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					                                    PHRASE SUPPLEMENTAL EXERCISES

Prepositional Phrases- Adjective and Adverb

A. The following sentences contain adjective phrases. Identify each adjective phrase and the word it modifies.

1. The small Scandinavian animals in these photographs are called lemmings.

2. Ordinarily, lemmings lead peaceful, quiet lives, eating a diet of moss and roots.

3. Every few years, however, their population exceeds their food supply, and they ford streams and lakes, devouring
   everything in their path and leaving no trace of vegetation.

4. According to legend, when the lemmings reach the cliffs along the sea, they leap into the water and drown.

5. This pattern of behavior was puzzling because it contradicted the basic instinct for self-preservation.

6. Recently, scientific study of these animals has revealed that this lore about them is untrue and that most lemmings
   become victims of starvation or predators.


B. The following sentences contain adjective phrases. Identify each adjective phrase and the word it modifies

1. Duncan is sitting in his chair, eating a bowl of oatmeal.

2. I got the twins ready for bed.

3. In the classic Japanese movie The Seven Samurai, fierce professional warriors save a village from bandits.

4. Every rumor in the world has been started by somebody.

5. They were assembled on benches for the presentation.

6. Especially for the children, the mariachi band played “The Mexican Hat Dance.”

7. Fear sometimes springs from ignorance.

8. Is this outfit appropriate for a job interview?


C. Underline all the prepositional phrases in each sentence. Then tell whether each prepositional phrase is an ADJ or
ADV phrase and identify the words those phrases modify.

1. They come from Africa, and they are from the family of musical instruments called mbira.

2. About the size of a paperback book, these small mbiras, called kalimbas, are boxes made from smooth, warm-
   colored woods.

3. You pluck the steel keys with your thumbs to play melodies, which explains why the instrument is called a thumb
   box by some people.

4. Below the keys, there is a sound hole like the one on a guitar.

5. When one or more keys are plucked, the notes resonate inside the box.

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6. The kalimba sounds like a cross between a small xylophone, a music box, and a set of wind chimes.

7. Its size makes it easy to carry in a pocket or backpack, and it is simple to play.

8. Nearly everybody enjoys the soft, light sound, even if you hit a wrong note with both thumbs!

9. Instruments similar to the kalimbas were noted by Portuguese explorers in the sixteenth century along the African
    coast.
10. In 1586, Father Dos Santos, a Portuguese traveler, wrote that native mbira players pluck the keys lightly, “as a
    good player strikes those of a harpsichord,” producing “a sweet and gentle harmony of accordant sounds.”


D. Underline all the prepositional phrases in each sentence. Then tell whether each prepositional phrase is an ADJ or
ADV phrase and identify the words those phrases modify.

1. Both of the trolls lived under the bridge.

2. Some of the elves refused to help Santa make the toys.

3. Two of the baby dragon's claws stuck through the shell.

4. Many of the ogres had blood dribbling down their chins.

5. Most of the knights who had come to slay the ogres had been devoured.

6. Either of the fairies could have been the one of evil repute.

7. None of the children had been switched at birth.

8. Most of the mothers hoped so, at least.

9. However, one of the babies had little wings.

E. Underline all the prepositional phrases in each sentence. Then tell whether each prepositional phrase is an ADJ or
ADV phrase and identify the words those phrases modify.

1. The sorceress's bag of winds had been stolen by the sailor.

2. In the dark of the night the sailor sneaked away from the island.

3. The sailor opened the bag of winds.

4. One of the winds filled the sails.

5. Another of the winds blew open the sorceress's window.

6. A lamp of crystal fell and shattered, waking the sorceress.

7. The eyes of the sorceress's cat glowed red with anger.

8. The sorceress of unsurpassed kindness and power awoke.

9. The winds of the bag howled for the sorceress.
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10. Most of the winds returned to sorceress.

11. The one remaining wind blew the sailor far from the island.


F. Underline all the prepositional phrases in each sentence. Then tell whether each prepositional phrase is an ADJ or
ADV phrase and identify the words those phrases modify.

1. A drawer of the bureau opened, and the winds folded themselves into the drawer.

2. The sorceress waved her hand, and all of the pieces of crystal reassembled into a lamp.

3. The cat with its burning eyes leaped onto the window sill and meowed.

4. "Yes," said the sorceress of the island, "let's go for a ride; the night is so beautiful."

