Aim: How did settlers travel West in the
Do Now: Go Over Test
In the 1790‟s travel was difficult roads were mud tracks & very
• In the 1600s settlers began moving West (land
between the Appalachians & the Mississippi).
• Settlers took many routes West.
Before long some Western territories had populations large
enough to apply for statehood.
• Ohio 1803
• Indiana 1816
• Illinois 1818
• Private companies built
roads to pay for the
roads travelers had to
pay tolls= turnpikes
• Bridges carried travelers
across streams & rivers.
Stone bridges cost a lot
but wooden bridges
• Whenever possible travelers used river
• Robert Fulton invented the steamboat Clermont
carried passengers from NYC to Albany in 62
Aim: How did the Erie Canal improve business?
Do Now: On a map locate NYC, Buffalo, Lake
Erie & the Erie Canal.
• To get their goods directly to markets in the East, Western
farmers dug canals.
• A canal- is an artificial channel filled with water that allows
boats to cross a stretch of land.
• The earliest canals were only a few miles long.
• New Yorkers wanted to build a canal linking the Great Lakes
with the Mohawk & Hudson rivers.
• The Erie Canal would let western farmers ship their goods to
the port of New York.
• Many people believed the idea was farfetched.
• DeWitt Clinton- the Governor of NY persuaded
state lawmakers to provide money for the Erie
• Work on the Erie Canal began in 1817. At first,
workers dug the waterway by hand. Inventors
developed new equipment.
• In 1825, the job was finished. The canal was
an instant success. It reduced travel time, the
cost of shipping & helped make NYC a center
Aim: How did the US and Britain settle their
claims to Oregon Country?
Do Now: Locate on a map the Oregon Country
and the Oregon Trail.
IF YOU were there…
You live in Ohio 1840. A few months ago, you
and your family heard stories about wonderful
land in the Northwest, with sparkling rivers and
fertile valleys. You all decide to pull up stakes
and head West. You travel to Independence,
Missouri, planning to join a wagon train on the
Oregon Trail. In Missouri, you‟re surprised to
find hundreds of other people planning to make
What would you expect your journey West to be
• In the 1800‟s, four countries
had claims to Oregon. The
US, Britain, Spain & Russia.
Questions: • In 1818 US & Britain
reached an agreement. The
two countries would
1)What trade first drew Americans both
West? • The first white settlers in
Oregon country were fur
go to Oregon
2)Why did settlers trappers. Known as
Mountain Men, the trappers
Country? made fortunes trapping
John Jacob Astor, beavers.
a New Yorker,
3)Do you think you would have Fur Trade
founded the • By the late 1830‟s
American taken a wagon trail west out.
Fur in the
Company & • Americans moved West in
became the search of cheap fertile land.
richest man in the
• Many settlers moving to Oregon Country &
other western areas followed the 2,000 mile
long Oregon Trail.
• The Trail followed Sweetwater rivers over the
Plains and then across the Rocky Mountains
where the trail split. The Northern Trail went to
Oregon & the Southern Trail to California.
Aim: Why did many Americans settle in Texas?
Do Now: Texas handout
• Texas was part of
the Spanish colony
• Mexico won its
• Stephen Austin
& 300 families moved
to Texas &
• 1830 Mexico forbade
anymore Americans to
move to Texas b/c they
feared the US wanted to
make Texas a state.
• The US tried to buy Texas
• Mexico decided to make
Texas obey Mexican laws:
-You had to be catholic
-Mexican troops came North
to enforce the laws
• 1833 Santa Anna came
to power in Mexico &
wanted all Americans to
• In 1835 Texas clashed
w/Mexican troops. Two
months later Texans
took San Antonio
• While Santa Anna tried
to regain San Antonio
independence on March
2, 1836 & set up The
Republic of Texas. Sam
Houston was elected
head of the Army.
• When Santa Anna arrived in San Antonio 200 Texans
remained & refused to give up & set up in an old
Spanish missionary called the Alamo.
• 6,000 Mexican troops tried to siege the Alamo in Feb.
• For 12 days, Texans held off Mexican troops.
Mexicans stormed the fort & in the end 183 Texans &
1500 Mexicans died.
• After the Alamo many Texans wanted revenge. Many
volunteers joined Houston‟s army.
• Houston attacked
Santa Anna in a
surprise attack. As
they charged the
• The battle lasted
only 18 minutes
• Texans captured
Santa Anna & forced
the general to sign a
treaty granting Texas
• Texans wrote a Constitution based on the US &
elected Sam Houston President.
1-Mexico refused to accept the treaty signed by Santa
Anna. Saying Texas was still part of Mexico
2-Texas is bankrupt
• Most Texans thought the best way to solve their
problems become part of the US
• Americans were not sure if they wanted to annex-add
Aim: Why did many Americans support the idea of westward
Do Now: Locate on a map what present day states made up the
New Mexico Territory.
