Describe what you see
Crania Americana 1839
[On White Europeans] [On Native Americans]
The Caucasian Race is characterized by a The American Race is marked by a brown complexion,
long, black, lank hair, and deficient beard. The eyes
naturally fair skin, susceptible of every tint;
are black and deep set, the brow low, the cheek-
hair fine, long and curling, and of various bones high, the nose large and aquiline, the mouth
colors. The skull is large and oval, and its large, and Americans are averse to cultivation [I.e.
anterior portion full and elevated. The face learning], and slow in acquiring knowledge; restless,
is small in proportion to the head, of an revengeful, and fond of war, and wholly destitute of
oval form, with well-proportioned features. maritime adventure.
…This race is distinguished for the facility They are crafty, sensual, ungrateful, obstinate and
with which it attains the highest intellectual unfeeling, and much of their affection for their
endowments… children may be traced to purely selfish motives.
They devour the most disgusting aliments uncooked
The spontaneous fertility of this tract [the and uncleaned, and seem to have no idea beyond
Caucasians] has rendered it the hive of providing for the present moment… Their mental
many nations, with extending their faculties, from infancy to old age, present a
migrations in every direction, have peopled continued childhood….[Indians] are not only averse
the finest portions of the earth, and given to the restraints of education, but for the most part
are incapable of a continued process of reasoning on
birth to its fairest inhabitants. (p.5)
abstract subjects. (pp.54 and 81)
Hampton Institute Sr. Class
Minister Henry Ward Beecher
"The common schools
are the stomachs of the country
in which all people that come to us
are assimilated within a generation.
When a lion eats an ox,
the lion does not become an ox
but the ox becomes a lion."
..Henry Ward Beecher
"If the Great Spirit had desired me
to be a white man
he would have made me so
in the first place.
He put in your heart
certain wishes and plans;
in my heart he put
other and different desires.
Each man is good
in the sight of the Great Spirit.
It is not necessary,
that eagles should be crows.”
..Sitting Bull (Hunkapatha Sioux)
Captain Richard Henry Pratt
• Richard Henry Pratt was an army
officer who participated in the
Indian wars on the Great Plains.
After a successful experiment with
the"education" of Native American
prisoners at Fort Marion in Florida,
Pratt received permission to
establish an industrial training
school for Native American
children at Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
He served as superintendent of the
school from 1879 to 1904.
Pratt's philosophy on the indoctrination of
Native American youth
• passionately expressed in a speech given in 1892 at the Nineteenth
Annual Conference of Charities and Corrections in Denver, Colorado.
• He distinguished his school from reservation schools by pointing out
that reservation schools did not separate Native American children
from their cultural surroundings, thus dooming the schools' efforts to
• transplanted Native American children to a setting outside of their
• "outing system" - that is, they would live with white farm families near
the school for part of the year.
What do you observe from this
What do you observe from this
How are these two people
different? The same?
Tom Torlino Tom Torlino
Nineteenth Annual Conference of Charities
and Corrections in Denver, Colorado
Capt. Richard H. Pratt 1892
• The following are excerpts from a speech given by Richard Henry Pratt at the
Nineteenth Annual Conference of Charities and Correction in Denver,
• “A great general has said that the only good Indian
is a dead one, and that high sanction of his
destruction has been an enormous factor in
promoting Indian massacres. In a sense, I agree
with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the
Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the
Indian in him, and save the man.…” 3
• “We make our greatest mistake in feeding our civilization
to the Indians instead of feeding the Indians to our
civilization. America has different customs and
civilizations from Germany. What would be the result of
an attempt to plant American customs and civilization
among the Germans in Germany, demanding that they
shall become thoroughly American before we admit them
to the country? Now, what we have all along attempted to
do for and with the Indians is just exactly that, and nothing
• We invite the Germans to come into our
country and communities, and share our
customs, our civilization, to be of it; and the
result is immediate success. Why not try it
on the Indians? Why not invite them into
experiences in our communities? Why
always invite and compel them to remain a
people unto themselves?
• It is a great mistake to think that the Indian is born an
inevitable savage. He is born a blank, like all the rest of us.
Left in the surroundings of savagery, he grows to possess a
savage language, life, and purpose. Transfer the infant
white to the savage surroundings, he will grow to possess a
savage language, superstition, and habit. Transfer the
savage-born infant to the surroundings of civilization, and
he will grow to possess a civilized language and habit.
These results have been established over and over again
beyond all question; and it is also well established that
those advanced in life, even to maturity, of either class,
lose already acquired qualities belonging to the side of
their birth, and gradually take on those of the side to which
they have been transferred....4