Title: Exploring Travelers' Transferring Decision When Only by pengxuebo


           Department of Transportation Technology and Management

    Title: Measuring the Risk pPrception of Motorcycle Users
    Investigator:Hsin-Li Chang
    Sponsor:National Science Council
    Keywords:Risk Perception, Motorcycle, Behavior, Safety, Logistic Regression

          This study is undertaken to explore the traffic risk perception of the motorcyclists
    and its affecting factors. Based on the special characteristics of motorcyclists in Taiwan,
    an analytical framework for the motorcyclists’ risk perception is established first. The
    Motorcyclists’ Risk Perception Questionnaires are then developed and used to collect
    the risk preference, driving behavior, and accident experience of individual
    motorcyclists. The multivariate analysis techniques are applied to test the relationship
    between the characters of motorcyclists and their perceived risks. In addition, a
    Logistic Regression model is also employed to formulate the driving behavior with risk
    perception, accident experience, as well as characters of motorcyclists. The study
    results show the characteristics of motorcyclists significantly affect their traffic risk
    perceptions, and then determine their driving behavior and accident records. Some
    alternatives are suggested to help and improve the traffic safety for motorcycle usage.

    Title: A Study for Evaluating the Education Performance of Driving Schools
    Investigator:Hsin-Li Chang
    Sponsor:Ministry of Transportation and Communication
    Keywords:Driving education, Driving schools, Licensing test, Performance

            More than ninety percents of legal drivers gained their driver licenses after
    taking the training courses from driving schools. Hence, the education programs
    implemented in the driving schools will significantly influence drivers’ behavior on the
    roads. This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of driving education in
    driving schools. More than three hundred new drivers, who got their licenses not more
    than one year ago, were interviewed to collect required data for this study. The study
    results show the new drivers are more satisfied with the roadway driving training than
    lectures in the classroom. Most of the interviewed drivers recognized the driving
    education really brings them the required techniques and confidence for driving on the
    road. However, the interviewed drivers are found to have less confidence in defensive
    driving, responding to the confronting dangerous situations while driving, and handling
    the occurred accidents. Some problems of driving education were quantitatively
    explored and corresponding improvement strategies were also suggested in this study.


    Title: Planning The Parking Demand and Supply Study for Hsinchu City
    Investigator:Hsin-Li Chang
    Sponsor:HsinChu City Government
    Keywords:Parking demand, Parking supply, Parking study procedure

          This project is conducted to plan the required tasks and procedures for parking
    study for Hsinchu City. According to the objective of parking study, the studies for
    long term parking facility planning and design and short term parking demand
    management are separately considered in this study. The information required for
    parking planning was detailed reviewed and a hierarchical zoning structure was
    suggested and designed for data collection. The tables required for parking demand and
    supply survey were established, and the manpower to undertake different levels of
    parking studies were also estimated. This study provides a standard operation process
    for parking study and offers a valuable tool for Hsinchu City to review his parking
    problem periodically. This study also provided an empirical example for the users in
    order to help them to follow the study procedure.

    Title: A Study for The Motorcycle Ownership and Usage in Taiwan
    Investigator:Hsin-Li Chang
    Sponsor:Institute of Transportation
    Keywords:Motorcycle Ownership, Motorcycle Usage, Management Policies, Poisson
             This study is undertaken to explore the factors that affecting people in Taiwan
    to choose their motorcycle ownership and usage. An analytical conceptual framework
    for motorcycle ownership and usage is first developed, and a set of important factors
    are then drawn from that framework. A face-to-face household interview was planned
    and conducted in five typical areas that include Taipei, Taichung, Kaohsiung, and
    Hsinchu metropolitans as well as Changhua county for empirical study purpose. Based
    on the data collected from interviews, the motorcycle ownership behavior is
    formulated by a Poisson Regression model and the significance of related factors are
    then tested. Furthermore, the characteristics of motorcycle usage, in terms of traveling
    purpose, traveling mileage, trip length, …., etc., will be also analyzed in this study. The
    results of this study provide a set of valuable information to help the authorities to
    establish related management policies for motorcycle ownership and usage in the

    Title : A Study of the Derivation from the Boltzmann Equation to Dynamic
            Macroscopic Traffic Flow Model
    Investigator:Hsun Jung Cho
    Sponsor:National Science Council
    Keywords:Boltzmann Equation, Traffic Flow Theory, Macroscopic Model

