1970-1990 Conflict - Waverly-Shell Rock Community Schools

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					            Unit VI- U.S. Cultural History
                1970’s, 80’s and 90’s
                  Chapter 36
               Sections 1, 2 and 3

       National World War II Memorial
 That generation who brought us through the Great
    Depression then on the very heels of one calamity,
    the bloodiest war in our nation`s history, truly they
    were our greatest generation. The National World
    War II Memorial, the first national memorial
    dedicated to all who served during World War II,
    will honor all military veterans of the war as well as
    the citizens on the home front, the nation at large,
    and the high moral purpose and idealism that
    motivated the nation's call to arms. It was a war of
    such scope and high importance, as Gore Vidal
    called it -- The Good War.
 The World War II Memorial will be located on the
    National Mall in Washington, D.C. at the Rainbow
    Pool site at the east end of the Reflecting Pool. This
    is between the Lincoln Memorial and the
    Washington Monument, and is a prominent
    location that is commensurate with the historical
    importance and lasting significance of World War
      II to America and the world.
                Korean War Veterans Memorial
•     From 1950 to 1953, the United States joined with
      United Nations forces in Korea to take a stand
      against what was deemed a threat to democratic
      nations worldwide. At war's end, a million and a
      half American veterans returned to a peacetime
      world of families, homes, and jobs - and to a
      country long reluctant to view the Korean War as
      something to memorialize. But to the men and
      women who served, the Korean War could never
      be a forgotten war.
•     The passing of more than four decades has
      brought a new perspective to the war and its
      aftermath. The time has come, in the eyes of the
      Nation, to set aside a place of remembrance for
      the people who served in this hard-fought war
      half a world away. The Korean War Veterans
      Memorial honors those Americans who answered
      the call, those who worked and fought under the
      trying of circumstances, and those who gave their
      lives for the cause of freedom.
             Korean War Veterans Memorial
As you approach the memorial, the first things you see are the
    nineteen soldiers on patrol heading up hill. The use of
    Juniper bushes in the field is to show the rugged terrain
    they met. The ponchos that each is wearing can only give
    you a hint as to the miserable weather they faced. The
    soldiers at the front of the patrol represent the first
    soldiers sent to the Korean peninsula. Many of the first
    soldiers were ill equipped and ill trained yet they
    persevered. American soldiers faced foul weather, rugged
    terrain, poor equipment, not to mention 54 divisions of
    communist Chinese soldiers but in the end they were able
    to overcome all these obstacles.
The soldiers represent a unit on patrol. There is much to see in
    the field, most of which is not readily apparent to the
    average visitor. The original design of the memorial was to
    have 38 statues to represent the 38th parallel. Most of the
    fighting occurred along this line but due to space
    limitations the number of statues had to be cut in half.
The highly polished surface of the wall of faces reflects all
    nineteen soldiers producing a total thirty-eight figures. It is
    not just the Army represented in the field. All four
    branches of the United States Military have

            Korean War Veterans Memorial
                   If you look in to the faces of the soldiers you will notice that they
                        represent all different races. Even though the United States had
                        a very segregated society, the armed forces had begun to
                        integrate units. Visitors to the memorial are so awe struck by
                        the soldiers, that before they know it they have missed the other
                        parts of the memorial. Along the north side of the memorial is a
                        low stone wall, on which are engraved the 22 countries that
                        made up the United Nations forces in Korea. Not all the nations
                        participated militarily. Several contributed much needed
                        medical supplies and personnel. These 22 nations felt strongly
                        that their freedom was also being threatened, and was willing to
                        help in whatever way they could.
                   Along the south side of the memorial is the wall of faces. When the
                       wall is viewed from a distance, the faces form the outline of the
                       rugged hills that are a dominant part of the Korean landscape.
                       The images depicted on the wall were taken from actual
                       photographs of soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen who
                       participated in the conflict. The faces along the wall represent
                       the support troops it took to keep our foot soldier in the field.
                       We do not often think about those who are behind the front
                       lines. It is somewhat ironic that one of the best-known TV
                       shows about war, MASH, takes place in Korea and is about
                       doctors and nurses in the Korean War.
            Vietnam Veterans Memorial
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial
consists of three main elements.
The Wall, the first part of the
memorial to be erected, was
dedicated November 13, 1982.
Today 58,235 names are
inscribed on the wall. The wall
includes the names of deceased
and missing. The goal of the
memorial was to allow all people
to reflect on the price of war and
to honor those who served.

