Trains - Cheekwood

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•	 Exhibition Overview
•	 About the Artist
•	 Exhibition Map
•	 Brief History of the

•	 Pre-Visit Discussion
•	 Transportation Timeline
•	 Locomotive Science
•	 A Closer Look
•	 Classroom Activities
•	 Vocabulary
•	 Curriculum
•	 Resources                 TRAINS!                                           TENNESSEE
                                                                                               in   G
                             All Aboard! Watch garden-scale trains wind over bridges, under trestles, around
                             waterfalls and past Tennessee’s historic landmarks. All crafted from natural
                             materials, 3-D replicas include sites such as the Carter House, Graceland,
                             The Hermitage, Ryman Auditorium, the home of Casey Jones and much more.
                             Highlighting regional history as well as sciences such as engineering and physics,
                             your students will enjoy this enchanting and educational experience.

                     ALL ABOARD!
    Take a trip across the great state of Tennessee in this enchanting outdoor exhibition of model trains, miniature
    versions of your favorite historic landmarks, and colorful gardens. Each building has been intricately handcrafted
    using natural materials, including twigs, bark, leaves, acorns and pebbles. Over 2,500 tiny trees, shrubs,
    groundcovers and flowering plants in 250 varieties create the landscape for the train, complete with a waterfall
    sure to capture your student’s imaginations.

    The display uses G-scale trains (G-scale means garden scale), models made many times smaller than full-size
    locomotives. The trains are made of brass, stainless steel and plastic, and specially designed to safely operate
    in rain, snow or other wet conditions.

    Garden railroading began not as a hobby, but as a planning tool in mid-19th century Europe, when builders of
    full-size railroads began making scale models to test track layouts and entice investors. Toy makers translated
    these business tools into marketable hobby products, and began promoting model and toy trains. Most people
    didn’t have the space to house an indoor railway, however, so the models were built and positioned as outdoor
    hobbies. As time passed, new trends pushed the garden railroad out of popularity. By the 1920s and 1930s, the
    American Flyer Company had all but stopped advertising their trains for outdoor use. Garden railways became
    almost unheard of through the 1950s and 1960s, but in the 1970s, they began to regain popularity in the
    United States. Today, several large American companies make trains for garden use. Visitors across the country
    delight in thousands of garden railway installations each year, making it the fastest-growing piece of the model
    train hobby industry. Although garden railroading has changed over the past 100 years, the influence of the 19th
    century model railway craftsmen can still be seen, even in today’s more sophisticated displays.

    ABOUT THE ARTIST: Paul Busse
    Born and raised in Kansas City, Missouri, Paul Busse took Saturday morning trips to the railroad with his
    grandfather as a child. Today, he credits his fascination with model trains to these family adventures.

    Busse graduated from Ohio State University, and installed his first model railroad at the Ohio State Fair in 1982.
    After working for years as an architect and landscaper designer, he started Applied Imagination in 1991. His
    model train displays and building designs have been exhibited at The U.S. Botanic Garden, New York Botanical
    Garden, Chicago Botanic Garden, and many others around the country. Today, Busse lives and works in
    Alexandria, Kentucky.

1                                  EXHIBITION OVERVIEW
                                                                                EXHIBITION MAP


    During the 1800s and early 1900s, the railroad played a major role in the Civil War, westward expansion and the
    Industrial Revolution. In 1861, about 70% of the railroad was located in the North or Midwest. This proved to be a
    great disadvantage for the South during the Civil War. The North used the railroad to gain an industrial advantage
    by cutting off the shipment of food, goods, and battle supplies to the South.

    Westward expansion took a giant step forward when on July 1, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln signed the
    Pacific Railroad Bill, allowing two new large train lines to be built – the Union Pacific (which built west from Omaha,
    NE) and the Central Pacific (which built east from Sacramento, CA) lines. The Bill also provided land grants and
    thousands of jobs for Americans. On May 10, 1869 the last rails were laid at a ceremony in Utah, and the first
    transcontinental railroad was completed.

