Digital Re-print - September | October 2011
Sample preparation of feeds and forage for NIR analysis
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Whereas an inhomogeneous sample 10 times, the
leads to systematic errors in the subsequent spectrometer Good
analysis, a sample, which is too coarse causes was refilled
statistical errors. This will be explained in the for every Fo
New Delhi I Mexico City I Cape Town I Sao Paulo I Cairo I Warsaw I Atlanta I Bangkok
following. measure- ot
The penetration depth of NIR radiation ment. wh
in grain or forage is up to 1mm, measured in The sam- pu
Sample diffuse reflection.
Thus, the composition of the sample’s
deeper layers is not detected. That is not a
preparation problem if the sample/pellet is homogeneous
in itself. When examining pellets coated with
fat or grains and seeds, however, the ingre-
mill was spe-
of feeds and dients of the analyzed layers are over repre-
sented in relation to the complete sample.
Coming Your Way
forage for NIR
If the material is homogeneous but does preparation
not have the required analytical fineness, the of food and
surface actually analysed is reduced. This feed for sub- Everything you need to know about
Good Agricultural Practice Certification
is due to the fact that the light inside the sequent NIR
sample is scattered and not returned back analysis. In at a place near you! Th
to the detector. the Twister
The same happens with light, fibrous sam- size reduction M
Register now on www.tour2011.org
ples with a low bulk density. As this effect is is effected
by Dr Andreas Theisen, Sales & influenced by the filling level of the sample by impact Meet us in one of the following cities:
Would you like to know more about the
Application, Retsch GmbH, Haan, container and the surface actually analyzed, and friction New
Delhi – India, 1/2 March 2011
GLOBALG.A.P TOUR 2011?
Mexico City – Mexico, 11/12 April 2011
Germany the statistic error is rather big in such cases. between the
Town – South Africa, 11/12 May 2011
Cape Then please see www.tour2011.org or contact
rotor and Nina Kretschmer: email@example.com
Paulo – Brazil, 6/7 June 2011
Test series with different samples the friction Follow us on Twitter@GLOBALGAP! Fa
Cairo – Egypt, 12/13 July 2011
The different properties of ground and surface of the Warsaw – Poland, 14/15 September 2011
he feed quality has a decisive
Table 1: The measurement results of various parameters in ground and unground rabbit food
unground samples when analysed with NIR fixed grinding Atlanta – USA, 17/18 October 2011
influence on the productivity are demonstrated exemplarily with three ring. Bangkok – Thailand, 22/23 November 2011
pellets only show slight differences
of livestock farming. However, different materials: rabbit food pellets, wheat The feed
high-quality forage considerably Parameter Ash Moisture Fiber Fat Protein grains and hay. The samples were analyzed material pass-
adds to the costs of stock breeding. content
Consequently, economic consider-
ations focus on the quality and
Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
quantity of the components used
Ground rabbit food pellets
Best For Quality Control
Average 8.58 10.20 11.68 3.11 13.70
in the production process.
Standard deviation 0.07 0.23 0.34 0.03 0.18 Make every batch in spec...
n e GFMT11.05.indd 7
This includes reliable analyses of feed- Unground rabbit food pellets ...in real-time at lower cost
stuff and ingredients from receipt of goods Average 8.67 10.81 11.46 3.16 13.19
to final inspection as the best way to
Standard deviation 0.10 0.15 0.59 0.03 0.13
ensure a balanced feeding of the animals
while keeping cost and profit orientation
in focus. determination of protein content, moisture, such as Kjeldahl is the simultaneous deter-
Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIR) is the fat and ash in feeds and forage. mination of several parameters. Moreover,
most important analytical method for the The advantage over classical methods NIR spectroscopy is a quick method, which
requires neither consumables nor reagents.
Therefore it is used whenever high
sample throughput and great flexibility are
required. The identification and qualification
of raw materials as well as the quantitative Waiting is over.
analysis of convenience products can be tango. anaLYsis to go.
carried out within seconds to guarantee
highest product quality and safety. Feed & Petfood
A much discussed issue related to NIR • Intake qualiﬁcation & sorting
analysis is the necessity of sample prepara- • Mixing with controlled addition
tion. Users often face the problem of hav- • Extruding & pelletizing conditioning Faster, simpler, more secure - with TANGO your NIR analysis speeds up.
ing to decide whether sample preparation TANGO has exactly what users require of an FT-NIR spectrometer suitable
• Final product qualiﬁcation
is required or not. for a feed analysis lab: robustness, high precision and straightforward
What does sample preparation proven solutions for monitoring & control An intuitive user interface with touch screen operation makes the analysis
of feed ingredients and finished feed available to everybody.
