IN THIS GUIDE:
• Exhibition Overview
• About the Artist
• Exhibition Map
• Brief History of the
• Pre-Visit Discussion
• Transportation Timeline
• Locomotive Science
• A Closer Look
• Classroom Activities
• Resources TRAINS! TENNESSEE
All Aboard! Watch garden-scale trains wind over bridges, under trestles, around
waterfalls and past Tennessee’s historic landmarks. All crafted from natural
materials, 3-D replicas include sites such as the Carter House, Graceland,
The Hermitage, Ryman Auditorium, the home of Casey Jones and much more.
Highlighting regional history as well as sciences such as engineering and physics,
your students will enjoy this enchanting and educational experience.
Take a trip across the great state of Tennessee in this enchanting outdoor exhibition of model trains, miniature
versions of your favorite historic landmarks, and colorful gardens. Each building has been intricately handcrafted
using natural materials, including twigs, bark, leaves, acorns and pebbles. Over 2,500 tiny trees, shrubs,
groundcovers and flowering plants in 250 varieties create the landscape for the train, complete with a waterfall
sure to capture your student’s imaginations.
ABOUT THE TRAINS
The display uses G-scale trains (G-scale means garden scale), models made many times smaller than full-size
locomotives. The trains are made of brass, stainless steel and plastic, and specially designed to safely operate
in rain, snow or other wet conditions.
Garden railroading began not as a hobby, but as a planning tool in mid-19th century Europe, when builders of
full-size railroads began making scale models to test track layouts and entice investors. Toy makers translated
these business tools into marketable hobby products, and began promoting model and toy trains. Most people
didn’t have the space to house an indoor railway, however, so the models were built and positioned as outdoor
hobbies. As time passed, new trends pushed the garden railroad out of popularity. By the 1920s and 1930s, the
American Flyer Company had all but stopped advertising their trains for outdoor use. Garden railways became
almost unheard of through the 1950s and 1960s, but in the 1970s, they began to regain popularity in the
United States. Today, several large American companies make trains for garden use. Visitors across the country
delight in thousands of garden railway installations each year, making it the fastest-growing piece of the model
train hobby industry. Although garden railroading has changed over the past 100 years, the influence of the 19th
century model railway craftsmen can still be seen, even in today’s more sophisticated displays.
ABOUT THE ARTIST: Paul Busse
Born and raised in Kansas City, Missouri, Paul Busse took Saturday morning trips to the railroad with his
grandfather as a child. Today, he credits his fascination with model trains to these family adventures.
Busse graduated from Ohio State University, and installed his first model railroad at the Ohio State Fair in 1982.
After working for years as an architect and landscaper designer, he started Applied Imagination in 1991. His
model train displays and building designs have been exhibited at The U.S. Botanic Garden, New York Botanical
Garden, Chicago Botanic Garden, and many others around the country. Today, Busse lives and works in
1 EXHIBITION OVERVIEW
HISTORIC SITES FEATURED IN CHEEKWOOD’S MODEL RAILROAD GARDEN
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE RAILROAD
During the 1800s and early 1900s, the railroad played a major role in the Civil War, westward expansion and the
Industrial Revolution. In 1861, about 70% of the railroad was located in the North or Midwest. This proved to be a
great disadvantage for the South during the Civil War. The North used the railroad to gain an industrial advantage
by cutting off the shipment of food, goods, and battle supplies to the South.
Westward expansion took a giant step forward when on July 1, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed the
Pacific Railroad Bill, allowing two new large train lines to be built – the Union Pacific (which built west from Omaha,
NE) and the Central Pacific (which built east from Sacramento, CA) lines. The Bill also provided land grants and
thousands of jobs for Americans. On May 10, 1869 the last rails were laid at a ceremony in Utah, and the first
transcontinental railroad was completed.
During the Industrial Revolution, America saw great change in the areas of agriculture, transportation, mining, and
social and economic transformation. Many attempts were made to create a successful locomotive that could haul
goods, carry people, and connect small towns with large cities. The first long distance passenger railroad was the
Baltimore & Ohio (B&O) Railroad. It was chartered on February 28, 1827. In August of 1830, Peter Cooper’s Tom
Thumb locomotive ran on the B&O line for the first time.
