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					Aim: How did settlers travel West in the
early 1800‟s?
Do Now: Go Over Test

In the 1790‟s travel was difficult roads were mud tracks & very
narrow trials
• In the 1600s settlers began moving West (land
  between the Appalachians & the Mississippi).
• Settlers took many routes West.
Before long some Western territories had populations large
enough to apply for statehood.

                                               • Kentucky
                                               • Ohio 1803
                                               • Louisiana
                                               • Tennessee
                                               • Indiana 1816
                                               • Mississippi
                                               • Illinois 1818
                                               • Alabama
• Private companies built
  roads to pay for the
  roads travelers had to
  pay tolls= turnpikes

• Bridges carried travelers
  across streams & rivers.
  Stone bridges cost a lot
  but wooden bridges
  rotted quickly.
• Whenever possible travelers used river
• Robert Fulton invented the steamboat Clermont
  carried passengers from NYC to Albany in 62
Aim: How did the Erie Canal improve business?
Do Now: On a map locate NYC, Buffalo, Lake
Erie & the Erie Canal.
• To get their goods directly to markets in the East, Western
  farmers dug canals.
• A canal- is an artificial channel filled with water that allows
  boats to cross a stretch of land.
• The earliest canals were only a few miles long.
• New Yorkers wanted to build a canal linking the Great Lakes
  with the Mohawk & Hudson rivers.
• The Erie Canal would let western farmers ship their goods to
  the port of New York.
• Many people believed the idea was farfetched.
• DeWitt Clinton- the Governor of NY persuaded
  state lawmakers to provide money for the Erie
• Work on the Erie Canal began in 1817. At first,
  workers dug the waterway by hand. Inventors
  developed new equipment.
• In 1825, the job was finished. The canal was
  an instant success. It reduced travel time, the
  cost of shipping & helped make NYC a center
  of commerce.
Aim: How did the US and Britain settle their
claims to Oregon Country?
Do Now: Locate on a map the Oregon Country
and the Oregon Trail.
IF YOU were there…
  You live in Ohio 1840. A few months ago, you
  and your family heard stories about wonderful
  land in the Northwest, with sparkling rivers and
  fertile valleys. You all decide to pull up stakes
  and head West. You travel to Independence,
  Missouri, planning to join a wagon train on the
  Oregon Trail. In Missouri, you‟re surprised to
  find hundreds of other people planning to make
  the trip.
What would you expect your journey West to be
                       • In the 1800‟s, four countries
                         had claims to Oregon. The
                         US, Britain, Spain & Russia.
      Questions:       • In 1818 US & Britain
                         reached an agreement. The
                         two countries would
      1)What trade first drew Americans both
                         occupy Oregon.
         West?         • The first white settlers in
                         Oregon country were fur
                          go to Oregon
      2)Why did settlers trappers. Known as
                         Mountain Men, the trappers
         Country?        made fortunes trapping
John Jacob Astor,        beavers.
a New Yorker,
      3)Do you think you would have Fur Trade
founded the            • By the late 1830‟s
                         was dying
American taken a wagon trail west out.
          Fur                       in the
Company &              • Americans moved West in
became the               search of cheap fertile land.
richest man in the
• Many settlers moving to Oregon Country &
  other western areas followed the 2,000 mile
  long Oregon Trail.
• The Trail followed Sweetwater rivers over the
  Plains and then across the Rocky Mountains
  where the trail split. The Northern Trail went to
  Oregon & the Southern Trail to California.
Aim: Why did many Americans settle in Texas?
Do Now: Texas handout
                         • Texas was part of
                           the Spanish colony
                           of Mexico
                         • Mexico won its
                           independence from
                         • Stephen Austin
                         & 300 families moved
                           to Texas &
                           thousands followed
• 1830 Mexico forbade
  anymore Americans to
  move to Texas b/c they
  feared the US wanted to
  make Texas a state.
• The US tried to buy Texas
• Mexico decided to make
  Texas obey Mexican laws:
-You had to be catholic
-Banned Slavery
-Mexican troops came North
  to enforce the laws
• 1833 Santa Anna came
  to power in Mexico &
  wanted all Americans to
  leave Texas.
• In 1835 Texas clashed
  w/Mexican troops. Two
  months later Texans
  took San Antonio
• While Santa Anna tried
  to regain San Antonio
  Texas declared
  independence on March
  2, 1836 & set up The
  Republic of Texas. Sam
  Houston was elected
  head of the Army.
• When Santa Anna arrived in San Antonio 200 Texans
  remained & refused to give up & set up in an old
  Spanish missionary called the Alamo.
• 6,000 Mexican troops tried to siege the Alamo in Feb.
• For 12 days, Texans held off Mexican troops.
  Mexicans stormed the fort & in the end 183 Texans &
  1500 Mexicans died.
• After the Alamo many Texans wanted revenge. Many
  volunteers joined Houston‟s army.
• Houston attacked
  Santa Anna in a
  surprise attack. As
  they charged the
  Texans yelled
  remember the
• The battle lasted
  only 18 minutes
• Texans captured
  Santa Anna & forced
  the general to sign a
  treaty granting Texas
• Texans wrote a Constitution based on the US &
  elected Sam Houston President.
1-Mexico refused to accept the treaty signed by Santa
  Anna. Saying Texas was still part of Mexico
2-Texas is bankrupt
• Most Texans thought the best way to solve their
  problems become part of the US
• Americans were not sure if they wanted to annex-add
  on Texas.
Aim: Why did many Americans support the idea of westward
Do Now: Locate on a map what present day states made up the
New Mexico Territory.
• The entire Southwest belonged to Mexico in the
• New Mexico Territory= present day Arizona, New
  Mexico, Nevada, Utah & parts of Colorado.
• In the Southwest the land is deserts & mountains.
• In the 1600s the Spanish built the city of
  Santa Fe & made it the Capital of the territory it grew
  to be a busy trading town. Americans were not
  allowed in Santa Fe until Mexico won its
• William Becknell was the first
 American to head for Santa Fe.
Other Americans came following
his route which became known
As the Santa Fe Trail.
• First ruled by Spain in 1542 by
  soldiers & priests built the first
  European settlements in
• The Spanish built 21 missions in
  California & converted the Native
  Americans to Christianity.
• Thousands of Native Americans
  dies from disease & being over
• The US tried to buy California
  from Mexico several times
• Americans believed
  they had the right &
  duty to spread its rule
  all the way to the
  Pacific Ocean=
  Manifest Destiny.
• Many Americans
  believed that they
  were superior to
  Native Americans &
  Mexicans & this
  justified them taking
  over their lands.
                Election of 1844