5. The two of them exited the room.

6. Both of the magical creatures passed through the long corridors.

7. The two of them entered a vast chamber.

8. On the floor of the chamber lay a vast carpet.

9. On the other side of the room were French doors; these the sorceress unlocked.

10. "Which of you wants to ride me?"

11. In answer, the cat of gleaming, black fur jumped onto the carpet

12. The sorceress in her billowing gown also settled herself on the carpet.

13. Both of you wish to go then?

14. Neither the sorceress of the island nor the cat of burning eyes answered.

15. Taking this as a yes, the carpet of magic soared into the starry night.

16. All of the stars brightened as the magic carpet flew past them.

17. Below the flying carpet, ships sailed on the sea.

18. The night of bright stars, pale moon, and glistening ocean waves was one of the most beautiful the sorceress or cat
had ever seen.

Participial Phrases and the Words They Modify

A. Each of the following sentences contains at least one participial phrase. Identify each participial phrase and the
word or words it modifies.

1. Known as Johnny Appleseed, John Chapman distributed apple seeds and saplings to families headed West.


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2. Needing a sustained wind for flight, the albatross rarely crosses the equator.

3. Forty adders coiled together can prevent heat loss.

4. The salmon, deriving the pink color of its flesh from its diet, feeds on shrimp-like crustaceans.

5. Having been aided by good weather and clear skies, the sailors rejoiced as they sailed into port.

6. Smiling broadly, our champion entered the hall.

7. Searching through old clothes in a trunk, John found a map showing the location of a treasure buried on the shore.

8. Sparta and Athens, putting aside their own rivalry, joined forces to fight the Persians.

9. Trained on an overhead trellis, a white rosebush growing in Tombstone, Arizona covers some 8,000 square feet.

10. I would love to see it bursting into bloom in the spring; it must be quite a sight!


B. Underline each participle phrase once and the word that it modifies twice.

1. Jun, whistling softly to herself, composed the rest of the lyrics.
2. Manchu, engrossed in the chemistry experiment, forgot what time it was.
3. Jumping into the air, the dog caught the stick.
4. Gary and Felix, tossing a football back and forth, talked about the upcoming game.
5. Straightening her jacket, the comedian walked onto the stage.
6. Riding through the park, the friendly cyclists greeted everyone.
7. Removing his shoes, Takao stepped into the living room.
8. Cara, checking her rear view mirror, noticed how closely the car was following her.

C. Identify each italicized phrase in the following sentences as a prepositional or a participial phrase. Then give the
word or words each phrase modifies. Do not separately identify a prepositional phrase that is part of a participial
phrase.

1. Speaking eloquently, Barbara Jordan enthralled the audience.

2. Nodding his head, the defendant admitted his guilt.

3. Encouraged by his family, he submitted his book of poems for publication.

4. Walking along the path, the explorers heard the birds singing in the trees.

5. Mahalia Jackson, called the greatest potential blues singer since Bessie Smith, would sing only religious songs.

6. Setting out in a thirty-one-foot ketch, Sharon Sites Adams, a woman from California, sailed across the Pacific
   alone.




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Gerunds and Gerund Phrases

A. Underline the gerund phrases in the following sentences. On the line after each sentence, identify how each phrase
is being used. Write s. for subject, p.n. for predicate nominative, d.o. for direct object, or o.p. for object of the prep..

            Example: Traveling to exotic places would be fun.                     s.

 1. The people on the Samoan island of Upolu in the South Pacific showed their hospitality to
    the magazine photographer by welcoming her warmly.                                                     1.

 2. The photographer’s job was taking pictures of the island’s scenery for a travel article.               2.

 3. She liked talking to the people about their remote South Pacific island.                               3.

 4. Swimming in the warm waters of Upolu is possible all year.                                             4.

 5. A popular entertainment on the island is torch dancing.                                                5.

 6. Tourists enjoy diving from the reef.                                                                   6.

 7. Almost one hundred years ago, writer Robert Louis Stevenson found paradise by sailing to
    the island of Upolu.                                                                                   7.

 8. Finding an island paradise is the dream of many writers.                                               8.

 9. After chartering a yacht, Robert Louis Stevenson set sail in search of his dream island.               9.

    Flying to Apia, the capital of Western Samoa, is the fastest and simplest way to reach this
10. dream island today.                                                                                   10.