The first locomotive in Tennessee arrived by steamboat from Cincinnati in 1850. Until then, everything that was
produced in Nashville was shipped on the Cumberland River and traded in New Orleans. Track construction began
in 1847, and the train made its first trip from Nashville (near Church Street today) to Antioch in the spring of 1851.
The Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad connected to Chattanooga in 1854. This gave farmers access to coastal
markets, and Nashville businesses access to coal in southeastern Tennessee. Nashville later connected to the
Midwest when the Louisville & Nashville Railroad was completed in 1859. During the Civil War, the Union Army
used this line to assist their troops in Nashville, and also followed the N&C line when invading other southern cities.
WHO INVENTED THE LOCOMOTIVE?
Who invented the first locomotive? While many men are credited with developing early versions of the
locomotive, here is a look at three inventors that successfully advanced this technology.
Richard George Peter
Trevithick Stephenson Cooper
Trevithick, a British mining engineer, In 1814, Stephenson, a British Credited with building America’s first
is considered the first inventor of the engineer, designed the first steam- steam locomotive, Cooper finished
tramway locomotive. This train was powered locomotive. The locomotive Tom Thumb in 1830. The train carried
designed for the roadway, not the traveled on a track that was uphill goods and passengers between
rails. He built his first road steam and 450 feet in length. It hauled eight Baltimore and Ellicott’s Mills,
locomotive in 1801 in England. coal wagons that traveled about 4.5 Maryland on thirteen miles of track.
mph. He continued to build steam
engines, and in 1825, designed
Locomotion, which pulled coal on a
nine mile track.
3 AMERICAN RAILROAD HISTORY
PRE-VISIT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
Before you visit Trains: Tennessee in “G”, we encourage you to share some of the background information from this
Teacher’s Guide with your students. Below are a few discussion questions to help prepare them for the visit.
Why was the railroad such an important invention during the
1800s? How was the railroad used then, and how is it used
What is a G-scale model train? What does the “G” stand for?
During your Cheekwood visit, you will be looking at models of
historic Tennessee landmarks. What buildings do you expect
Each model has been created using natural materials, such
as twigs, acorns and pebbles. How long do you think it took
the artist to create each of these?
BEFORE YOUR VISIT 4
2000 BCE HORSES were domesticated and used for transportation.
1492 Leonardo da Vinci illustrated theories on FLIGHT by creating over 100 drawings.
1620 The first SUBMARINE was invented by Cornelis Drebbel.
1783 The first HOT AIR BALLOON was invented by the Montgolfier brothers.
1790 The modern BICYCLE was invented.
1801 Richard Trevithick invented the first STEAM-POWERED LOCOMOTIVE (for roads).
1814 The first STEAM POWERED LOCOMOTIVE (for the rails) was invented by George
Stevenson in England.
1867 The first MOTORCYCLE (with a steam engine) was invented by an American,
Sylvester Howard Roper.
1885 German engineer Karl Benz built the first practical AUTOMOBILE, powered by an
internal combustion engine.
1903 The Wright brothers invented and flew the first AIRPLANE with an engine.
1908 Henry Ford improves the assembly line for AUTOMOBILE manufacturing.
1925 The Central Railroad of New Jersey operates the first DIESEL-ELECTRIC
LOCOMOTIVE (the Pioneer Zephyr) during operating service in New York City.
1940 The first successful modern HELICOPTER was invented by Russian aviation
designer Igor Sikorsky.
1947 The first SUPERSONIC JET took flight.
1964 The first BULLET TRAIN (speeds over 100 mph) operates in Shinkansen, Japan.
1969 The first manned SPACECRAFT (Apollo Lunar Module) traveled to the moon.
1970 The first JUMBO JET took flight.
1981 The first SPACE SHUTTLE (Columbia) was launched.
2004 The first commercial high-speed MAGLEV (magnetic levitation) train operates in
Adapted from The History of Transportation -
5 TRANSPORTATION TIMELINE
The job of the locomotive is to change the chemical energy from the fuel (wood, coal, diesel fuel) into the kinetic energy
of motion. The first locomotive that did this was a steam engine. The steam locomotive lasted for about a century, but
was eventually replaced by the diesel locomotive, a mighty mechanical wonder that consists of a giant engine along with
electric alternators or generators to provide electrical power to the train. Many trains intersperse multiple locomotives
throughout their lineup to increase and distribute the power.