          To plan, to design, and to operation of transportation systems need knowledge of
    fundamental traffic flow characteristics and associated analytical techniques. Traffic
    flow characteristics include time headway, flow, time-space projectory, speed, distance
    headway, and density. Traffic flow analytical techniques include traffic stream
    modeling, shock wave analysis, queueing analysis, and simulation modeling.
    Knowledge of traffic analytical techniques and the ability to select the appropriate
    technique are required to predict the performance from developed input expressions.
    As mention above, traffic flow models can often be used for uninterrupted flow
    situations where demands do not exceed capacities. For interrupted oversaturated flow
    situations, more complex techniques, such as shock wave analysis, and simulation
    modeling, are employed. The analytical process can vary from a very simple equation
    to a complex simulation model. Microscopic and macroscopic analyses are two
    different viewpoints to develop traffic analytical techniques. Microscopic analysis may
    be selected for moderate-sized systems where the number of transport units passing
    through the system is relatively small and there is the need to study the behavior of
    individual units in the system. Macroscopic system may be selected for higher-density,
    large-scale systems in which a study of the behavior of groups of units is sufficient.
    This study proposes a dynamic traffic flow model by Boltzmann equation. Then we
    derive the Boltzmann equation to macroscopic model so as to analyze the assumptions
    including in macroscopic models which are proposed before. In addition, the solution
    methods of Boltzmann equation and the macroscopic model are reviewed and
    discussed so as to make suggestions for further researches.

    Title:Constraint Programming Modeling Applications to Timetabling and Crew
            Rostering Problems
    Investigator:Anthony F. Han
    Sponsor:National Science Council
    Keywords:Constraint Programming, Constraint Satisfication Problem, Timetabling,
                  Crew Rostering.

          Constraint Programming (CP), in general, means the computer implementation of
    an algorithm for solving “constraint satisfaction problems (CSPs)” [9]. Many
    combinatorial problems in operational research, such as timetabling, scheduling, and
    rostering, which were used to be dealt with optimization models, are recently found
    can be solved more efficiently using CP modeling techniques. The CP approach, either
    applied alone or hybrid with IP, also tends to offer more application flexibility to
    decision makers who must face constantly changing environment (constraints).This
    research attempts to apply CP modeling and solution techniques to two specific
    combinatorial problems: (1) timetabling problem, and (2) crew rostering problem. For
    the timetabling problem, we attempt to study and solve a real case problem of college
    or university course scheduling. The resulting CP models would provide a good model
    base to develop a prototype DSS for course scheduling problems. For the crew
    rostering problem, we attempt to take a hybrid CP-IP modeling approach to solve the
    “equitability system” rostering problem [34]. Several models will be formulated and
    tested to the application example with real-world data collected from an international
    airline company. Results of alternative models will be evaluated based on both solution

    efficiency and decision support flexibility. We hope this research would attract more
    attention from transportation and OR researchers in Taiwan to the promising new
    trends of CP applications.

    Title:Studies on Hub-and-Spoke Based Models of Routing Containerships
    Investigator:Shang-Hsing Hsieh
    Sponsor:National Science Council
    Keywords:Routing Containerships, Hub-and-Spoke Network, Hub Location Problem

          Transoceanic containerships are built larger and larger to reduce their unit
    operating costs for liner shipping companies. It would make less profit for large
    containerships to berth too many ports in a local area. Therefore, a hub-and-spoke
    network would be a better way for operating liner fleets, in which the bigger and faster
    ships run on the main routes among the hub ports and, the smaller feeders connects the
    origins with hub ports or the hub ports with destinations.                Most of the
    hub-and-spoke network models are cost minimization programs (O'Kelly 1987, Hsieh
    and Chang 2000), based on the assumptions that vehicles are fully loaded or having
    fixed loading rate. However, even in high seasons, 100% loading rate is hard to be
    achieved in real marine markets. Therefore, a ship needs to call more ports to collect
    enough containers before crossing ocean.       How many ports do ships to call would
    be a best choice for a shipping company? What shipowners concern is, more ports to
    be berthed will cause increases in operating costs and will also make larger revenue.
    The point is can the profit (= revenue - cost) be made positive for the fleet. The main
    purpose of this study is trying to establish a hub-and-spoke based model of routing
    containerships, associated with the objective profit function depending upon operating
    cost, revenue and the loading rate of berthing one more port. The model of routing
    containerships is in nature an integral quadratic assignment program, which is very
    difficult to be solved. Developing heuristic methods for solving this kind of problems
    is another goal of this study.

