Unit VI- U.S. Cultural History
1970’s, 80’s and 90’s
Sections 1, 2 and 3
National World War II Memorial
That generation who brought us through the Great
Depression then on the very heels of one calamity,
the bloodiest war in our nation`s history, truly they
were our greatest generation. The National World
War II Memorial, the first national memorial
dedicated to all who served during World War II,
will honor all military veterans of the war as well as
the citizens on the home front, the nation at large,
and the high moral purpose and idealism that
motivated the nation's call to arms. It was a war of
such scope and high importance, as Gore Vidal
called it -- The Good War.
The World War II Memorial will be located on the
National Mall in Washington, D.C. at the Rainbow
Pool site at the east end of the Reflecting Pool. This
is between the Lincoln Memorial and the
Washington Monument, and is a prominent
location that is commensurate with the historical
importance and lasting significance of World War
II to America and the world.
Korean War Veterans Memorial
• From 1950 to 1953, the United States joined with
United Nations forces in Korea to take a stand
against what was deemed a threat to democratic
nations worldwide. At war's end, a million and a
half American veterans returned to a peacetime
world of families, homes, and jobs - and to a
country long reluctant to view the Korean War as
something to memorialize. But to the men and
women who served, the Korean War could never
be a forgotten war.
• The passing of more than four decades has
brought a new perspective to the war and its
aftermath. The time has come, in the eyes of the
Nation, to set aside a place of remembrance for
the people who served in this hard-fought war
half a world away. The Korean War Veterans
Memorial honors those Americans who answered
the call, those who worked and fought under the
trying of circumstances, and those who gave their
lives for the cause of freedom.
Korean War Veterans Memorial
As you approach the memorial, the first things you see are the
nineteen soldiers on patrol heading up hill. The use of
Juniper bushes in the field is to show the rugged terrain
they met. The ponchos that each is wearing can only give
you a hint as to the miserable weather they faced. The
soldiers at the front of the patrol represent the first
soldiers sent to the Korean peninsula. Many of the first
soldiers were ill equipped and ill trained yet they
persevered. American soldiers faced foul weather, rugged
terrain, poor equipment, not to mention 54 divisions of
communist Chinese soldiers but in the end they were able
to overcome all these obstacles.
The soldiers represent a unit on patrol. There is much to see in
the field, most of which is not readily apparent to the
average visitor. The original design of the memorial was to
have 38 statues to represent the 38th parallel. Most of the
fighting occurred along this line but due to space
limitations the number of statues had to be cut in half.
The highly polished surface of the wall of faces reflects all
nineteen soldiers producing a total thirty-eight figures. It is
not just the Army represented in the field. All four
branches of the United States Military have
Korean War Veterans Memorial
If you look in to the faces of the soldiers you will notice that they
represent all different races. Even though the United States had
a very segregated society, the armed forces had begun to
integrate units. Visitors to the memorial are so awe struck by
the soldiers, that before they know it they have missed the other
parts of the memorial. Along the north side of the memorial is a
low stone wall, on which are engraved the 22 countries that
made up the United Nations forces in Korea. Not all the nations
participated militarily. Several contributed much needed
medical supplies and personnel. These 22 nations felt strongly
that their freedom was also being threatened, and was willing to
help in whatever way they could.
Along the south side of the memorial is the wall of faces. When the
wall is viewed from a distance, the faces form the outline of the
rugged hills that are a dominant part of the Korean landscape.
The images depicted on the wall were taken from actual
photographs of soldiers, sailors, marines and airmen who
participated in the conflict. The faces along the wall represent
the support troops it took to keep our foot soldier in the field.
We do not often think about those who are behind the front
lines. It is somewhat ironic that one of the best-known TV
shows about war, MASH, takes place in Korea and is about
doctors and nurses in the Korean War.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial
The Vietnam Veterans Memorial
consists of three main elements.
The Wall, the first part of the
memorial to be erected, was
dedicated November 13, 1982.