Besides steam-powered and diesel-powered locomotives, many trains operate solely on electrical power. They get the
electricity from a third rail, or electrical line, along the track. Transformers transfer the voltage from the lines, and the
electrical current drives the motors on the wheels. Electrical locomotives are used on subways and many commuter rail
Operators’ control the train by using the throttle, reversing gear and brake. The throttle controls the speed of the
locomotive. The reversing gear enables the locomotive to back up. The brake allows the locomotive to slow down and
stop. Regardless of the type, locomotives use air brakes and hand brakes to stop the engine. Air brakes use high-pressure
air to drive the brake foot against the wheel. The friction between the brake pad and the wheels slow down the motion
of the locomotive. The operator also throttles the engine back to slow the train (similar to when you take your foot off the
gas pedal when stopping your car). A mechanical hand brake is also used in case the air brakes fail (usually when there is
insufficient air pressure to drive them).
All railroad cars have an undercarriage that contains wheels and a suspension system to buffer the ride. On each end of
the undercarriage, couplers, which are like hooks, connect the cars.
LEARN MORE about locomotive technology...
• Watch a video about pressurized steam technology as you learn how the steam locomotive operates.
http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/31888-howstuffworks-show-episode-4-pressurized-steam-video.htm (2:51 min)
• Watch a video about how diesel locomotives work.
http://science.howstuffworks.com/transport/engines-equipment/diesel-locomotive.htm (1:15 min)
Adapted from How Stuff Works -
LOCOMOTIVE SCIENCE 6
A CLOSER LOOK
Compare and Contrast
Look at the model of
Cheekwood, and then look
up at the actual Museum of
How do they look similar?
How do they look different?
What materials were used to
build the model? What type The history and origin of Cheekwood are intimately interwoven with the growth of
of stone was used to build Nashville, the Maxwell House coffee brand and the Cheeks, one of the city’s early
the mansion, which is now entrepreneurial families. Christopher T. Cheek moved to Nashville in the 1880s and
the Museum of Art? founded a wholesale grocery business. His son, Leslie Cheek joined him as a partner. In
1896, Leslie Cheek married Mabel Wood of Clarksville, Tennessee. Their son, Leslie, Jr.
was born in 1908 and their daughter, Huldah, in 1915. By that year, Leslie Cheek was
Cheekwood opened in 1960. president of the family firm.
How old is it now?
During these same years, the elder Cheeks cousin, Joel Cheek, developed a superior
blend of coffee that was marketed through the best hotel in Nashville, the Maxwell
House. His extended family, including Leslie and Mabel Cheek, were investors. In 1928,
Postum (now General Foods) purchased Maxwell House’s parent company, Cheek-Neal
Coffee, for more than $40 million.
With their income secured by the proceeds from the sale, the Cheeks bought 100 acres
of what was then, woodlands in West Nashville for a country estate. To design and build
the house and grounds, they hired New York residential and landscape architect, Bryant
Fleming, and gave him control over every detail - from landscaping to interior furnishings.
The result was a Georgian-style limestone mansion and extensive formal gardens inspired
by the grand English houses of the 18th century. Fleming’s masterpiece, Cheekwood, was
completed in 1932. The completed mansion was 30,000 square feet with 36 rooms and
Leslie and Mabel Cheek moved into the mansion in January 1933. Leslie Cheek lived at
Cheekwood for just two years before his death at 61. In 1943, Mabel Cheek deeded the
house to her daughter, Huldah Cheek Sharp and her husband, Walter Sharp. The Sharps
lived at Cheekwood until the 1950s when they offered it as a site for a botanical garden
and art museum. The development of the property was spearheaded by the Exchange
INFOR Club of Nashville, the Horticultural Society of Middle Tennessee and many other civic
RE M groups. The Nashville Museum of Art donated its permanent collections and proceeds
from the sale of its building to the effort. The new Cheekwood opened to the public in
1960. The Museum and surrounding Martin Boxwood Gardens were named to the
National Register of Historic Places in 2000.
CHECK OUT Cheekwood Botanical Garden & Museum of Art • www.cheekwood.org
A CLOSER LOOK
CARTER HOUSE ASK YOUR
Built in 1830 by Fountain Branch Carter, the
Carter House was caught in the middle of
one of the bloodiest battles of the American CARTER HOUSE
Civil War on November 30, 1864. The Where is Carter House
modest brick home was used as the Federal
located? When Paul Busse
Command Post while the Carter family took
refuge in the cellar. You can see evidence was creating this model, do
of over 1,000 bullet holes on site, including you think he visited the site,
the most battle-damaged building from the used photographs or both?