Henry Clay (Whig)         James K. Polk (Democrat)
•Opposed the annexation   •Favored Expansion
of Texas                  •Demanded that Texas &
                          Oregon be added to the US
                          •Polk demanded the whole
                          region of Oregon all the
                          way to its Northern border
                          at a latitude of 54 40.
• Polk took office in
  March 1845 &
  threatened war
  w/Britain to gain
  control of Oregon.
• In 1846 a
  compromise was
  reached Oregon
  was divided at 49
  „N. Britain got
  lands North of the
  line & the US got
  land South of the
• US Senators feared
  that annexing (adding
  on) Texas would
  cause a war with
• Sam Houston wanted
  Texas to be part of the
  US & pretended that
  Texas might become
  an ally of Britain.
• In 1845 Congress
  passed a resolution
  admitting Texas to the
Aim: What new lands were added to the US as
a result of the Mexican War?
Do Now: Read p. 360(blue text) p.355(red text)
in the text to answer the following question:
1) How did The US gain Oregon?
• Mexico had never
  accepted Texas           Problems   with Mexico
  independence & feared
  California & New Mexico
  would rebel & leave
• Polk offered Mexico $30
  million dollars for
  California & New Mexico.
  Mexico refused.
• Many Americans felt that
  Mexico stood in the way of
  Manifest Destiny.
• The US claimed that the
  Southern border of Texas
  was the Rio Grande R. but
  Mexico said it was the
  Nueces R.
• Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to cross
  the Nueces R. & set up posts in the disputed
• In April 1846, Mexican troops crashed the Rio
  Grande & Polk asked Congress to declare war
  on Mexico & they did- Mexican-American War
• Americans strategy for fighting the war was to
  attack several forts at the same time.
• In 1847, Taylor met Santa Anna at the battle of
  Buena Vista. In the battle Mexican troops
  greatly out numbered American troops but
  Americans were better armed & led.
Rebellion in   • Before the war
                 started North
 California      California rebelled
                 against Mexican rule
                 & called their new
                 nation the Bear Flag
               • Southern California
                 captured very
               • After America took
                 Mexico's capital so
                 they had to make
• Forced Mexico to cede (give
  up) all of California & New
  Mexico to the US. This land
  was called the Mexican
• US paid Mexico $ 15 million &
  agreed to respect all Spanish
  speaking people in the area.
• In 1853 America completed its
  expansion w/ the Gadsden
  Purchase- a strip of land in
  present day New Mexico &
* Manifest Destiny was complete
Aim: How did the discovery of gold affect life in
 You are a low-paid bank clerk in New England in early
 1849. Local newspapers headlines are shouting
 exciting news: “Gold is Discovered in California!
 Thousands Are on Their Way West.” You enjoy
 having a steady job. However, some of your friends
 are planning to go west, and you are being influenced
 by their excitement. Your friends are even buying
 pickaxes and other mining equipment. They urge you
 to go west with them.
Would you go west to seek your fortune in
 California? Why?
• In the 1830s & 1840‟s settlers who wanted to
  move to California started on the Oregon Trail
  in Idaho the trail split. People bound for
  California took the southern route- the
  California Trail across the Sierra Nevada
• Few Americans settlers in California many only
  went to trade.
• The Donner party was a group of western
  travelers who headed for California but were
  stranded in the Sierra Nevada Mountains during
  the winter.
• The largest group of
  settlers to move to the
  Mexican Cession were the
• The Mormon church was
  founded by Joseph Smith
  in 1830.
• His teaching made many
  people angry & he was
• Brigham Young became
  the new leader & decided
  that the Mormons should
  move West.
• In 1847, Young led them
  to Great Salt Lake valley,
  Utah. Thousands
• In 1848, John Sutter was
  building a sawmill on the
  American River for James
  Marshall. Marshall went to
  inspect the ditch when he
  accidentally discovered gold.
• In a few days, word of
  Sutter‟s Mill spread.
• More then 80,000 people
  made the long journey to
  California in 1849. They
  became known as the forty-
                   • The Gold Rush attracted
                     people from all over the
                   • Immigrants from China &
                     Europe joined both black
                     & white newcomers from
                     other parts of the US.
                   • The large population
                     growth led to many
•Some mining towns were wild, lawless places.
•Sometimes vigilantes- tried to keep order,
       California Becomes a State
• California realized that it needed a government
  to stop the lawlessness.
• 1849, they drafted a state Constitution.
• California was admitted to the Union in 1850 as
  a free state.

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