    During the Industrial Revolution, America saw great change in the areas of agriculture, transportation, mining, and
    social and economic transformation. Many attempts were made to create a successful locomotive that could haul
    goods, carry people, and connect small towns with large cities. The first long distance passenger railroad was the
    Baltimore & Ohio (B&O) Railroad. It was chartered on February 28, 1827. In August of 1830, Peter Cooper’s Tom
    Thumb locomotive ran on the B&O line for the first time.

    The first locomotive in Tennessee arrived by steamboat from Cincinnati in 1850. Until then, everything that was
    produced in Nashville was shipped on the Cumberland River and traded in New Orleans. Track construction began
    in 1847, and the train made its first trip from Nashville (near Church Street today) to Antioch in the spring of 1851.
    The Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad connected to Chattanooga in 1854. This gave farmers access to coastal
    markets, and Nashville businesses access to coal in southeastern Tennessee. Nashville later connected to the
    Midwest when the Louisville & Nashville Railroad was completed in 1859. During the Civil War, the Union Army
    used this line to assist their troops in Nashville, and also followed the N&C line when invading other southern cities.

       Who invented the first locomotive? While many men are credited with developing early versions of the
       locomotive, here is a look at three inventors that successfully advanced this technology.

                      Richard                                   George                                     Peter
                      Trevithick                                Stephenson                                 Cooper

     Trevithick, a British mining engineer,     In 1814, Stephenson, a British            Credited with building America’s first
     is considered the first inventor of the    engineer, designed the first steam-       steam locomotive, Cooper finished
     tramway locomotive. This train was         powered locomotive. The locomotive        Tom Thumb in 1830. The train carried
     designed for the roadway, not the          traveled on a track that was uphill       goods and passengers between
     rails. He built his first road steam       and 450 feet in length. It hauled eight   Baltimore and Ellicott’s Mills,
     locomotive in 1801 in England.             coal wagons that traveled about 4.5       Maryland on thirteen miles of track.
                                                mph. He continued to build steam
                                                engines, and in 1825, designed
                                                Locomotion, which pulled coal on a
                                                nine mile track.

3                               AMERICAN RAILROAD HISTORY
Before you visit Trains: Tennessee in “G”, we encourage you to share some of the background information from this
Teacher’s Guide with your students. Below are a few discussion questions to help prepare them for the visit.

                                             Why was the railroad such an important invention during the
                                             1800s? How was the railroad used then, and how is it used

        What is a G-scale model train? What does the “G” stand for?

                                             During your Cheekwood visit, you will be looking at models of
                                             historic Tennessee landmarks. What buildings do you expect
                                             to see?

  Each model has been created using natural materials, such
  as twigs, acorns and pebbles. How long do you think it took
  the artist to create each of these?

                                   BEFORE YOUR VISIT                                                                4
    2000 BCE                       HORSES were domesticated and used for transportation.

    1492                           Leonardo da Vinci illustrated theories on FLIGHT by creating over 100 drawings.

    1620                           The first SUBMARINE was invented by Cornelis Drebbel.

    1783                           The first HOT AIR BALLOON was invented by the Montgolfier brothers.

    1790                           The modern BICYCLE was invented.

    1801                           Richard Trevithick invented the first STEAM-POWERED LOCOMOTIVE (for roads).

    1814                           The first STEAM POWERED LOCOMOTIVE (for the rails) was invented by George
                                   Stevenson in England.

    1867                           The first MOTORCYCLE (with a steam engine) was invented by an American,
                                   Sylvester Howard Roper.

    1885                           German engineer Karl Benz built the first practical AUTOMOBILE, powered by an
                                   internal combustion engine.

    1903                           The Wright brothers invented and flew the first AIRPLANE with an engine.

    1908                           Henry Ford improves the assembly line for AUTOMOBILE manufacturing.

    1925                           The Central Railroad of New Jersey operates the first DIESEL-ELECTRIC
                                   LOCOMOTIVE (the Pioneer Zephyr) during operating service in New York City.

    1940                           The first successful modern HELICOPTER was invented by Russian aviation
                                   designer Igor Sikorsky.