Civil War – the Carter House farm office (an
outbuilding on the property). Heavy casualties
If you were to touch the
during the Battle of Franklin totaled 2,326 Federal Troops and 6,252 Confederates,
including 15 Confederate Generals and Captain Tod Carter, the youngest son of the model of Carter House, what
Carter family. The Battle of Franklin was a turning point in the war, and saw the types of texture would you
beginning of the downfall of the Confederacy. feel?
The Carter House is a Registered National Historic Landmark, and is open to the
public. It serves as a memorial to the Carter Family as well as the countless heroes in TN STATE CAPITOL
the Battle of Franklin. Who works in the Tennessee
State Capital? What
important jobs are done
TN Look for the limestone
STATE columns in Cheekwood’s
Herb Garden. These
CAPITOL columns were a part of the
Tennessee State Capital from
approximately the 1850s –
Completed in 1859, the Tennessee State
Capitol is located on a high hill in downtown 1950s. They were replaced
Nashville. The building was constructed using during renovations. Today,
the Greek Revival style with a distinct tower these columns are on long
that was designed after the monument of term loan to Cheekwood.
Lysicrates in Athens, Greece. The architect, What purpose do they serve
William Strickland, died in 1854 and is buried
above the cornerstone. The exterior and in the Herb Garden?
interior walls were made out of limestone.
During the Union occupation of Nashville (1862-65), the Capitol was transformed into
Fortress Andrew Johnson. The artillery located there never had to be fired in battle,
but was used for drills and celebrations. Today, the Capitol is still in use by state INFOR
government, features numerous works of art, historical murals and frescos, portraits, RE M
massive chandeliers, the House and Senate chambers and library, and the Governor’s
Office. The grounds include the tomb of President and Mrs. James K. Polk.
Carter House • http://www.carter-house.org/
Tennessee State Capital • http://www.bonps.org/tour/capitol.htm CHECK OUT
CARTER HOUSE • TN STATE CAPITOL 8
A CLOSER LOOK
ASK YOUR CHUCALISSA
STUDENTS INDIAN VILLAGE
CHUCALISSA Located along the banks of the Mississippi Valley
How is the mound structure in Memphis, the people of Chucalissa were part of
the American Indian culture called Mississippian by
in the Chucalissa Village archaeologists today. Most evidence shows that the
different from a teepee or town was first established around 1000 CE. The Native
longhouse? What purpose American people lived at this site and in other areas near
did it serve? Memphis over the next 500 years. The last settlement in
this region took place around 1500 CE. During this time, large mounds were constructed.
These mounds were flat-topped rectangular man-made hills (a usual feature of the
UNION STATION Mississippian Native American Culture). They were commonly used as platforms for
The trainshed at Union temples and the houses of political and religious leaders. To build the platform mound,
Station was 200 feet long. people would fill baskets with dirt from another area and pile it together where they
How many train cars do you wanted the mound to be located.
think could fit inside? (Hint In 1541, Spanish colonial explorer Hernando DeSoto “discovered” the Mississippi River,
for teachers: The answer is and over the next 500 years France, Spain and the Chickasaw Indian Nation all claimed
10!) the land for their own (While DeSoto is credited with the discovery, European map-makers
already knew about the existence of the river). By 1800 it was considered the property
of the expanding United States. Today, the Village has been recreated in detail and is
located on the actual archaeological site.
Construction began on Nashville’s Union Station and Train
shed on August 1, 1898 as part of the Louisville & Nashville
Railroad construction project. The train shed was 200 feet -
the longest shed on the L&N line during the 1890s.
Union Station was constructed using a Gothic architectural
design with Bowling Green gray stone and Tennessee
marble. Illustrations that depicted Tennessee agriculture and
mechanical and commercial developments lined the walls of
the interior of the station. The station opened to the public on
October 9, 1900 to much fanfare. After several transfers of
ownership, the station was leased and converted to a hotel in
The site was dedicated as a National Historic Landmark in
INFOR 1977 (which was withdrawn in 2003 after significant change to the property following
RE M a fire in the 1990s). Today, Union Station remains on the National Register of Historic
Places because of its local importance.