Today 58,235 names are
inscribed on the wall. The wall
includes the names of deceased
and missing. The goal of the
memorial was to allow all people
to reflect on the price of war and
to honor those who served.
Three Servicemen Statue and
Vietnam Women’s Memorial
• Some initial reaction to the Wall
included opinions that it did not
appropriately honor the veterans
of Vietnam. As result of this
debate a compromise was
reached and in the fall of 1984,
the Three Servicemen Statue, by
Fredrick Hart, was placed near
the wall. The Vietnam Women's
Memorial rounds out the
memorial. Designed by Glenna
Goodacre, the statue honors all
women who served in Vietnam.
The Women's Memorial was
dedicated Veterans Day, 1993.
• In the early morning hours of 26 April 1986, a
testing error caused an explosion at the
Chernobyl nuclear power station in northern
Ukraine. During a radioactive fire that burned
for 10 days, 190 tons of toxic materials were
expelled into the atmosphere. The wind blew
70% of the radioactive material into the
neighboring country of Belarus.
Almost 20 years later, the people of Belarus
continue to suffer medically, economically,
environmentally and socially from the effects of
the disaster. These are the facts:
* The Chernobyl power plant is located on the
border area between Ukraine and Belarus.
* The explosion of the reactor at Chernobyl
released 100 times more radiation than the atom
bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (1)
* At the time of the accident, about 7 million
people lived in contaminated territories,
including 3 million children.
* About 5.5 million people - including more than
a million children - continue to live in
contaminated zones. (2)Thyroid cancer,
Leukemia, Childhood diseases, Cancers, Birth
10/4/2011 Defects, Genetic mutations and Heart disease.
Space Shuttle Program and Challenger
• STS-1 4/12/81 - 4/14/81
First Voyage into Space
The first space shuttle mission was designed to test the
vehicle by sending it to orbit and landing safely. The
mission was a success, and started a new era in the
U.S. space program.
• 11/12/81 - 11/14/81
First Scientific Payload
The second shuttle mission was the first to carry a
scientific payload, a number of Earth sensing devices.
It was also the first time the Remote Manipulator
Arm (seen in the photo) was successfully used.
• STS-7 6/18/83-6/24/83
First U.S. Woman in Space
Sally Ride (pictured) became the first American
woman to fly in space. This was also the first shuttle
mission to fly with a five-person crew. John Glenn
The Challenger Tragedy
Tragedy struck when the Challenger shuttle
exploded 73 seconds after liftoff. The explosion
claimed the lives of the entire seven-person crew,
including Christa McAulliffe, who would have been
the first teacher in space. The explosion was later
determined to be caused by an O-ring failure in the
right solid booster rocket. The accident forced an
immediate suspension of the shuttle program.
Lost: Space Shuttle Columbia
Minutes before touching down in Florida, the shuttle
Columbia broke apart some 200,000 feet over Texas,
killing all seven onboard, including the first Israeli
astronaut. The oldest orbiter in the fleet, Columbia
had just completed an extra-long 16-day science
Terrorism- 1980’s - 2000
– American kidnapped
• Achille Lauro
– Palestinian terrorists- PLA
and Abu Abbas
– Leon Klinghoffer
• Bombs in Airports
– Vienna and Rome
• Libya and Qaddafi
– U.S. Fleet and Gulf of
– Libya fires missiles
– U.S. Attacks.
The National Strategy for Homeland
Security and the Homeland Security Act of
2002 served to mobilize and organize our
nation to secure the homeland from terrorist
• Critical Mission Areas
– Intelligence and warning
– Border and Transportation Security
– Domestic Counterterrorism
– Protecting Critical Infrastructures and
– Defending against Catastrophic Threats.
– Emergency Preparedness and Response.
Dept. of Homeland Security
• Awareness -- Identify and understand threats, assess vulnerabilities, determine
potential impacts and disseminate timely information to our homeland security
partners and the American public.