    1947                           The first SUPERSONIC JET took flight.

    1964                           The first BULLET TRAIN (speeds over 100 mph) operates in Shinkansen, Japan.

    1969                           The first manned SPACECRAFT (Apollo Lunar Module) traveled to the moon.

    1970                           The first JUMBO JET took flight.

    1981                           The first SPACE SHUTTLE (Columbia) was launched.

    2004                           The first commercial high-speed MAGLEV (magnetic levitation) train operates in
                                   Shanghai, China.
    Adapted from The History of Transportation -

5                                    TRANSPORTATION TIMELINE
                                                                     LOCOMOTIVE SCIENCE

  The job of the locomotive is to change the chemical energy from the fuel (wood, coal, diesel fuel) into the kinetic energy
  of motion. The first locomotive that did this was a steam engine. The steam locomotive lasted for about a century, but
  was eventually replaced by the diesel locomotive, a mighty mechanical wonder that consists of a giant engine along with
  electric alternators or generators to provide electrical power to the train. Many trains intersperse multiple locomotives
  throughout their lineup to increase and distribute the power.

  Besides steam-powered and diesel-powered locomotives, many trains operate solely on electrical power. They get the
  electricity from a third rail, or electrical line, along the track. Transformers transfer the voltage from the lines, and the
  electrical current drives the motors on the wheels. Electrical locomotives are used on subways and many commuter rail

  Operators’ control the train by using the throttle, reversing gear and brake. The throttle controls the speed of the
  locomotive. The reversing gear enables the locomotive to back up. The brake allows the locomotive to slow down and
  stop. Regardless of the type, locomotives use air brakes and hand brakes to stop the engine. Air brakes use high-pressure
  air to drive the brake foot against the wheel. The friction between the brake pad and the wheels slow down the motion
  of the locomotive. The operator also throttles the engine back to slow the train (similar to when you take your foot off the
  gas pedal when stopping your car). A mechanical hand brake is also used in case the air brakes fail (usually when there is
  insufficient air pressure to drive them).

  All railroad cars have an undercarriage that contains wheels and a suspension system to buffer the ride. On each end of
  the undercarriage, couplers, which are like hooks, connect the cars.

    LEARN MORE about locomotive technology...
    • Watch a video about pressurized steam technology as you learn how the steam locomotive operates. (2:51 min)

    • Watch a video about how diesel locomotives work. (1:15 min)

Adapted from How Stuff Works -

                                       LOCOMOTIVE SCIENCE                                                                         6
    Compare and Contrast
    Look at the model of
    Cheekwood, and then look
    up at the actual Museum of
    Art building.
    How do they look similar?
    How do they look different?

    What materials were used to
    build the model? What type         The history and origin of Cheekwood are intimately interwoven with the growth of
    of stone was used to build         Nashville, the Maxwell House coffee brand and the Cheeks, one of the city’s early
    the mansion, which is now          entrepreneurial families. Christopher T. Cheek moved to Nashville in the 1880s and
    the Museum of Art?                 founded a wholesale grocery business. His son, Leslie Cheek joined him as a partner. In
                                       1896, Leslie Cheek married Mabel Wood of Clarksville, Tennessee. Their son, Leslie, Jr.
                                       was born in 1908 and their daughter, Huldah, in 1915. By that year, Leslie Cheek was
    Cheekwood opened in 1960.          president of the family firm.
    How old is it now?
                                       During these same years, the elder Cheeks cousin, Joel Cheek, developed a superior
                                       blend of coffee that was marketed through the best hotel in Nashville, the Maxwell
                                       House. His extended family, including Leslie and Mabel Cheek, were investors. In 1928,
                                       Postum (now General Foods) purchased Maxwell House’s parent company, Cheek-Neal
                                       Coffee, for more than $40 million.
                                       With their income secured by the proceeds from the sale, the Cheeks bought 100 acres
                                       of what was then, woodlands in West Nashville for a country estate. To design and build
                                       the house and grounds, they hired New York residential and landscape architect, Bryant
                                       Fleming, and gave him control over every detail - from landscaping to interior furnishings.
                                       The result was a Georgian-style limestone mansion and extensive formal gardens inspired
                                       by the grand English houses of the 18th century. Fleming’s masterpiece, Cheekwood, was
                                       completed in 1932. The completed mansion was 30,000 square feet with 36 rooms and
                                       9 bathrooms.
                                       Leslie and Mabel Cheek moved into the mansion in January 1933. Leslie Cheek lived at
                                       Cheekwood for just two years before his death at 61. In 1943, Mabel Cheek deeded the
                                       house to her daughter, Huldah Cheek Sharp and her husband, Walter Sharp. The Sharps
                                       lived at Cheekwood until the 1950s when they offered it as a site for a botanical garden
                                       and art museum. The development of the property was spearheaded by the Exchange
                    INFOR              Club of Nashville, the Horticultural Society of Middle Tennessee and many other civic
               RE           M          groups. The Nashville Museum of Art donated its permanent collections and proceeds