Chucalissa Village • http://www.chucalissafriends.com/
CHECK OUT Union Station • http://www.unionstationhotelnashville.com/history
9 CHUCALISSA • UNION STATION
A CLOSER LOOK
THE HERMITAGE ASK YOUR
Between 1798 and 1800, skilled
craftsman constructed a two-story log THE HERMITAGE
farmhouse for original “Hermitage” Who was Andrew Jackson?
property owner Nathaniel Hays, who had
claimed the property as a land grant in
What other famous house
the early 1780s. Hays established a small did he live in? (Hint: It is in
farm, where he grew cotton and became Washington D.C.)
good friends with his neighbor, Andrew
Jackson. The Hays family (and later,
On July 5, 1804, Andrew Jackson
Jackson and his wife)
purchased Hays’ farm, which he named the “Hermitage.” Before he and his wife lived in a small 4 room log
moved in, Jackson hired local help to dress up the interior, clear fields, build fences, farmhouse on the Hermitage
and construct new outbuildings, including a 30’x18’ log kitchen, which doubled as the property. If you lived in a
cookhouse and as slave quarters for Betty the cook and her family. This log farmhouse house of that size with your
was Jackson’s home when he led American troops against the British in the Battle of
New Orleans on January 8, 1815. The family lived in the farmhouse until 1821, when
family - what difficulties
they moved to the newly completed mansion. Typical of southern Federal-style houses, would you face? In what ways
there were four rooms downstairs and four rooms upstairs, all opening into a broad might it be enjoyable?
FALL CREEK FALLS
In 1833 Jackson completed a remodeling of the house and added a dining room wing
and attached a library-reception room to his bedroom. A fire late in 1834 severely
How is the Fall Creek Falls
damaged the house, destroyed the second story, and ruined the interior finishes. The display in the garden
rebuilding was left largely to the taste of Jackson’s adopted son Andrew Jr. and his different from the other
daughter-in-law Sarah. The post-fire house emerged in the fashionable Greek Revival recreated sites in this
style, with appropriate furniture, wallpapers, and textiles purchased in Philadelphia. exhibition? Was a building
Jackson spent his final eight years in this remodeled house.
created for this site?
Why was it important to
include Fall Creek Falls in the
exhibition? (HINT: Are natural
FALL CREEK FALLS landmarks an important part
of Tennessee state history?)
Fall Creek Falls, at 256 feet, is the highest waterfall in the
eastern United States. (This waterfall is 100 feet taller than
LP Field!) It is located in Fall Creek Falls State Park, which has
more than 20,000 acres sprawled across the eastern top of
the rugged Cumberland Plateau. This site became a state park
in 1935. The park contains gorges, waterfalls, streams, and is
abundant in native plants and animals. In 2004, a researcher INFOR
at the University of Tennessee identified nearly 900 species O
and subspecies of plants in the park, making it one of the most
diverse plant areas in Tennessee.
Hermitage • http://www.thehermitage.com/
Fall Creek Falls • http://www.tn.gov/environment/parks/FallCreekFalls/ CHECK OUT
HERMITAGE • FALL CREEK FALLS 10
• Photocopies of maps
Using the maps on pg. 13 and 14, have your students compare and contrast the railroad lines from
1896 and 2006. To get started, ask your students to answer the following questions.
1. What similarities and differences do you see when you look at these maps?
2. How have the railroad lines changed? How have they stayed the same?
3. Which map provides more information? Why?
4. What other information about Tennessee can you learn by looking at these maps?
5. What other information do you wish was included on these maps?
Traveling through TN
• Glue • Scissors
SOCIAL STUDIES • ART
• Pencils • Drawing paper
• 11x17 white construction paper (or larger)
• Markers, colored pencils, paint, etc.
• Tennessee state map
• Photographs or brochure cut-outs from sites
Give students the opportunity to explore the great landmarks of Tennessee by creating their own
1. Have students brainstorm and research important landmarks and historic sites across the state
of Tennessee (make sure they research sites from East, Middle and West Tennessee).
2. Give each student a piece of large construction paper and have them draw or outline the state
of Tennessee on it. Make sure they use the entire piece of paper, so they have enough room for
3. Using a map, ask students to mark the areas where the landmarks sit in Tennessee.
4. Create 2-D replicas of the landmarks. Have students draw and decorate landmarks on a
separate piece of paper, or cut out brochures and photographs that you bring in. Once the
landmarks are complete, have the students cut them out and place them on the map. Remove
the landmarks and set aside.