    Title: Modeling Plant Location Decision-Making and Supplier Selection for
           High-Tech Product Manufacturing Firms
    Investigator: Chaug-Ing Hsu
    Sponsor: National Science Council
    Keywords: Plant Location, Supplier Selection, Shipping Strategies, Information

             Properly locating plants can enhance firms' capabilities in acquiring input
    resources, such as labor, land, material or parts, in realizing production efficiencies and
    in distributing their products to consumers in a short order cycle. Supplier selection via
    information technology (IT) is also helpful to reduce firms' production costs. This
    study aims at exploring issues addressed above and formulating models on plant
    location decision-making and supplier selection for high-tech product manufacturing
    companies. The study firstly formulates the revenue and total cost functions with
    respect to different plant locations for high-value product manufacturing firms, and the
    optimum plant location is determined by maximizing the profit. The revenue function
    takes into account the effects of time-dependent price and production-transportation
    time of high-value products. The cost function considers factors such as supplier and
    customer locations, production scale economies, shipping flow economies, factor
    prices and technology efficiencies with respect to different locations. The model also
    determines optimal shipping strategies of components and finished products
    corresponding to the optimal plant location. Furthermore, a supplier-selection model
    for minimizing the firm’s costs of acquiring components is developed. We formulate
    firms' monetary and time costs in acquiring components from various suppliers by
    considering different supplier locations and production capabilities and the extent of
    information sharing and IT application. An empirical example of a mainboard
    manufacturing firm is provided to illustrate the application of the model. It is
    envisaged that the results of the developed models not only shed light on plant location
    and supplier selection research, but also provide basis on location and supplier decision
    making for high-tech product manufacturing firms and industry location policies for
    the government in changing dynamic environments.

    Title: Airline Network Adjustment in Response to Noise Charge and Performance
           Assessment for Airport Noise Charge Policies
    Investigator: Chaug-Ing Hsu
    Sponsor: National Science Council
    Keywords: Noise Charge, Airline Network, Flight Frequencies, Aircraft Type

             This research aims to explore different airport noise charge policies, and to
    analyze the performance of airport noise charge policy from multiple perspectives.
    The study formulates an airline network design model by minimizing airline operating
    cost to determine the optimal air routes and flight frequencies and aircraft types in
    response to airport noise charge. Further, the study discusses the context of several
    noise charge policies, and investigates the impact of these policies on airline costs and
    network structure. Since airlines’ decisions on their air routes, flight frequencies, and
    aircraft types in response to the airport noise charge will further influence the footprint
    of pollution around the airport. Therefore, the study applies equivalent steady sound
    level to quantify aircraft noise at the airport. Then, the study further formulates a
    model to assess the performance of different noise charge policies by evaluating
    changes in airport operating profits and the welfare of airport residents nearby.
    Finally, a case study about Chiang Kai-Shek (CKS) international airport is presented in
    an attempt to assess the effectiveness of different noise charge alternatives subject to
    the condition that no other airports change their noise charge policies. The results show
    that airlines may change aircraft routes and flight frequencies in response to the airport
    noise charge. The hub airport noise fee also may influence airline’s network decision.
    Airport landing fee setting will influence the extent of noise charge on controlling
    social cost. Finally, the result suggests that if CKS authority concerns more on
    airport environmental problem, the authority should employ SYD noise charge policy
    at CKS to results in the higher weighted sum of airport profit and social cost.

    Title: Fuzzy Factor Analysis for Selecting Service Quality Factors – A Case of the
            Service Quality of City Bus Service
    Investigator:William Jen
    Sponsor:National Science Council
    Keywords:Fuzzy Theory, Factor Analysis, Service Quality, Subjective Perceptions,
                Bus Service