                                       from the sale of its building to the effort. The new Cheekwood opened to the public in
    F OR

                                       1960. The Museum and surrounding Martin Boxwood Gardens were named to the

                                       National Register of Historic Places in 2000.

      CHECK OUT                        Cheekwood Botanical Garden & Museum of Art •

7                                                CHEEKWOOD
                                                                                 A CLOSER LOOK
CARTER HOUSE                                                                                   ASK YOUR
                                          Built in 1830 by Fountain Branch Carter, the
                                          Carter House was caught in the middle of
                                          one of the bloodiest battles of the American         CARTER HOUSE
                                          Civil War on November 30, 1864. The                  Where is Carter House
                                          modest brick home was used as the Federal
                                                                                               located? When Paul Busse
                                          Command Post while the Carter family took
                                          refuge in the cellar. You can see evidence           was creating this model, do
                                          of over 1,000 bullet holes on site, including        you think he visited the site,
                                          the most battle-damaged building from the            used photographs or both?
                                          Civil War – the Carter House farm office (an
                                          outbuilding on the property). Heavy casualties
                                                                                               If you were to touch the
during the Battle of Franklin totaled 2,326 Federal Troops and 6,252 Confederates,
including 15 Confederate Generals and Captain Tod Carter, the youngest son of the              model of Carter House, what
Carter family. The Battle of Franklin was a turning point in the war, and saw the              types of texture would you
beginning of the downfall of the Confederacy.                                                  feel?
The Carter House is a Registered National Historic Landmark, and is open to the
public. It serves as a memorial to the Carter Family as well as the countless heroes in        TN STATE CAPITOL
the Battle of Franklin.                                                                        Who works in the Tennessee
                                                                                               State Capital? What
                                                                                               important jobs are done
TN                                                                                             Look for the limestone
STATE                                                                                          columns in Cheekwood’s
                                                                                               Herb Garden. These

CAPITOL                                                                                        columns were a part of the
                                                                                               Tennessee State Capital from
                                                                                               approximately the 1850s –
Completed in 1859, the Tennessee State
Capitol is located on a high hill in downtown                                                  1950s. They were replaced
Nashville. The building was constructed using                                                  during renovations. Today,
the Greek Revival style with a distinct tower                                                  these columns are on long
that was designed after the monument of                                                        term loan to Cheekwood.
Lysicrates in Athens, Greece. The architect,                                                   What purpose do they serve
William Strickland, died in 1854 and is buried
above the cornerstone. The exterior and                                                        in the Herb Garden?
interior walls were made out of limestone.
During the Union occupation of Nashville (1862-65), the Capitol was transformed into
Fortress Andrew Johnson. The artillery located there never had to be fired in battle,
but was used for drills and celebrations. Today, the Capitol is still in use by state                          INFOR
government, features numerous works of art, historical murals and frescos, portraits,                     RE           M
massive chandeliers, the House and Senate chambers and library, and the Governor’s


Office. The grounds include the tomb of President and Mrs. James K. Polk.
                                                                                               F OR


                                               Carter House •
                             Tennessee State Capital •    CHECK OUT

