For more information about IGP
              International and the International onsite Hal Ross Flour Mill. According Pursley, vice president of food programs, go to the IGP website
              Association of Operative Millers to Fowler, its curriculum caters to education for AIB International at: www.grains.k-state.edu/igp.


                               book store
                  Big squeeze at Flexicon’s bulk handling test laboratory                            are a regular occurrence on all four sides for operator safety
                                                                                                     Flexicon can equip the and includes full-height doors


                 F
                       or many years Flexicon           facing many organisations when Bulk Bag Conditioner with a that are interlocked preventing
                       Europe has maintained a          bagged bulk materials such as hydraulically-actuated, variable- actuation when the doors are
                                                                  Of course you will be charged for any books purchased, but you will be
                       dedicated test laboratory        hygroscopic chemicals, certain height turntable enabling in-frame open.
                                                                  dealing directly with Amazon, which has a world-class ordering/payment
                 to demonstrate the versatility         types of spice blends, heat-sensitive bag rotation and conditioning Visitors to the Flexicon Test
                                                                  gateway, packaging and mailing service.
                 and practicality of its bulk           products and many more have at varying heights; the height of Laboratory are now able to
                 handling systems and show                        Consult Perendale Publishers turntable and the at:
                                                        compacted and solidified during theOnline Book Storenumber of see the Bulk Bag Conditioner
                 how it contributes to improved         storage and shipment.                 90-degree rotations being user- working alongside other Flexicon
                 distribution of free-flowing and       They reach a point at which adjustable.                                   bulk handling systems such as

                                          www.perendale.com/books
                 not-so-free-flowing materials to
                 downstream processes or into
                 intermediate storage hoppers.
                                                        pneumatically actuated flow Having been treated in the Bulk the Company’s flexible screw
                                                        promotion accessories integral to Bag Conditioner loosened bulk and pneumatic conveyors, bulk
                                                        bulk bag dischargers are inefficient solid material is then ready for discharger units and bag fillers.
                                                        or completely ineffective.            induction into bulk bag unloaders The functionality of the expanded
                  Last month Flexicon Europe added      The Bulk Bag Conditioner with discharge through bag test facility enables Flexicon
                  a hydraulic Bulk Bag Conditioner      incorporates two hydraulic rams spouts.                                   to fully trial the handling of
                  to the recently expanded Test                                                                              Grain&feed materials to maximise
                                                        with specially contoured end Measuring 2210mm high by specific millinG technoloGy
                    2 | September - october 2011
                  Facility at its production plant in   plates, which gently press opposing 3378mm wide and 1981mm deep, performance.
                  Kent.                                 sides of bulk bags reinstating a the conditioner is designed to
    GFMT11.05.inddThe new equipment overcomes
                    2                                   more free-flowing material state.     accommodate the most popular More inforMation:                    04/10/2011   15:14
                  the problematical occurrence          Where more stubborn materials sized bulk bags. It is fully enclosed        Website: www.flexicon.co.uk




                  Grain &feed millinG technoloGy                                                                                            September - october 2011 | 9
This	digital	Re-print	is	part	of	the	September	|	October	2011	edition	of	Grain	&	Feed	Milling	Technology	magazine.		
Content	from	the	magazine	is	available	to	view	free-of-charge,	both	as	a	full	online	magazine	on	our	website,	and	as	
an	archive	of	individual	features	on	the	docstoc	website.	
                                                                                                                                           LINKS
Please	click	here	to	view	our	other	publications	on	www.docstoc.com.




             October                    2011
                                                                                                                                   •	 See	the	full	issue
                                    •    Producing Flaked
                                         breakfast Cereals
                                                                                      In this issue:
                                                                                      •     Sample
                                                                                                                                   •	   Visit	the	GFMT	website
                                                                                            preparation
                                                                                            of feeds and
                                                                                            forage for NIR
                                                                                            analysis


                                                                                                                                   •	   Contact	the	GFMT	Team
                                    •    Milling Technology
                                         Redefined
                                                                                      •     15-Year
                                                                                            Celebration:
                                                                                            Fortifying with
                                                                                            folic acid prevents
                                                                                            22,000 birth
                                                                                            defects annually
                                    •    Direct Cold Plasma:


                                                                                                                                   •	   Subscribe	to	GFMT
                                         The innovative answer to odour               •     Global Feed
                                         control in the food and feed                       Markets:
                                         industry                                           Wheat supply
                                                                                            grows and grows
                                                                                            as corn crop
                                                                                            shrinks


             A subscription magazine for the global flour & feed milling industries - first published in 1891


GFMT11.05.indd 1                                                                                                04/10/2011 15:14




To	purchase	a	paper	copy	of	the	magazine,	or	to	subscribe	to	the	paper	edition	please	contact	
our	Circulation	and	Subscriptions	Manager	on	the	link	adove.		




INFORMATION	FOR	ADVERTISERS	-	CLICK	HERE



       Article reprints
       All Grain & Feed Milling Tecchnology feature articles can be re-printed as a 4 or 8 page booklets (these have been used as point of sale materials, promotional materials for shows and exhibitions etc).
       If you are interested in getting this article re-printed please contact the GFMT team for more information on - Tel: +44 1242 267707 - Email: jamest@gfmt.co.uk or visit www.gfmt.co.uk/reprints




                                                                                                                                                                 www.gfmt.co.uk   PREVIOUS PAGE

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Description: The feed quality has a decisive influence on the productivity of livestock farming. However, high-quality forage considerably adds to the costs of stock breeding. Consequently, economic considerations focus on the quality and quantity of the components used in the production process.