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Aim: How did settlers travel West in the early 1800‟s? Do Now: Go Over Test In the 1790‟s travel was difficult roads were mud tracks & very narrow trials • In the 1600s settlers began moving West (land between the Appalachians & the Mississippi). • Settlers took many routes West. Before long some Western territories had populations large enough to apply for statehood. • Kentucky 1792 • Ohio 1803 • Louisiana 1812 • Tennessee 1796 • Indiana 1816 • Mississippi 1817 • Illinois 1818 • Alabama 1819 • Private companies built roads to pay for the roads travelers had to pay tolls= turnpikes • Bridges carried travelers across streams & rivers. Stone bridges cost a lot but wooden bridges rotted quickly. • Whenever possible travelers used river transportation. • Robert Fulton invented the steamboat Clermont carried passengers from NYC to Albany in 62 hours Aim: How did the Erie Canal improve business? Do Now: On a map locate NYC, Buffalo, Lake Erie & the Erie Canal. • To get their goods directly to markets in the East, Western farmers dug canals. • A canal- is an artificial channel filled with water that allows boats to cross a stretch of land. • The earliest canals were only a few miles long. • New Yorkers wanted to build a canal linking the Great Lakes with the Mohawk & Hudson rivers. • The Erie Canal would let western farmers ship their goods to the port of New York. • Many people believed the idea was farfetched. • DeWitt Clinton- the Governor of NY persuaded state lawmakers to provide money for the Erie Canal. • Work on the Erie Canal began in 1817. At first, workers dug the waterway by hand. Inventors developed new equipment. • In 1825, the job was finished. The canal was an instant success. It reduced travel time, the cost of shipping & helped make NYC a center of commerce. Aim: How did the US and Britain settle their claims to Oregon Country? Do Now: Locate on a map the Oregon Country and the Oregon Trail. IF YOU were there… You live in Ohio 1840. A few months ago, you and your family heard stories about wonderful land in the Northwest, with sparkling rivers and fertile valleys. You all decide to pull up stakes and head West. You travel to Independence, Missouri, planning to join a wagon train on the Oregon Trail. In Missouri, you‟re surprised to find hundreds of other people planning to make the trip. What would you expect your journey West to be like??? • In the 1800‟s, four countries had claims to Oregon. The US, Britain, Spain & Russia. Questions: • In 1818 US & Britain reached an agreement. The two countries would 1)What trade first drew Americans both occupy Oregon. West? • The first white settlers in Oregon country were fur go to Oregon 2)Why did settlers trappers. Known as Mountain Men, the trappers Country? made fortunes trapping John Jacob Astor, beavers. a New Yorker, 3)Do you think you would have Fur Trade founded the • By the late 1830‟s was dying American taken a wagon trail west out. Fur in the Company & • Americans moved West in 1840‟s? became the search of cheap fertile land. richest man in the world • Many settlers moving to Oregon Country & other western areas followed the 2,000 mile long Oregon Trail. • The Trail followed Sweetwater rivers over the Plains and then across the Rocky Mountains where the trail split. The Northern Trail went to Oregon & the Southern Trail to California. Aim: Why did many Americans settle in Texas? Do Now: Texas handout • Texas was part of the Spanish colony of Mexico • Mexico won its independence from Spain. • Stephen Austin & 300 families moved to Texas & thousands followed • 1830 Mexico forbade anymore Americans to move to Texas b/c they feared the US wanted to make Texas a state. • The US tried to buy Texas twice • Mexico decided to make Texas obey Mexican laws: -You had to be catholic -Banned Slavery -Mexican troops came North to enforce the laws • 1833 Santa Anna came to power in Mexico & wanted all Americans to leave Texas. • In 1835 Texas clashed w/Mexican troops. Two months later Texans took San Antonio • While Santa Anna tried to regain San Antonio Texas declared independence on March 2, 1836 & set up The Republic of Texas. Sam Houston was elected head of the Army. • When Santa Anna arrived in San Antonio 200 Texans remained & refused to give up & set up in an old Spanish missionary called the Alamo. • 6,000 Mexican troops tried to siege the Alamo in Feb. 1836. • For 12 days, Texans held off Mexican troops. Mexicans stormed the fort & in the end 183 Texans & 1500 Mexicans died. • After the Alamo many Texans wanted revenge. Many volunteers joined Houston‟s army. • Houston attacked Santa Anna in a surprise attack. As they charged the Texans yelled remember the Alamo. • The battle lasted only 18 minutes • Texans captured Santa Anna & forced the general to sign a treaty granting Texas Independence. • Texans wrote a Constitution based on the US & elected Sam Houston President. Problems: 1-Mexico refused to accept the treaty signed by Santa Anna. Saying Texas was still part of Mexico 2-Texas is bankrupt • Most Texans thought the best way to solve their problems become part of the US • Americans were not sure if they wanted to annex-add on Texas. Aim: Why did many Americans support the idea of westward expansion? Do Now: Locate on a map what present day states made up the New Mexico Territory. • The entire Southwest belonged to Mexico in the 1840s. • New Mexico Territory= present day Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah & parts of Colorado. • In the Southwest the land is deserts & mountains. • In