                 CARTER HOUSE • TN STATE CAPITOL                                                                                  8
     ASK YOUR                             CHUCALISSA
     STUDENTS                             INDIAN VILLAGE
    CHUCALISSA                            Located along the banks of the Mississippi Valley
    How is the mound structure            in Memphis, the people of Chucalissa were part of
                                          the American Indian culture called Mississippian by
    in the Chucalissa Village             archaeologists today. Most evidence shows that the
    different from a teepee or            town was first established around 1000 CE. The Native
    longhouse? What purpose               American people lived at this site and in other areas near
    did it serve?                         Memphis over the next 500 years. The last settlement in
                                          this region took place around 1500 CE. During this time, large mounds were constructed.
                                          These mounds were flat-topped rectangular man-made hills (a usual feature of the
    UNION STATION                         Mississippian Native American Culture). They were commonly used as platforms for
    The trainshed at Union                temples and the houses of political and religious leaders. To build the platform mound,
    Station was 200 feet long.            people would fill baskets with dirt from another area and pile it together where they
    How many train cars do you            wanted the mound to be located.
    think	could	fit	inside?	(Hint         In 1541, Spanish colonial explorer Hernando DeSoto “discovered” the Mississippi River,
    for teachers: The answer is           and over the next 500 years France, Spain and the Chickasaw Indian Nation all claimed
    10!)                                  the land for their own (While DeSoto is credited with the discovery, European map-makers
                                          already knew about the existence of the river). By 1800 it was considered the property
                                          of the expanding United States. Today, the Village has been recreated in detail and is
                                          located on the actual archaeological site.

                                         UNION STATION
                                         Construction began on Nashville’s Union Station and Train
                                         shed on August 1, 1898 as part of the Louisville & Nashville
                                         Railroad construction project. The train shed was 200 feet -
                                         the longest shed on the L&N line during the 1890s.
                                         Union Station was constructed using a Gothic architectural
                                         design with Bowling Green gray stone and Tennessee
                                         marble. Illustrations that depicted Tennessee agriculture and
                                         mechanical and commercial developments lined the walls of
                                         the interior of the station. The station opened to the public on
                                         October 9, 1900 to much fanfare. After several transfers of
                                         ownership, the station was leased and converted to a hotel in
                                         The site was dedicated as a National Historic Landmark in
                     INFOR               1977 (which was withdrawn in 2003 after significant change to the property following
                RE           M           a fire in the 1990s). Today, Union Station remains on the National Register of Historic
                                         Places because of its local importance.

     F OR


                                        Chucalissa Village •
       CHECK OUT                        Union Station •

9                            CHUCALISSA • UNION STATION
                                                                                  A CLOSER LOOK
 THE HERMITAGE                                                                                   ASK YOUR
                                                Between 1798 and 1800, skilled
                                                craftsman constructed a two-story log            THE HERMITAGE
                                                farmhouse for original “Hermitage”               Who was Andrew Jackson?
                                                property owner Nathaniel Hays, who had
                                                claimed the property as a land grant in
                                                                                                 What other famous house
                                                the early 1780s. Hays established a small        did he live in? (Hint: It is in
                                                farm, where he grew cotton and became            Washington D.C.)
                                                good friends with his neighbor, Andrew
                                                Jackson.                                         The Hays family (and later,
                                              On July 5, 1804, Andrew Jackson
                                                                                                 Jackson and his wife)
purchased Hays’ farm, which he named the “Hermitage.” Before he and his wife                     lived in a small 4 room log
moved in, Jackson hired local help to dress up the interior, clear fields, build fences,         farmhouse on the Hermitage
and construct new outbuildings, including a 30’x18’ log kitchen, which doubled as the            property. If you lived in a
cookhouse and as slave quarters for Betty the cook and her family. This log farmhouse            house of that size with your
was Jackson’s home when he led American troops against the British in the Battle of
New Orleans on January 8, 1815. The family lived in the farmhouse until 1821, when
                                                                                                 family	-	what	difficulties	
they moved to the newly completed mansion. Typical of southern Federal-style houses,             would you face? In what ways
there were four rooms downstairs and four rooms upstairs, all opening into a broad               might it be enjoyable?
central hall.
                                                                                                 FALL CREEK FALLS
In 1833 Jackson completed a remodeling of the house and added a dining room wing
and attached a library-reception room to his bedroom. A fire late in 1834 severely
                                                                                                 How is the Fall Creek Falls
damaged the house, destroyed the second story, and ruined the interior finishes. The             display in the garden
rebuilding was left largely to the taste of Jackson’s adopted son Andrew Jr. and his             different from the other
daughter-in-law Sarah. The post-fire house emerged in the fashionable Greek Revival              recreated sites in this
style, with appropriate furniture, wallpapers, and textiles purchased in Philadelphia.           exhibition? Was a building
Jackson spent his final eight years in this remodeled house.
                                                                                                 created for this site?
                                                                                                 Why was it important to
                                                                                                 include Fall Creek Falls in the
                                                                                                 exhibition? (HINT: Are natural