11. Driving over Cross Island Road takes you from one coast to the other.                                 11.

12. Moving from Los Angeles to Polynesia must be a big change.                                            12.

13. Losing your job might cause you to make such a move.                                                  13.

14. A way to honor the local leaders is by taking a Samoan name.                                          14.

15. I don’t know if I’d like moving to Samoa, but I’d vacation there if I could afford it.                15.


B. Create ten sentences that use the gerund phrases below.
        Sample:          throwing the javelin
                         Throwing the javelin was the second field event on the schedule.

 1. putting on my running shoes
     ____________________________________________________________________________________________

 2. pole-vaulting at the track meet
     ____________________________________________________________________________________________



                                                                                                                        5
 3. pushing off from the starting block
     ____________________________________________________________________________________________


 4. firing the starting gun
     ____________________________________________________________________________________________


 5. passing the baton
     ____________________________________________________________________________________________


 6. running a marathon
     ____________________________________________________________________________________________


 7. crossing the finish line
     ____________________________________________________________________________________________


 8. lying on the grass to rest.
     ____________________________________________________________________________________________


 9. landing in the sandpit
     ____________________________________________________________________________________________


10. cheering for the athletes
     ___________________________________________________________________________________________


Identifying Participial Phrases and Gerund Phrases

A. Identify phrase in each of the following sentences as a participial phrase or a gerund phrase.

1. The sudden shattering of glass broke the silence.

2. She enjoys hiking in the mountains occasionally.

3. Eli’s dancing won him first prize in the contest.

4. Seeking to test the supposedly ferocious nature of the killer whale, scientists studied the whales’ behavior.

5. In face, scientists working with killer whales have confirmed that their charges are intelligent and can be quite
   gentle.

6. At first, we enjoyed walking in the dark forest.

7. I heard him whispering to a friend.

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8. We watched the storm blowing eastward.

9. Reading the classics will increase your vocabulary.

10. Her singing has greatly improved since last year.


B. Identify phrase in each of the following sentences as a participial phrase or a gerund phrase.

1. Mary Shelley wrote Frankenstein after having a nightmare about a scientist and his strange experiments.

2. Dr. Mae Jemison became an astronaut by placing among the best fifteen candidates out of two thousand applicants.

3. Beginning with Pippi Longstocking, Astrid Lindgren has written a whole series of stories for children.

4. Marian Anderson was the first African American employed as a member of the Metropolitan Opera.

5. Fighting for women’s suffrage was Carrie Chapman Catt’s mission in life.

6. Appointed principal of the Mason City Iowa High School in 1881, Catt became the city’s first female
   superintendent.

7. The Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution, adopted in 1920, was largely the result of Catt’s efforts.

8. Mildred “Babe” Didrikson, entering the 1932 Olympics as a relatively obscure athlete, won gold and silver medals.

9. Working for Life throughout her long career, Margaret Bourke-White was the first female war photographer.

10. Phyllis McGinley, a famous writer of light verse, began publishing her work while she was still in college.


Infinitives and Infinitive Phrases

A. Identify the infinitive phrase in each of the following sentences. Then tell whether it is used as a noun, an adjective,
or an adverb. If it is used as a noun, indicate whether it is a subject or predicate nominative.

1. To finish early is our plan.

2. Julia wants to go to the beach with us on Saturday.

3. The sergeant commanded them to march faster.

4. Napoleon’s plan to conquer Europe failed.

5. Because of his sprained ankle, Matt was unable to play in the football game.

6. The director asked Rebecca to star in the play.

7. Because she had contracted laryngitis, Gabriella was unable to speak a single word.

8. Grabbing a dry erase marker, Alex began to write his name on the whiteboard.

9. To land an American on the moon became the national goal of the United States during the 1960s.

10. One of the worst chores is to clean my room.
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B. Identify the infinitive phrase in each of the following sentences. Then tell whether it is used as a noun, an adjective,
or an adverb. If it is used as a noun, indicate whether it is a subject or predicate nominative.

1. To discover such a thing must be wonderful!

2. The alternator belt has started to whine during acceleration.

3. I just called to say hello.

4. Do you want to play the inning or watch from the bench?

5. Was this essay written to persuade readers, to entertain them, or to describe an event?

6. The buds on these trees look ready to sprout into leaves.

7. The children laughed to see the baby goats’ antics.

8. It was easy to find the problem’s solution.

9. My aunt always tells me, “It is better to begin the journey than put it off.”

10. The water has begun to boil vigorously, so it’s time to start the spaghetti.


C. Identify the infinitive phrase in each of the following sentences. Then tell whether it is used as a noun, an adjective,
or an adverb. If it is used as a noun, indicate whether it is a subject or PN.