            Three Servicemen Statue and
            Vietnam Women’s Memorial
    • Some initial reaction to the Wall
      included opinions that it did not
      appropriately honor the veterans
      of Vietnam. As result of this
      debate a compromise was
      reached and in the fall of 1984,
      the Three Servicemen Statue, by
      Fredrick Hart, was placed near
      the wall. The Vietnam Women's
      Memorial rounds out the
      memorial. Designed by Glenna
      Goodacre, the statue honors all
      women who served in Vietnam.
      The Women's Memorial was
      dedicated Veterans Day, 1993.

                                      Nuclear Disaster
        •   In the early morning hours of 26 April 1986, a
            testing error caused an explosion at the
            Chernobyl nuclear power station in northern
            Ukraine. During a radioactive fire that burned
            for 10 days, 190 tons of toxic materials were
            expelled into the atmosphere. The wind blew
            70% of the radioactive material into the
            neighboring country of Belarus.

            Almost 20 years later, the people of Belarus
            continue to suffer medically, economically,
            environmentally and socially from the effects of
            the disaster. These are the facts:

            The Accident
            * The Chernobyl power plant is located on the
            border area between Ukraine and Belarus.

            * The explosion of the reactor at Chernobyl
            released 100 times more radiation than the atom
            bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (1)

            * At the time of the accident, about 7 million
            people lived in contaminated territories,
            including 3 million children.

            * About 5.5 million people - including more than
            a million children - continue to live in
            contaminated zones. (2)Thyroid cancer,
            Leukemia, Childhood diseases, Cancers, Birth
10/4/2011   Defects, Genetic mutations and Heart disease.
                Space Shuttle Program and Challenger
• Missions:
•    STS-1 4/12/81 - 4/14/81
     Shuttle: Columbia
     First Voyage into Space
     The first space shuttle mission was designed to test the
     vehicle by sending it to orbit and landing safely. The
     mission was a success, and started a new era in the
     U.S. space program.
•    11/12/81 - 11/14/81
     Shuttle: Columbia
     First Scientific Payload
     The second shuttle mission was the first to carry a
     scientific payload, a number of Earth sensing devices.
     It was also the first time the Remote Manipulator
     Arm (seen in the photo) was successfully used.
•    STS-7      6/18/83-6/24/83
     Shuttle: Challenger
     First U.S. Woman in Space
     Sally Ride (pictured) became the first American
     woman to fly in space. This was also the first shuttle
     mission to fly with a five-person crew.                    John   Glenn
      • 1/28/86
         Shuttle: Challenger
         The Challenger Tragedy
         Tragedy struck when the Challenger shuttle
         exploded 73 seconds after liftoff. The explosion
         claimed the lives of the entire seven-person crew,
         including Christa McAulliffe, who would have been
         the first teacher in space. The explosion was later
         determined to be caused by an O-ring failure in the
         right solid booster rocket. The accident forced an
         immediate suspension of the shuttle program.

      • 2/1/03
         Shuttle: Columbia
         Lost: Space Shuttle Columbia
         Minutes before touching down in Florida, the shuttle
         Columbia broke apart some 200,000 feet over Texas,
         killing all seven onboard, including the first Israeli
         astronaut. The oldest orbiter in the fleet, Columbia
         had just completed an extra-long 16-day science

10/4/2011 mission.
            Terrorism- 1980’s - 2000
                            • Lebanon-
                               – American kidnapped
                               – Hijackings
                            • Achille Lauro
                               – Palestinian terrorists- PLA
                                 and Abu Abbas
                               – Leon Klinghoffer
                            • Bombs in Airports
                               – Vienna and Rome
                            • Libya and Qaddafi
                               – U.S. Fleet and Gulf of
                               – Libya fires missiles
                               – U.S. Attacks.
                 The National Strategy for Homeland
            Security and the Homeland Security Act of
            2002 served to mobilize and organize our
            nation to secure the homeland from terrorist