5. Decorate the map using drawing or painting materials. (Extra credit: Research where mountains,
rivers and forest are and include those as well.)
6. Glue the landmarks on your map.
7. Label the cities and landmarks with drawing materials.
11 SOCIAL STUDIES • ART
Railroad By NUMBER
• Railroad by Numbers! Worksheet (page 15)
• Calculator (optional)
Have students explore the railroad by numbers, as they learn
how much a foot of rail weighs and how much a ticket on the
Transcontinental Railroad cost in the 1870s.
Found Object School
• Shoebox, and other small boxes
• Glue (hot glue will work well if your students have assistance)
• Natural found objects (pebbles, twigs, acorns, etc.)
Paul Busse and his team created all the historic landmarks in the Trains
exhibition using natural found objects. Have your students experiment
with the same materials as you create a model of your school. For this
project, students can create their own, work in small groups or do
this project as a class. (Use the photo of Cheekwood on page 16 for
1. Find a box that resembles the shape of your school. You might need several boxes glued
together to get the shape just right.
2. If you have any interesting architectural features, such as an arch or open air covered entrance
– have students use cardboard to shape these areas. Be sure to cut out windows and doors.
3. Once your structure is complete, it is time for the students to begin covering the box with the
natural found objects. Students should map out a plan first. For example, using twigs to line the
roof, and pebbles for the side of the building.
4. Have students glue the objects on the box, fitting them tightly together. The goal is to have the
objects completely cover the box. (You may need to do this project in stages, so that the sides
can dry before you move the box too much).
5. Once the box is covered in found objects and dry, then think about the details. Have students
add a school sign using construction paper, an American flag, and anything else that shows your
MATH • ART 12
13 1896 RAILROAD MAP
2006 RAILROAD MAP
*Reproducible Activity Sheet
Answer the questions below as you learn more about railroad history during the 1800s.
1. The first Transcontinental Railroad was laid between 1863 and 1869 by the Central Pacific Railroad and Union
Pacific Railroad. When the Railroad was finished, the Central Pacific Railroad had laid 690 miles of track
and the Union Pacific Railroad had laid 1,087 miles of track. How long was the completed Transcontinental
2. When the Transcontinental Railroad was finished, travelers could go from Missouri to California in four days. A
ticket in first class cost $111. A ticket in coach cost $40. How much more would it cost two people to travel in
first class than in coach?
3. If a section of rail was 30 feet long and weighed 560 pounds, how much did one foot of rail weigh? How much
would 100 feet of rail weigh?
4. The B&O Railroad (Baltimore & Ohio Railroad) had laid more than 30,000 miles of track by 1860. How many
kilometers does that equal?
5. The first train to operate on the Louisville & Nashville line was on August 25, 1855. On this date 300 people
traveled 8 miles at 15 miles per hour. If the train had been going 45 miles per hour, how many miles would the
people have traveled in the same amount of time?
Come up with your own railroad math equation! Use the questions above to provide inspiration for a math
15 RAILROAD by NUMBERS Worksheet
IMAGE for FOUND OBJECT SCHOOL
TRAINS: TN in “G”
Created by Applied Imagination, 2011
Applied Imagination • Applied Imagination is a company that creates model railroad and botanical architecture and was started
by architect and landscape designer Paul Busse in 1991. Busse is the creator of the Cheekwood Trains exhibition.
Archaeologist • An archaeologist is a scientist that studies ancient cultures through the examination of their materials and artifacts
that are usually found in the ground.
Battle of Franklin • The Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864 between the hours of 4pm and 9pm (it was one of the
only night battles during the Civil War). This Battle has been called “one of the bloodiest hours of the American Civil War.”
Chucalissa • Chucalissa means “abandoned house.” Native Americans settled in the Chucalissa area near Memphis around 1000 to
1400 CE and lived there approximately 3,000 years.
Civil War • The Civil War was fought in the United States between the North (Union) and the South (Confederates) from 1861-1865. The
election of President Lincoln (who was anti-slavery) caused seven Southern states to secede from the North (four other states joined them
after the war began), and then prompted the first battle of the war to take place - The First Battle of Bull Run.
Couplers • A coupler is a tool on a railroad car that allows it to be connected to other cars.