1. Ryan expects to return from vacation on the third.

2. Gia left the house to take a long walk.

3. To send the healthiest member of the group on for help looked like their only solution.

4. You are the fourth person to call with the right answer to our radio quiz.

5. How many people will we need to carry the couch upstairs?

6. The bulbs to use in the front garden are lost somewhere in the garage.

7. The committee chose to hold the 10K race the second weekend in May.

8. Some people, for example, my little brother, will do anything to get attention.

9. The ceremony to honor the former governor will be held this afternoon, however threatening the skies appear.

10. All I want is to eat lunch in peace!


D. Decide if the word “to” in each sentence below is part of an infinitive phrase or a prepositional phrase. Be sure to
underline the infinitive or prepositional phrase

1. To be presented at court is an honor.

2. When the boats were due back, we ran down to the pier.

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3. There was nothing left for us to do.

4. Evan was trying to help me with chemistry.

5. Mr. McGraw gave the manuscript to the new editor.

6. My uncle wanted to show me his new picture.

7. To see an original painting by Degas is a joy.

8. He traveled by ship to Australia and Asia.

9. Langston Hughes went around the country and spoke to largely African-American audiences.

10. Ashley was asked to sing louder.


Appositives and Appositive Phrases

A. Identify the appositive phrase in each of the following sentences.

1. Rebecca, a flawless ice skater, has a chance of winning the championship.

2. Sue dawdled over her breakfast, a bowl of yogurt with bananas and raisins.

3. The Sorcerer’s Apprentice, probably Paul Dukas’ most familiar work, is on the program this Saturday.

4. Have you ever heard the tenor, Luciano Pavarotti, sing?

5. Frederick Remington, the painter and sculptor, was inspired by the American West.

6. The writer F. Scott Fitzgerald has given us many stories of the Jazz Age.

7. Mom finally called for service for the refrigerator, the noisiest appliance in the house.

8. Even Veronica, the best student in the class, barely passed that last test.

9. Our new neighbors, the Kellys, invited us for dinner Saturday.

10. Ben Franklin, the inventor, also authored The Farmer’s Almanac.


B. Identify the appositive phrase in each of the following sentences.

1. Woodrow Wilson, the U.S. President during World War I, tried with his Fourteen Points to prevent another war.

2. Mauna Loa, a volcano rising six miles from the floor of the ocean, is a sight to behold.

3. A woman of rare determination, Susan Butcher raises her own dogs.

4. The Kenai Peninsula is the home of the Alaska moose, the largest deer in the world.

5. Travelers should give particularly careful thought to walking shoes, the most important item of apparel on any
   sightseeing trip.

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6. The emu, a flightless bird from Australia, is similar to the ostrich.

7. The United States, a true “melting pot,” has been greatly enriched by many diverse cultures.

8. Cancun, a city in Mexico, is a popular travel destination.

9. Before signing the book contract, Carlos showed it to his friend, Molly.

10. The amusement park’s prize attraction, “The Twister,” was a scary rollercoaster.


C. Identify the appositive or appositive phrase in each of the following sentences.

1. The American author Henry David Thoreau lived for a time at Walden Pond.

2. Paula wrote about Edgar Allan Poe, the American poet and short-story writer.

3. John Steinbeck, author of The Grapes of Wrath, was raised in California.

4. “God Bless America” was written by the prolific and patriotic composer Irving Berlin.

5. Nathaniel Hawthorne and his friends began their own community, Brook Farm.

6. Will Rogers, a humorist and philosopher, was originally a cowboy.

7. American poet Theodore Roethke received a Pulitzer Prize in 1954.

8. Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin describes slavery in the years before the American Civil War.


B. Rewrite each sentence, adding an appositive to the noun of your choice. Use commas if necessary.

1. My friend wrote a letter to the editor of a newspaper.
____________________________________________________________________________
2. The secretary circulated the notice to the members of the club.
____________________________________________________________________________
3. Does the clerk know the price of that book?
____________________________________________________________________________
4. His brother composed a poem for the literary magazine of his school.
____________________________________________________________________________
5. Edgar Allan Poe wrote poems, essays, and short stories.
____________________________________________________________________________




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