FALL CREEK FALLS                                                                                 landmarks an important part
                                                                                                 of Tennessee state history?)
Fall Creek Falls, at 256 feet, is the highest waterfall in the
eastern United States. (This waterfall is 100 feet taller than
LP Field!) It is located in Fall Creek Falls State Park, which has
more than 20,000 acres sprawled across the eastern top of
the rugged Cumberland Plateau. This site became a state park
in 1935. The park contains gorges, waterfalls, streams, and is
abundant in native plants and animals. In 2004, a researcher                                                      INFOR
                                                                                                             RE           M
at the University of Tennessee identified nearly 900 species                                             O

and subspecies of plants in the park, making it one of the most
                                                                                                  F OR

diverse plant areas in Tennessee.

                                                  Hermitage •
                        Fall Creek Falls •    CHECK OUT

                     HERMITAGE • FALL CREEK FALLS                                                                                  10
                      Railroad Maps

                      • Photocopies of maps
                      • Paper
                      • Pencils

                      Using the maps on pg. 13 and 14, have your students compare and contrast the railroad lines from
                      1896 and 2006. To get started, ask your students to answer the following questions.
                      1.     What similarities and differences do you see when you look at these maps?
                      2.     How have the railroad lines changed? How have they stayed the same?
                      3.     Which map provides more information? Why?
                      4.     What other information about Tennessee can you learn by looking at these maps?
                      5.     What other information do you wish was included on these maps?

                                                       Traveling through TN
                                                       • Glue          • Scissors

                                                                                                                           SOCIAL STUDIES • ART
                                                       • Pencils       • Drawing paper
                                                       • 11x17 white construction paper (or larger)
                                                       • Markers, colored pencils, paint, etc.
                                                       • Tennessee state map
                                                       • Photographs or brochure cut-outs from sites

                  Give students the opportunity to explore the great landmarks of Tennessee by creating their own
                  colorful map.
                  1.      Have students brainstorm and research important landmarks and historic sites across the state
                          of Tennessee (make sure they research sites from East, Middle and West Tennessee).
                  2.      Give each student a piece of large construction paper and have them draw or outline the state
                          of Tennessee on it. Make sure they use the entire piece of paper, so they have enough room for
                          their landmarks.
                  3.      Using a map, ask students to mark the areas where the landmarks sit in Tennessee.
                  4.      Create 2-D replicas of the landmarks. Have students draw and decorate landmarks on a
                          separate piece of paper, or cut out brochures and photographs that you bring in. Once the
                          landmarks are complete, have the students cut them out and place them on the map. Remove
                          the landmarks and set aside.
                  5.      Decorate the map using drawing or painting materials. (Extra credit: Research where mountains,
                          rivers and forest are and include those as well.)
                  6.      Glue the landmarks on your map.
                  7.      Label the cities and landmarks with drawing materials.

11                                        SOCIAL STUDIES • ART
                                                         CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES
          Railroad By NUMBER

                                                 •       Railroad by Numbers! Worksheet (page 15)
                                                 •       Pencil
                                                 •       Calculator (optional)

                                                 Have students explore the railroad by numbers, as they learn
                                                 how much a foot of rail weighs and how much a ticket on the
                                                 Transcontinental Railroad cost in the 1870s.

              Found Object School
              •      Scissors
              •      Shoebox, and other small boxes
              •      Glue (hot glue will work well if your students have assistance)
              •      Natural found objects (pebbles, twigs, acorns, etc.)