for NIR analysis involve? NIR-Online GmbH
Sample preparation for NIR does not SAP Partnerport
Contact us for more details:
require digestion or extraction; it is mainly Altrottstraße 31
www.brukeroptics.com • www.tango-nir.com
about size reduction of the sample material. D-69190 Walldorf
Figure 1: Fiber content of the ground (blue) and unground (green) wheat This involves two aspects: Tel.: +49 (0) 6227 732 660
sample resulting from 10 measurements. The analysis of the unground sample 1. Homogenising the sample Fax: +49 (0) 6227 732 670 F T- NIR
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.nir-online.de Innovation with Integrity
clearly shows a systematic as well as a considerable statistic error. 2. Achieving the required grind size
18 | September - october 2011 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy Grain &feed millinG technoloGy September - october 2011 | 19
NIRonline_90x132_finalV2.indd 1 25.02.2011 14:19:22
“NIR spectroscopy is a simple and
suitable method to determine a series of
relevant parameters in forage and grain.
The general opinion is that it doesn’t
require any sample preparation”
Table 2: The analysis of wheat grains shows a considerable difference in the ash and fiber ground and unground samples hardly show
content of the ground and unground sample any difference.
Parameter Ash Moisture Fiber Fat Protein
content The results for wheat are
The table shows a considerable discrepancy
Ground wheat between ground and unground sample, par-
Average 2.80 9.68 1.10 1.17 9.02 ticularly with regards to ash and fiber content.
Standard deviation 0.03 0.09 0.05 0.03 0.07 This is due to the fact that only the surface of
the unground wheat grains is analysed resulting
in an over representation of the kernel shell.
Average 0.10 9.80 6.90 1.38 8.46
Standard deviation 0.10 0.25 0.62 0.16 0.45 The third analyzed sample is hay
This sample shows a substantial dif-
ference for the average and the standard
Table 3: The analysis of hay shows a strong difference in the protein content and standard
deviation of the protein content. This is
deviation between ground and unground sample
because of the varying bulk density of the
Parameter Ash Moisture Fiber Fat Protein unground sample.
Ground hay NIR spectroscopy is a simple and suitable
method to determine a series of relevant
Average 9.53 5.70 28.56 1.36 6.17
parameters in forage and grain. The general
Standard deviation 0.07 0.12 0.29 0.04 0.12 opinion is that it doesn’t require any sample
Unground hay preparation.
Average 9.31 6.25 26.26 2.44 9.94 The results presented in this article show,
however, that it does make a difference if the
Standard deviation 0.07 0.09 0.68 0.18 0.43
samples are ground in a suitable laboratory
mill before being analysed, particularly if they
es through the hopper (with splash-back pro- the sample and the grinding tools which helps are inhomogeneous.
tection) onto the rotor, which is rotating with to preserve the moisture content. The sample Only then is it possible to guarantee
high speed, and is thus submitted to preliminary properties to be determined are not altered in meaningful and reliable analysis results.
size reduction. The sample is then thrown out- any way. The ground material is separated in
wards by centrifugal accel- the cyclone and collected in a sample bottle.
eration and is pulverized The cyclone mill Twister is also suitable for More inforMation:
between rotor and grinding processing large numbers of different materials Dr Andreas Theisen, Sales
ring. The two-step grinding as no cleaning between samples is required. & Application, Retsch
ensures particularly gentle The quantitative measurements were GmbH, Haan, Germany
but fast processing so that carried out with the NIR spectrometer Tel: +49 2129 /55610
the feed material only remains in the grinding TANGO from Bruker Optik GmbH. Email: email@example.com,
chamber for a very short time. The first sample to be analysed was rabbit website: www.retsch.com
The integrated cyclone provides cooling of food pellets. The measurement results of the
20 | September - october 2011 Grain &feed millinG technoloGy
headsets and catering arrangements involved.”
The theme of the conference
The GRAPAS Conference
Guest - EDITOR’S O
N ews September - October 2011 Guaranteeing food and feed safety through greater NEWS
for Asia use of technology in the control of product quality at
each step of the milling process, from raw material
collection-through processing-to-product dispatch.
Grain milling focuses on food safety and HACCP programs both a USA and andwith simultaneous
The conference will be in English work shop presenter.
Keeping firmly in mind the need to provide informa- translation into/from the Thai language. “Combining those two factors
International Grains (IAOM),” says Mark Fowler, participants and emphasizes the with the access we have to IAOM’s
hetion and new ideas in a timely and efficient way, the 2012
GRAPAS Conference will IGP associate director and importance of safe practices details extensive network, it allows us to
Program collaborates with be held in two parts on one day Registration and further within
industryopening dayto offer exhibition – February 15, 2012; are the industry as a whole.