       • Critical Mission Areas
             – Intelligence and warning
             – Border and Transportation Security
             – Domestic Counterterrorism
             – Protecting Critical Infrastructures and
               Key Assets.
             – Defending against Catastrophic Threats.
             – Emergency Preparedness and Response.
            Dept. of Homeland Security
       Strategic Goals
       •    Awareness -- Identify and understand threats, assess vulnerabilities, determine
            potential impacts and disseminate timely information to our homeland security
            partners and the American public.
       •    Prevention -- Detect, deter and mitigate threats to our homeland.
       •    Protection -- Safeguard our people and their freedoms, critical infrastructure, property
            and the economy of our Nation from acts of terrorism, natural disasters, or other
       •    Response -- Lead, manage and coordinate the national response to acts of terrorism,
            natural disasters, or other emergencies.
       •    Recovery -- Lead national, state, local and private sector efforts to restore services and
            rebuild communities after acts of terrorism, natural disasters, or other emergencies.
       •    Service -- Serve the public effectively by facilitating lawful trade, travel and
       •    Organizational Excellence -- Value our most important resource, our people. Create a
            culture that promotes a common identity, innovation, mutual respect, accountability
            and teamwork to achieve efficiencies, effectiveness, and operational synergies.
                  U.S. National Debt
      “The United States debt, foreign and domestic, was the price of
      liberty. The faith of America has been repeatedly pledged for it ...
      Among ourselves, the most enlightened friends of good
      are those whose expectations of prompt payment are the highest.
      To justify and preserve their confidence; to promote the
      respectability of the American name; to answer the calls of justice;
      to restore landed property to its due value; to furnish new
      resources, both to agriculture and commerce; to cement more
      closely the Union of the States; to add to their security against
      foreign attack; to establish public order on the basis of an upright
      and liberal policy; these are the great and invaluable ends to be
      secured by a proper and adequate provision, at the present
                      U.S. National Debt
               The mission of Public Debt is to borrow the money needed
                 to operate the Federal Government and to account for
                 the resulting debt.
                   Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution empowers the
              Congress to borrow money on the credit of the United
              States. This authority has been delegated to the Secretary
              of the Treasury. As an organizational entity within
              Treasury's Fiscal Service, the Bureau of the Public Debt is
              authorized to conduct such borrowing for the Federal

             U.S. National Debt

        • The estimated population of the United
          States is 296,172,570
        • Each citizen's share of this outstanding
          public debt is $26,261.69.
        • The National Debt has continued to
          increase an average of $1.68 billion
          per day since September 30, 2004!
            U.S. National Debt
             History of the   Amount- $
             National Debt
             05/18/2004       7,183,392,668,476.95
             09/30/2000       5,674,178,209,886.86
             09/30/1999       5,656,270,901,615.43
             09/30/1998       5,526,193,008,897.62
             09/30/1997       5,413,146,011,397.34
             09/30/1996       5,224,810,939,135.73
             09/29/1995       4,973,982,900,709.39
             09/30/1994       4,692,749,910,013.32
             09/30/1993       4,411,488,883,139.38
             09/30/1992       4,064,620,655,521.66
             09/30/1991       3,665,303,351,697.03
             09/28/1990       3,233,313,451,777.25
             12/31/1980       $930,210,000,000.00
             12/31/1970       $389,158,403,690.26
             12/30/1960       $290,216,815,241.68
             06/30/1950       $257,357,352,351.04

            Disinformation + New Tax Law
            • Disinformation             • 1986- Tax Reform
              Program                      Act
              – Planted untrue stories     – Big cut in tax rates
                about Libyan leader        – 2 brackets replace 14
                Muammar el-Qaddafi           brackets.
              – Aim was for Libyan         – 60% of taxpayers would
                people to over throw         pay less and
                Qaddafi.                     corporation pay more.
                                           – Freed 6 million people
              – “Faith in the word of        with lowest incomes
                America?”                    from having to pay any
                                             income tax.

            Iranscam- Iran-Contra Affair
            • Nicaragua and Boland
            • CIA
            • Reagan- “No deals with
            • Sale of Arms to Iran- by
            • Enterprise and Lt. Col.
              Oliver North.
            • Money in Swiss bank
            • Money and arms to
            • Presidential deniability.
            Reagan and the Supreme Court
            •   Sandra Day O’Connor- 1st
                woman supreme court
                justice. Consevative
            •   William Rehnquist- new
                Supreme Court Chief Justice.
            •   Antonin Scalia- conservative
            •   Robert Bork- conservative-
                defeated- too conservative
                and insensitive to minorities.
            •   Douglas Ginsberg- rejected-
                smoked marijuana in college.
            •   Anthony M. Kennedy-
                moderate and conservative-
                confirmed without a hitch.

            Creation Science
            • Edwards v. Aguillard 1987
                    Louisiana's "Creationism Act" forbids the teaching of the
              theory of evolution in public elementary and secondary schools
              unless accompanied by instruction in the theory of "creation
              science." The Act does not require the teaching of either theory
              unless the other is taught. It defines the theories as "the scientific
              evidences for [creation or evolution] and inferences from those
              scientific evidences." Appellees, who include Louisiana parents,
              teachers, and religious leaders, challenged the Act's
              constitutionality in Federal District Court, seeking an injunction
              and declaratory relief. The District Court granted summary
              judgment to appellees, who include parents of children attending
              Louisiana public schools, Louisiana teachers, and religious
              leaders, holding that the Act violated the Establishment Clause
              of the First Amendment. The Court of Appeals affirmed. In a
              vote of 7-2 the Supreme Court also affirmed the Court of
              Appeals Judgement.

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