          In screening the factors of service quality, factor analysis is the method most
    often employed. Its most important mechanism is cut down initial multifarious relative
    observation factors into a few mutually unrelated factors, at the meantime maintaining
    excellent competence in conducting justification for the original problem. However,
    since service quality is a subjective perception, with feelings towards each of the
    attributes evaluated, the evaluation is greatly affected by individual preference in
    response to the data. We have converted the raw data of each service quality item into
    crisp number by fuzzy linguistic conversion scale of fuzzy theory. But if the fuzziness
    and uncertainty of subjective feelings is considered, fuzzy justification would be more
    suitable from the statistical perspective to handle such large variation. Nakamori, Sato
    and Watada has proposed the notion of a factor space model for fuzzy data and
    developed fuzzy factor analysis. However, since the use of fuzzy correlation
    coefficients and fuzzy eigenvalues could not meet the requirements of the general data
    model, this study will propose the concept of using fuzzy operation to determine the
    fuzzy correlation coefficient in direct terms. After this, the resolution for fuzzy
    eigenvalues by Nakamori, Sato and Watada is modified, and the fuzzy factor analysis
    is employed to evaluate service quality.The purpose of this study is to use fuzzy
    computation of fuzzy data to conduct fuzzy factor analysis for service quality, in order
    to appreciate the relationship between each of the attribute factors and the
    characteristics of the factors evaluated. In order to demonstrate the fuzzy factor
    analysis method is feasibility and practicality, we will take city bus service quality as
    an illustration, and explain the operation of factor analysis of fuzzy data.Because the
    service quality of city bus service is derived from the subjective perception of
    passengers and is thus endowed with individual preferences, we think the data is
    inherently uncertain, and is more appropriate to be analyzed by a fuzzy method. We
    will employ a questionnaire for the service quality attributes as based on Parasuraman,
    Berry and Zeithmal. The results will initially processed by analysis with conventional
    factor analysis after field investigation. Then, passenger perception regarding the
    performance data of service quality will be quantified with fuzzy measurements, and
    the results of fuzzy service quality will be calculated. After fuzzy correlation
    coefficients will be located corresponding to the data by fuzzy operation, the fuzzy
    factor analysis will be employed to conduct factor selection. Besides, we want to

    demonstrate and examine whether the service quality factors screened by fuzzy factor
    analysis is more reasonable than that by the conventional method. At last, we will
    discuss the implications of fuzzy factor analysis method, and propose some
    suggestions based on our study results.

    Title:Constructing an Activity-Based Costing Information System for Evergreen
                 Aviation Technologies Corporation.
    Principal Investigator:William Jen , Hsiu-Kuei Kuo
    Sponsor        :Evergreen Aviation Technologies Corporation
    Keywords :Civil Aircraft, Engine Maintenance, Activity-Based Costing

          The characteristics of civil aircraft engine maintenance include different work
    scope which cause large variation of the activities and consume the different type of
    resources, expensive maintenance equipment, needing high degree of accurate cost
    information to help make decision, high degree of information technology etc..
    However, the traditional cost system adopted at present can not adhere to provide
    accurate cost information as a result of different work scope. Therefore we can not
    understand the relationships between resources and activities of the maintenance plant.
    This study attempts to construct an Activity-Based Costing information system fit for
    civil aircraft engine maintenance business. In addition to look out for more reasonable
    and detail maintenance cost figures of different work scope, the manager can also use
    the information system as a basis to make all kinds of operational and strategic
    management decisions.


    Title:Performance Evaluation of Private Towed Company in Taipei,2001FY(1)
    Principal Investigator:William Jen
    Sponsor:Bureau of Transportation, Taipei City Government
    Keywords:Towed, Level of Service, Performance Evaluation

          There are 13 private companies towed parking violations in Taipei City. All of
    them are contracted by Taipei City Government (TCG) to haul the vehicle violated the
    traffic rule. In order to evaluate the service of the 13 private towed companies as well
    as to improve the level of service (LOS) of towed business in Taipei, this project is
    contracted from TCG in the 2001 FY (from Mar., 2001 to Nov. 2001). This project
    defines four categories of service-criteria, and each of them have several
    service-indicators, totally includes 20 service-indicators to evaluate the LOS of private
    towed companies this year.

    Title:Evaluate the Route Planning Problem, and Review the Cost and Ticket Price of
          Hsin-Chu City Bus
    Investigator:William Jen,Kuo Hsiu-Kuei
    Sponsor:Hsin-Chu City Government
    Keywords:City Bus; Cost; Price

         Due to the ticket price of Hsin-Chu’s city bus haven’t been adjusted for more than
    7 years, Hsin-Chu City Government asked us to analysis the audit tasks of 18 cost
    items and 124 account items of the Hsin-Chu Bus Company. The analysis subjects
    included :

    1) Review and evaluate the present route problem of the Hsin-Chu city bus, and bring
       up the direction of the route planning.
    2) Estimate the rational cost per vehicle kilometer.
    3) Estimate the rational ticket price by using the statutory formula.
    4) Develop and evaluate the alternatives of new ticket price.
    5) Suggest the action plans of elevation the bus’s level of service which correspondent
       to the new price.