• Prevention -- Detect, deter and mitigate threats to our homeland.
• Protection -- Safeguard our people and their freedoms, critical infrastructure, property
and the economy of our Nation from acts of terrorism, natural disasters, or other
• Response -- Lead, manage and coordinate the national response to acts of terrorism,
natural disasters, or other emergencies.
• Recovery -- Lead national, state, local and private sector efforts to restore services and
rebuild communities after acts of terrorism, natural disasters, or other emergencies.
• Service -- Serve the public effectively by facilitating lawful trade, travel and
• Organizational Excellence -- Value our most important resource, our people. Create a
culture that promotes a common identity, innovation, mutual respect, accountability
and teamwork to achieve efficiencies, effectiveness, and operational synergies.
U.S. National Debt
“The United States debt, foreign and domestic, was the price of
liberty. The faith of America has been repeatedly pledged for it ...
Among ourselves, the most enlightened friends of good
are those whose expectations of prompt payment are the highest.
To justify and preserve their confidence; to promote the
respectability of the American name; to answer the calls of justice;
to restore landed property to its due value; to furnish new
resources, both to agriculture and commerce; to cement more
closely the Union of the States; to add to their security against
foreign attack; to establish public order on the basis of an upright
and liberal policy; these are the great and invaluable ends to be
secured by a proper and adequate provision, at the present
U.S. National Debt
The mission of Public Debt is to borrow the money needed
to operate the Federal Government and to account for
the resulting debt.
Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution empowers the
Congress to borrow money on the credit of the United
States. This authority has been delegated to the Secretary
of the Treasury. As an organizational entity within
Treasury's Fiscal Service, the Bureau of the Public Debt is
authorized to conduct such borrowing for the Federal
U.S. National Debt
• The estimated population of the United
States is 296,172,570
• Each citizen's share of this outstanding
public debt is $26,261.69.
• The National Debt has continued to
increase an average of $1.68 billion
per day since September 30, 2004!
U.S. National Debt
History of the Amount- $
Disinformation + New Tax Law
• Disinformation • 1986- Tax Reform
– Planted untrue stories – Big cut in tax rates
about Libyan leader – 2 brackets replace 14
Muammar el-Qaddafi brackets.
– Aim was for Libyan – 60% of taxpayers would
people to over throw pay less and
Qaddafi. corporation pay more.
– Freed 6 million people
– “Faith in the word of with lowest incomes
America?” from having to pay any
Iranscam- Iran-Contra Affair
• Nicaragua and Boland
• Reagan- “No deals with
• Sale of Arms to Iran- by
• Enterprise and Lt. Col.
• Money in Swiss bank
• Money and arms to
• Presidential deniability.
Reagan and the Supreme Court
• Sandra Day O’Connor- 1st
woman supreme court
• William Rehnquist- new
Supreme Court Chief Justice.
• Antonin Scalia- conservative
• Robert Bork- conservative-
defeated- too conservative
and insensitive to minorities.
• Douglas Ginsberg- rejected-
smoked marijuana in college.
• Anthony M. Kennedy-
moderate and conservative-
confirmed without a hitch.
• Edwards v. Aguillard 1987
Louisiana's "Creationism Act" forbids the teaching of the
theory of evolution in public elementary and secondary schools
unless accompanied by instruction in the theory of "creation
science." The Act does not require the teaching of either theory
unless the other is taught. It defines the theories as "the scientific
evidences for [creation or evolution] and inferences from those
scientific evidences." Appellees, who include Louisiana parents,
teachers, and religious leaders, challenged the Act's
constitutionality in Federal District Court, seeking an injunction
and declaratory relief. The District Court granted summary
judgment to appellees, who include parents of children attending
Louisiana public schools, Louisiana teachers, and religious
leaders, holding that the Act violated the Establishment Clause
of the First Amendment. The Court of Appeals affirmed. In a
vote of 7-2 the Supreme Court also affirmed the Court of