– the organization of the workshop coordinator. “We it offer a course that is really unique
For an updated programme, please visit the conference
HACCP certification and independent excited to continue this unique website to register this workshop to the industry.”
will comprise training on morning and an afternoon ses- Collaborating on http://conta.cc/nneulE
There is an early bird discount 33% for go to www.aibonline.
workshop that both addresses for a third year has strengthened of To enroll,all delegates
food safety in grain milling. can choose to attend either or both parts
the development of a HACCP registering online prior to Novemberorg. 2011.
depending on their timetable and their interests. the relationship between the three 30, The course is listed under
Grain milling professionals program and fits the organizations and the seminars and courses header.
interested in answering the question food safety needs of has allowed them to Those interested in registering
of how to apply food safety practices our participants from grow their audience, can also call AIB International at
and implement hazard analysis the grain processing while still presenting +1 800 242 2534.
critical control points programs industry.”
Are you a Perendale bookworm? the curriculum in a This class is just one example of
of Grain & Feed mIlling Technology,
Perendale Publishers Ltd, the publishershands- on, interactive the partnership courses offered
(HACCP) that specifically relate to During the workshop,
has set learn
grain milling can do so at the Grain participants will up an online Amazon-based ‘Book Shop’ that lets you browse a
environment. through IGP. In addition to flour
wide range of “AIB books on Grain milling, relaed
Milling: Food Safety and HACCP fundamentals of good recently-published reports and International & Feed IGP regularly offers short
topics. You will h a s a review before making
workshop planned for October manufacturing practices, soon be able to read an extended s t r o n g courses in feed manufacturing
your selection and purchasing directly from Amazon. food and grain management, grain
11-13 at the Kansas State University sanitation schedules and presence in
International Grains Program (IGP) HACCCP programs safety and the grain marketing and
We will undertake to put forward for your consideration the most recent risk management,
Conference Center. specificallypublications and as a resultscience department has endless and flour milling and grain
related to the flour milling become a reference point for your reading and
“This workshop is the result of a industry, and then apply this knowledge resources in grain processing processing.
partnership between K-State, AIB in designing a HACCP program for the and excellent facilities,” says Bill For more information about IGP
International and the International onsite Hal Ross Flour Mill. According Pursley, vice president of food programs, go to the IGP website
Association of Operative Millers to Fowler, its curriculum caters to education for AIB International at: www.grains.k-state.edu/igp.
Big squeeze at Flexicon’s bulk handling test laboratory are a regular occurrence on all four sides for operator safety
Flexicon can equip the and includes full-height doors
or many years Flexicon facing many organisations when Bulk Bag Conditioner with a that are interlocked preventing
Europe has maintained a bagged bulk materials such as hydraulically-actuated, variable- actuation when the doors are
Of course you will be charged for any books purchased, but you will be
dedicated test laboratory hygroscopic chemicals, certain height turntable enabling in-frame open.
dealing directly with Amazon, which has a world-class ordering/payment
to demonstrate the versatility types of spice blends, heat-sensitive bag rotation and conditioning Visitors to the Flexicon Test
gateway, packaging and mailing service.
and practicality of its bulk products and many more have at varying heights; the height of Laboratory are now able to
handling systems and show Consult Perendale Publishers turntable and the at:
compacted and solidified during theOnline Book Storenumber of see the Bulk Bag Conditioner
how it contributes to improved storage and shipment. 90-degree rotations being user- working alongside other Flexicon
distribution of free-flowing and They reach a point at which adjustable. bulk handling systems such as
not-so-free-flowing materials to
downstream processes or into
intermediate storage hoppers.
pneumatically actuated flow Having been treated in the Bulk the Company’s flexible screw
promotion accessories integral to Bag Conditioner loosened bulk and pneumatic conveyors, bulk
bulk bag dischargers are inefficient solid material is then ready for discharger units and bag fillers.
or completely ineffective. induction into bulk bag unloaders The functionality of the expanded
Last month Flexicon Europe added The Bulk Bag Conditioner with discharge through bag test facility enables Flexicon
a hydraulic Bulk Bag Conditioner incorporates two hydraulic rams spouts. to fully trial the handling of
to the recently expanded Test Grain&feed materials to maximise
with specially contoured end Measuring 2210mm high by specific millinG technoloGy
2 | September - october 2011
Facility at its production plant in plates, which gently press opposing 3378mm wide and 1981mm deep, performance.
Kent. sides of bulk bags reinstating a the conditioner is designed to
GFMT11.05.inddThe new equipment overcomes
2 more free-flowing material state. accommodate the most popular More inforMation: 04/10/2011 15:14
the problematical occurrence Where more stubborn materials sized bulk bags. It is fully enclosed Website: www.flexicon.co.uk
Grain &feed millinG technoloGy September - october 2011 | 9
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