    Title:Performance Evaluation of Transit Service of United-Operation Bus Companies
           in Taipei, 2001 (1),(2)
    Principal Investigator:William Jen
    Sponsor:Bureau of Transportation, Taipei City Government
    Keywords:Bus, Mass Transit, Level of Service, Performance Evaluation

         There are fourteen united-operation bus companies operating about 200 bus lines
    with more than1000 bus stops in the Taipei Metropolitan Area. Among the 14 bus
    companies, one is owned by Taipei City Government (TCG), the others are privately
    owned companies.
         In order to evaluate the transit service of the 14 bus companies as well as to
    improve the level of service (LOS) of transit in Taipei, this project is contracted from
    TCG in the 2001 FY (from Apr. 2001 to Dec 2000). This project defines four
    categories of service-criteria, and each of them have several service-indicators, totally
    includes 16 service-indicators to evaluate the LOS of Taipei united-operation bus
    companies this year.




    Title:An Optimization for Intercity Freeway Transit Scheduling and Midway Stop
            Locations under Homogeneous Environment
    Investigator:Guey-Shii Lin
    Sponsor:National Science Council
    Keywords:Intercity Freeway Transport, Midway Bus Stops, Scheduled Headway,
                   Route Combination, Travel Demand.

         The intercity freeway bus services have become well diversified and more
    competitive in transit market since the deregulation of freeway travel in 1995.
    Unfortunately, the existing simple end-to-end bus service mode adopted by most transit
    operators makes vast majority of intercity freeway transit routes seriously overlapped.
    This would cause the very limited transport resourses to be allocated improperly. To
    treat such problems, the Ministry of Communication has proposed alternatives of
    locating either transfer terminals or midway bus stops in order to increase the level of
    transit services. However, the former has been found to be an unlikely solution due to a
    number of reasons such as restrictions from existing transport policy, shared market by
    other illegal transit agents, higher cost for infrastructures and longer travel required.
    The latter is currently projected as a feasible treatment. It not only helps decreasing
    operating cost and increasing the share of demand coverage over the freeway but tends
    to survive those legal transit operators in the market and maintain higher service level
    for most transit users.
         Unlike most traditional analysis, this study would concern with a benefit
    maximization problem from an operator's standpoint. It explores the concurrent
    optimization for bus route scheduling as well as midway bus stop allocation on a
    freeway. Critical factors such as demand patterns along the route, vehicle circulation
    time, vehicle capacity, fleet size, and potential of market share are known to have
    influence on the level of service frequency. For a specific transit route, based on the
    goal of benefit maximization, the model does not require an operator to reach a
    decision of completely fulfilling the demand at any midway stop on the route. However,
    lower service frequency may result in higher loss in demand, thus decreasing market
    share and benefit. With the limitation, transit operators should determine a way of
    gaining the maximum benefit by carefully considering the above factors and well
    organizing service routes and stops along the path.
         The pre-planning methodology defines the objective using a profit deduction
    approach. In addition to the expected revenue from the overall market, the model takes
    into account the operating costs, the transferring passengers due to a less competitive
    service plan to the others, and the unattainable ticket revenue due to insufficient
    transport capability of the operator. With the premise of maximum benefit for a transit
    operator, this study develops a model to help designing the optimal in-time route
    service plan that evaluate various service headway decisions and freeway transit route
    combinations in which feasible midway bus stops are allocated. The conclusion may be
    used by any transit operator to fine tune the existing service strategy in order to meet
    the preset goal.

 Title:The Study of Transportation Database During Seismic Disaster in Urban Area
 Investigator:Jinyuan Wang
 Sponsor:National Science Council
 Keywords:Earthquake Rescue Operations, Digital Map, Traffic Database

       The Chi-Chi Earthquake of September 21, 1999 caused tremendous damages to
 human lives, properties, and economics. We found the lacking of an up-to-date
 digital map and transportation database is really a drawback of rescue activities.
 However, we don’t take the earthquake rescue requirements into account when making
 the maps and database. Thus, the core purpose of this research is to make up the
 standard procedure and protocols for fundamental database producing and updating,
 especially when earthquake occurs.This is a sub-project of a 3-year consolidate project.
 During the first year, we focus on the analysis of current digital maps and databases.
 Also, we will discuss the needs for database from the earthquake perspective. Then,
 we will introduce methodologies for updating maps and database in the second year.
 The data collected in this 921 earthquake will be used for testing purpose. Finally, we
 will propose the standard procedures and protocols for the maps and database
 producing and updating. Hsinchu area will be used as a demo site for these