Diesel locomotive • This type of locomotive runs using a diesel engine.
Diesel-electric locomotive • A diesel-electric locomotive has electric generators that are powered by a diesel engine. In 1914,
Hermann Lemp, an electrical engineer for GE developed a successful prototype for all diesel-electric locomotive control systems.
Electrical locomotive • An electrical locomotive is one that gets its electric power from an overhead line, third rail, or battery that
generates electrical power.
Friction • In physics, friction is the resistance that is encountered by an object that is moving in relation to another object that it is in
Industrial Revolution • This was a major period of rapid industrial growth during the 18th and 19th century. Major changes in
agriculture, mining, manufacturing and transportation had an impact on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in the United Kingdom,
and then later spread throughout Europe, North America and the world.
Land grant • A land grant is a gift of real estate, often times by the government. Land grants can also be given as an incentive to build
on undeveloped land.
Louisville & Nashville Railroad • The L&N Railroad was granted a charter on March 5, 1850 to run from Louisville to
Nashville. The first train operated on these tracks in August 1855, and by October 1859 the 187 mile railroad was complete. In the 1980s,
the L&N Railroad merged with another company and today is a part of CSX Transportation.
Mississippian • Named after the Mississippi River Valley, the Mississippian culture of Native Americans lived in the Southeastern,
Eastern and Midwestern parts of the United States from 800 CE – 1500 CE.
Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad • Chartered in Nashville in December 1845, The N&C Railroad was the first railroad to
operate in Tennessee. After the Civil War, the company acquired smaller lines and was renamed the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis
Reversing gear • The reversing gear is the mechanism in a machine or vehicle that allows it to run backwards.
Throttle • The throttle is a valve that helps to control the flow of fluid (especially fuel and air) that enters the cylinders of an internal-
Train shed • A train shed is a building adjacent to a railway station where the tracks and platform are covered by a roof.
Tramway • A tramway is a lightly laid railway that may be used for mining or logging.
Transcontinental railroad • After President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railway Act in 1862, the Union Pacific Railroad and
Central Pacific Railroad began laying tracks for the railway network that would become the Transcontinental Railroad, or one that extends
across the continent.
Standard 1 – Culture
Recognize the contributions of individuals and people of various
ethnic, racial, religious, and socioeconomic groups to Tennessee. WEBSITES
Standard 2 – Economic
Explain how developments in transportation communication
influenced economic activity in Tennessee.
Tennessee History for Kids
Standard 5 – History
Understand major events, people, and patterns in Tennessee. National Railroad Museum – Teacher Resources
VISUAL ART Tennessee Blue Book – Select Historic Sites (with images)
2.0 Structures and Functions
Recognize and identify the elements and principles of art.
PBS American Experience – Transcontinental Railroad
Explore and understand content in works of art by others. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/tcrr/
Discuss artistic intent by evaluating subject matter, symbols, and
ideas in works of art by others.
4.0 Historical and Cultural Relationships
Recognize how artists are influenced by cultures, history and
movements in art.
Recognize the role of artists in our community and society. Train (DK Eyewitness Book)
J. Coiley, DK CHILDREN (Har/Cdr/Ps ed),
5.0 Reflection and Assessment 2009
Understand that artists create work for a variety of purposes.
Interpret different responses to art works.
LANGUAGE ARTS Railroads Across North America:
An Illustrated History
Standard 1 – Language
C. Wiatrowski, Voyageur Press, 2007.
Demonstrate knowledge of strategies and resources to determine the
definition, pronunciation, and usage of words and phrases.
Standard 2 – Communication
Demonstrate critical listening skills essential for comprehension,
evaluation, problem solving, and task completion.
Continue to develop strategies for expressing thoughts and ideas FILM
clearly and effectively.
Standard 5 – Logic
Develop logic skills to enhance thoughtful reasoning and to facilitate
Standard 11 – Motion
Recognize the relationship between the mass of an object and the
force needed to move it.
PBS American Experience – Transcontinental Railroad
Embedded Inquiry cp=&sr=1&kw=railroad&origkw=railroad&parentPage=search&se
Explain how different inventions and technologies impact people. archId=1412580
Explore how technology responds to social, political, and economic 120 minutes, $24.99
TN STATE STANDARDS • RESOURCES 18
EDUCATION & PUBLIC PROGRAMS
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