              Paul Busse and his team created all the historic landmarks in the Trains
              exhibition using natural found objects. Have your students experiment

              with the same materials as you create a model of your school. For this
              project, students can create their own, work in small groups or do
              this project as a class. (Use the photo of Cheekwood on page 16 for

              1.     Find a box that resembles the shape of your school. You might need several boxes glued
                     together to get the shape just right.
              2.     If you have any interesting architectural features, such as an arch or open air covered entrance
                     – have students use cardboard to shape these areas. Be sure to cut out windows and doors.
              3.     Once your structure is complete, it is time for the students to begin covering the box with the
                     natural found objects. Students should map out a plan first. For example, using twigs to line the
                     roof, and pebbles for the side of the building.
              4.     Have students glue the objects on the box, fitting them tightly together. The goal is to have the
                     objects completely cover the box. (You may need to do this project in stages, so that the sides
                     can dry before you move the box too much).
              5.     Once the box is covered in found objects and dry, then think about the details. Have students
                     add a school sign using construction paper, an American flag, and anything else that shows your
                     school pride!

                                                 MATH • ART                                                                   12

13        1896 RAILROAD MAP
                                                                                          CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES


                                                                                                        *Reproducible Activity Sheet

     Answer the questions below as you learn more about railroad history during the 1800s.

 1. The first Transcontinental Railroad was laid between 1863 and 1869 by the Central Pacific Railroad and Union
       Pacific Railroad. When the Railroad was finished, the Central Pacific Railroad had laid 690 miles of track
       and the Union Pacific Railroad had laid 1,087 miles of track. How long was the completed Transcontinental

2.     When the Transcontinental Railroad was finished, travelers could go from Missouri to California in four days. A
       ticket in first class cost $111. A ticket in coach cost $40. How much more would it cost two people to travel in
       first class than in coach?

3.     If a section of rail was 30 feet long and weighed 560 pounds, how much did one foot of rail weigh? How much
       would 100 feet of rail weigh?

4.     The B&O Railroad (Baltimore & Ohio Railroad) had laid more than 30,000 miles of track by 1860. How many
       kilometers does that equal?

5.     The first train to operate on the Louisville & Nashville line was on August 25, 1855. On this date 300 people
       traveled 8 miles at 15 miles per hour. If the train had been going 45 miles per hour, how many miles would the
       people have traveled in the same amount of time?

     Extra Credit!
     Come up with your own railroad math equation! Use the questions above to provide inspiration for a math

15                    RAILROAD by NUMBERS Worksheet
                                TRAINS: TN in “G”
                                Cheekwood Mansion
                                Created by Applied Imagination, 2011
                                                                       CLASSROOM ACTIVITIES

Applied Imagination • Applied Imagination is a company that creates model railroad and botanical architecture and was started
by architect and landscape designer Paul Busse in 1991. Busse is the creator of the Cheekwood Trains exhibition.

Archaeologist • An archaeologist is a scientist that studies ancient cultures through the examination of their materials and artifacts
that are usually found in the ground.

Battle of Franklin • The Battle of Franklin was fought on November 30, 1864 between the hours of 4pm and 9pm (it was one of the
only night battles during the Civil War). This Battle has been called “one of the bloodiest hours of the American Civil War.”

Chucalissa • Chucalissa means “abandoned house.” Native Americans settled in the Chucalissa area near Memphis around 1000 to
1400 CE and lived there approximately 3,000 years.

Civil War • The Civil War was fought in the United States between the North (Union) and the South (Confederates) from 1861-1865. The
election of President Lincoln (who was anti-slavery) caused seven Southern states to secede from the North (four other states joined them
after the war began), and then prompted the first battle of the war to take place - The First Battle of Bull Run.

Couplers • A coupler is a tool on a railroad car that allows it to be connected to other cars.

Diesel locomotive • This type of locomotive runs using a diesel engine.

Diesel-electric locomotive • A diesel-electric locomotive has electric generators that are powered by a diesel engine. In 1914,
Hermann Lemp, an electrical engineer for GE developed a successful prototype for all diesel-electric locomotive control systems.

Electrical locomotive • An electrical locomotive is one that gets its electric power from an overhead line, third rail, or battery that
generates electrical power.

Friction • In physics, friction is the resistance that is encountered by an object that is moving in relation to another object that it is in
contact with.