• The entire Southwest belonged to Mexico in the
• New Mexico Territory= present day Arizona, New
Mexico, Nevada, Utah & parts of Colorado.
• In the Southwest the land is deserts & mountains.
• In the 1600s the Spanish built the city of
Santa Fe & made it the Capital of the territory it grew
to be a busy trading town. Americans were not
allowed in Santa Fe until Mexico won its
• William Becknell was the first
American to head for Santa Fe.
Other Americans came following
his route which became known
As the Santa Fe Trail.
• First ruled by Spain in 1542 by
soldiers & priests built the first
European settlements in
• The Spanish built 21 missions in
California & converted the Native
Americans to Christianity.
• Thousands of Native Americans
dies from disease & being over
• The US tried to buy California
from Mexico several times
• Americans believed
they had the right &
duty to spread its rule
all the way to the
• Many Americans
believed that they
were superior to
Native Americans &
Mexicans & this
justified them taking
over their lands.
Election of 1844
Henry Clay (Whig) James K. Polk (Democrat)
•Opposed the annexation •Favored Expansion
of Texas •Demanded that Texas &
Oregon be added to the US
•Polk demanded the whole
region of Oregon all the
way to its Northern border
at a latitude of 54 40.
• Polk took office in
March 1845 &
w/Britain to gain
control of Oregon.
• In 1846 a
was divided at 49
„N. Britain got
lands North of the
line & the US got
land South of the
• US Senators feared
that annexing (adding
on) Texas would
cause a war with
• Sam Houston wanted
Texas to be part of the
US & pretended that
Texas might become
an ally of Britain.
• In 1845 Congress
passed a resolution
admitting Texas to the
Aim: What new lands were added to the US as
a result of the Mexican War?
Do Now: Read p. 360(blue text) p.355(red text)
in the text to answer the following question:
1) How did The US gain Oregon?
• Mexico had never
accepted Texas Problems with Mexico
independence & feared
California & New Mexico
would rebel & leave
• Polk offered Mexico $30
million dollars for
California & New Mexico.
• Many Americans felt that
Mexico stood in the way of
• The US claimed that the
Southern border of Texas
was the Rio Grande R. but
Mexico said it was the
• Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to cross
the Nueces R. & set up posts in the disputed
• In April 1846, Mexican troops crashed the Rio
Grande & Polk asked Congress to declare war
on Mexico & they did- Mexican-American War
• Americans strategy for fighting the war was to
attack several forts at the same time.
• In 1847, Taylor met Santa Anna at the battle of
Buena Vista. In the battle Mexican troops
greatly out numbered American troops but
Americans were better armed & led.
Rebellion in • Before the war
California California rebelled
against Mexican rule
& called their new
nation the Bear Flag
• Southern California
• After America took
Mexico's capital so
they had to make
• Forced Mexico to cede (give
up) all of California & New
Mexico to the US. This land
was called the Mexican
• US paid Mexico $ 15 million &
agreed to respect all Spanish
speaking people in the area.
• In 1853 America completed its
expansion w/ the Gadsden
Purchase- a strip of land in
present day New Mexico &
* Manifest Destiny was complete
Aim: How did the discovery of gold affect life in
Do Now: IF YOU WERE THERE…
You are a low-paid bank clerk in New England in early
1849. Local newspapers headlines are shouting
exciting news: “Gold is Discovered in California!
Thousands Are on Their Way West.” You enjoy
having a steady job. However, some of your friends
are planning to go west, and you are being influenced
by their excitement. Your friends are even buying
pickaxes and other mining equipment. They urge you
to go west with them.
Would you go west to seek your fortune in
• In the 1830s & 1840‟s settlers who wanted to
move to California started on the Oregon Trail
in Idaho the trail split. People bound for
California took the southern route- the
California Trail across the Sierra Nevada
• Few Americans settlers in California many only
went to trade.
• The Donner party was a group of western
travelers who headed for California but were
stranded in the Sierra Nevada Mountains during
• The largest group of
settlers to move to the
Mexican Cession were the
• The Mormon church was
founded by Joseph Smith
• His teaching made many
people angry & he was
• Brigham Young became
the new leader & decided
that the Mormons should
• In 1847, Young led them
to Great Salt Lake valley,
• In 1848, John Sutter was
building a sawmill on the
American River for James
Marshall. Marshall went to
inspect the ditch when he
accidentally discovered gold.
• In a few days, word of
Sutter‟s Mill spread.
• More then 80,000 people
made the long journey to
California in 1849. They
became known as the forty-
• The Gold Rush attracted
people from all over the
• Immigrants from China &
Europe joined both black
& white newcomers from
other parts of the US.
• The large population
growth led to many
•Some mining towns were wild, lawless places.
•Sometimes vigilantes- tried to keep order,
California Becomes a State
• California realized that it needed a government
to stop the lawlessness.
• 1849, they drafted a state Constitution.
• California was admitted to the Union in 1850 as
a free state.