the 1600s the Spanish built the city of Santa Fe & made it the Capital of the territory it grew to be a busy trading town. Americans were not allowed in Santa Fe until Mexico won its Independence. • William Becknell was the first American to head for Santa Fe. Other Americans came following his route which became known As the Santa Fe Trail. • First ruled by Spain in 1542 by soldiers & priests built the first European settlements in California. • The Spanish built 21 missions in California & converted the Native Americans to Christianity. • Thousands of Native Americans dies from disease & being over worked. • The US tried to buy California from Mexico several times • Americans believed they had the right & duty to spread its rule all the way to the Pacific Ocean= Manifest Destiny. • Many Americans believed that they were superior to Native Americans & Mexicans & this justified them taking over their lands. Election of 1844 Henry Clay (Whig) James K. Polk (Democrat) •Opposed the annexation •Favored Expansion of Texas •Demanded that Texas & Oregon be added to the US •Polk demanded the whole region of Oregon all the way to its Northern border at a latitude of 54 40. • Polk took office in March 1845 & threatened war w/Britain to gain control of Oregon. • In 1846 a compromise was reached Oregon was divided at 49 „N. Britain got lands North of the line & the US got land South of the line • US Senators feared that annexing (adding on) Texas would cause a war with Mexico. • Sam Houston wanted Texas to be part of the US & pretended that Texas might become an ally of Britain. • In 1845 Congress passed a resolution admitting Texas to the Union. Aim: What new lands were added to the US as a result of the Mexican War? Do Now: Read p. 360(blue text) p.355(red text) in the text to answer the following question: 1) How did The US gain Oregon? • Mexico had never accepted Texas Problems with Mexico independence & feared California & New Mexico would rebel & leave Mexico. • Polk offered Mexico $30 million dollars for California & New Mexico. Mexico refused. • Many Americans felt that Mexico stood in the way of Manifest Destiny. • The US claimed that the Southern border of Texas was the Rio Grande R. but Mexico said it was the Nueces R. • Polk ordered General Zachary Taylor to cross the Nueces R. & set up posts in the disputed area. • In April 1846, Mexican troops crashed the Rio Grande & Polk asked Congress to declare war on Mexico & they did- Mexican-American War • Americans strategy for fighting the war was to attack several forts at the same time. • In 1847, Taylor met Santa Anna at the battle of Buena Vista. In the battle Mexican troops greatly out numbered American troops but Americans were better armed & led. Rebellion in • Before the war started North California California rebelled against Mexican rule & called their new nation the Bear Flag Republic • Southern California captured very quickly. • After America took Mexico's capital so they had to make peace. • Forced Mexico to cede (give up) all of California & New Mexico to the US. This land was called the Mexican Cession. • US paid Mexico $ 15 million & agreed to respect all Spanish speaking people in the area. • In 1853 America completed its expansion w/ the Gadsden Purchase- a strip of land in present day New Mexico & Arizona. * Manifest Destiny was complete Aim: How did the discovery of gold affect life in California Do Now: IF YOU WERE THERE… You are a low-paid bank clerk in New England in early 1849. Local newspapers headlines are shouting exciting news: “Gold is Discovered in California! Thousands Are on Their Way West.” You enjoy having a steady job. However, some of your friends are planning to go west, and you are being influenced by their excitement. Your friends are even buying pickaxes and other mining equipment. They urge you to go west with them. Would you go west to seek your fortune in California? Why? • In the 1830s & 1840‟s settlers who wanted to move to California started on the Oregon Trail in Idaho the trail split. People bound for California took the southern route- the California Trail across the Sierra Nevada mountains. • Few Americans settlers in California many only went to trade. • The Donner party was a group of western travelers who headed for California but were stranded in the Sierra Nevada Mountains during the winter. • The largest group of settlers to move to the Mexican Cession were the Mormons. • The Mormon church was founded by Joseph Smith in 1830. • His teaching made many people angry & he was killed. • Brigham Young became the new leader & decided that the Mormons should move West. • In 1847, Young led them to Great Salt Lake valley, Utah. Thousands followed. • In 1848, John Sutter was building a sawmill on the American River for James Marshall. Marshall went to inspect the ditch when he accidentally discovered gold. • In a few days, word of Sutter‟s Mill spread. • More then 80,000 people made the long journey to California in 1849. They became known as the forty- niners. • The Gold Rush attracted people from all over the world. • Immigrants from China & Europe joined both black & white newcomers from other parts of the US. • The large population growth led to many problems. •Some mining towns were wild, lawless places. •Sometimes vigilantes- tried to keep order, California Becomes a State • California realized that it needed a government to stop the lawlessness. • 1849, they drafted a state Constitution. • California was admitted to the Union in 1850 as a free state.
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