Industrial Revolution • This was a major period of rapid industrial growth during the 18th and 19th century. Major changes in
agriculture, mining, manufacturing and transportation had an impact on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions in the United Kingdom,
and then later spread throughout Europe, North America and the world.

Land grant • A land grant is a gift of real estate, often times by the government. Land grants can also be given as an incentive to build
on undeveloped land.

Louisville & Nashville Railroad • The L&N Railroad was granted a charter on March 5, 1850 to run from Louisville to
Nashville. The first train operated on these tracks in August 1855, and by October 1859 the 187 mile railroad was complete. In the 1980s,
the L&N Railroad merged with another company and today is a part of CSX Transportation.

Mississippian • Named after the Mississippi River Valley, the Mississippian culture of Native Americans lived in the Southeastern,
Eastern and Midwestern parts of the United States from 800 CE – 1500 CE.

Nashville & Chattanooga Railroad • Chartered in Nashville in December 1845, The N&C Railroad was the first railroad to
operate in Tennessee. After the Civil War, the company acquired smaller lines and was renamed the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis

Reversing gear • The reversing gear is the mechanism in a machine or vehicle that allows it to run backwards.

Throttle • The throttle is a valve that helps to control the flow of fluid (especially fuel and air) that enters the cylinders of an internal-
combustion engine.

Train shed • A train shed is a building adjacent to a railway station where the tracks and platform are covered by a roof.

Tramway • A tramway is a lightly laid railway that may be used for mining or logging.

Transcontinental railroad • After President Lincoln signed the Pacific Railway Act in 1862, the Union Pacific Railroad and
Central Pacific Railroad began laying tracks for the railway network that would become the Transcontinental Railroad, or one that extends
across the continent.

17                                                    VOCABULARY
Standard 1 – Culture
  Recognize the contributions of individuals and people of various
  ethnic, racial, religious, and socioeconomic groups to Tennessee.        WEBSITES
                                                                           Applied Imagination
Standard 2 – Economic
  Explain how developments in transportation communication
  influenced economic activity in Tennessee.
                                                                           Tennessee History for Kids
Standard 5 – History
  Understand major events, people, and patterns in Tennessee.              National Railroad Museum – Teacher Resources
VISUAL ART                                                                 Tennessee Blue Book – Select Historic Sites (with images)
2.0 Structures and Functions
  Recognize and identify the elements and principles of art.

3.0 Evaluation
                                                                           PBS American Experience – Transcontinental Railroad
  Explore and understand content in works of art by others.      
  Discuss artistic intent by evaluating subject matter, symbols, and
  ideas in works of art by others.
4.0 Historical and Cultural Relationships
  Recognize how artists are influenced by cultures, history and
  movements in art.
  Recognize the role of artists in our community and society.              Train (DK Eyewitness Book)
                                                                           J. Coiley, DK CHILDREN (Har/Cdr/Ps ed),
5.0 Reflection and Assessment                                              2009
  Understand that artists create work for a variety of purposes.
  Interpret different responses to art works.

LANGUAGE ARTS                                                                                      Railroads Across North America:
                                                                                                   An Illustrated History
Standard 1 – Language
                                                                                                   C. Wiatrowski, Voyageur Press, 2007.
  Demonstrate knowledge of strategies and resources to determine the
  definition, pronunciation, and usage of words and phrases.

Standard 2 – Communication
  Demonstrate critical listening skills essential for comprehension,
  evaluation, problem solving, and task completion.
  Continue to develop strategies for expressing thoughts and ideas         FILM
  clearly and effectively.

Standard 5 – Logic
  Develop logic skills to enhance thoughtful reasoning and to facilitate

Standard 11 – Motion
  Recognize the relationship between the mass of an object and the
  force needed to move it.
                                                                           PBS American Experience – Transcontinental Railroad
Embedded Inquiry                                                           cp=&sr=1&kw=railroad&origkw=railroad&parentPage=search&se
  Explain how different inventions and technologies impact people.         archId=1412580
  Explore how technology responds to social, political, and economic       120 minutes, $24.99

                TN STATE STANDARDS • RESOURCES                                                                                            18
615-353-9827 |

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