 Title:Industrial Technology Development Program of Ministry of Economic Affairs:
        The Technology Development Program of Automatic System of Aviation
        Engine Maintenance – The Research of Maintenance Scheduling of Evergreen
        Aviation Technologies Corp.
 Investigator:Jinyuan Wang
 Sponsor:Evergreen Aviation Technologies Corporation
 Keywords:Scheduling Operation, Engine Maintenance

       Aviation safeties are an internationally concerned issue. The engine maintenance
 plays a very important role in whole aviation safeties. A good maintained and normally
 operating engine guarantees corporeally aviation safeties, and guarantees to provide
 safe flying while the beast of outer environment. In order to lower the cost of
 operations of maintaining, to expand the scale of the company, to improve efficiency of
 operations, and to gain more customers, we must plan for the future needs. Analyzing
 whole engine maintenance scheduling, and making them information and automatic,
 the company can more efficiently provide customers better service. If we do not widely
 consider, it will lead to inefficient scheduling, and will impact whole cost further.
 Therefore, this project expects to make a global research for factors impacting
 scheduling, and to develop a practical and useful scheduling system which can enhance
 efficiency of making order and usage of production resource.
 This research identify system bottlenecks, constraint resources, and factors which
 impact throughput from present scheduling data, making some models by TOC
 (Theory of Constraints) or other scheduling theories. Simulating the scheduling under
     some conditions and analyzing the result, identify the most appropriate and
     systematical scheduling method.

     Title:The Interference Measurement of the Passenger Movement in MRT Stations
     Investigator:Shoei-Wei Wu
     Sponsor:National Science Council
     Keywords:MRT Stations, Movement of Passengers, Interference Measurement

           There are usually a large number of passengers crowded into the main transfer
     MRT stations in the peak hours so that some locations like entrance-exit gate, check-in
     gate, passageway, joint of passageway and the entrance of the escalators get stuck. The
     moving paths of the passengers walking in the crowded region are disorderly. The
     passengers are usually forced to slow down their walking speed and change their
     walking directions to avoid bumping to the others. Not only the walking comfort is
     lowed, but also the travel time is increased, while the conflicts of the passengers’
     moving path becomes more and more serious. Therefore it may cause more passengers
     crowded in the MRT stations and level down their operation efficiency. In order to
     reduce the conflicts of the passengers’ moving path, this study applied the control
     technique to the stream of passengers, such as separating the stream into two parts by
     setting the separate bars and railings between the bi-directions. The conflicts of moving
     path haven’t been discussed broadly. We found thirty percent passengers deemed that
     the conflicts of passengers’ moving path were serious in MRT stations by
     questionnaires collected in MRT Stations in Taipei city.
             The objective of this study is to establish the methodology of measuring the
     conflicts of the passengers’ moving path in MRT stations, and analyzes the relationship
     between the pedestrian flow characteristics (K-V-Q) and conflicts of passengers’
     moving path. This research focuses on the passageway, which is viewed as a link in the
     pedestrian network in MRT stations. First, we gathered the characteristics of the
     pedestrian flow and conflict of passengers’ moving path by using video watching or
     field investigating in MRT station. Second, we utilized the Area Method“ and
     “Bandwidth Method” in macro-scale, and “Stimulus-Response Method” in micro-scale.
     Third, we modeled the relationship between conflicts of passengers’ moving path and
     pedestrian flow variables. By choosing a passageway to analyze, the results implied
     that the conflict of pedestrians’ moving path could be analyzed by the proposed
     methods. Finally, we discussed the improving scheme separates the pedestrian stream
     into two parts with the separate bars and railings, and the effect was obvious significant.
     Also we evaluated the level of service of the interference by fuzzy theory and
     satisfaction survey from passengers. Finally ,we divide LOS into A、B、C、D、E five

  Title:The Contingency Plan of the Transportation system During Seismic Disaster in
          Urban Area
  Investigator:Shoei-Wei Wu
  Sponsor:National Science Council
  Keywords:Earthquake Disasters, Transportation system, Preliminary Emergency
               Response Plan

          When a strong earthquake happened, the traffic facilities damage would go
  along with the great shock. At the moment, transportation system would be destroyed.
  In order to reduce the level of damage and make all kinds of rescue work act more
  efficiently and rapidly, we should study the plan of transportation emergency response
  system. In our study, we discuss the subjects and contents of Preliminary plan of
  transportation emergency response system for earthquake disaster in urban area. It uses
  the system analysis method to promote this study. With the collective analysis,
  discussion with relative authorities and consideration of the emergency response theory,
  we get some opinions to support our study. Finally, we set up the subjects and contents
  of Preliminary plan of transportation emergency response system for earthquake
  disaster in urban area.


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