Captain Richard Henry Pratt

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					Describe what you see
                                    Samuel Morton
                                Crania Americana 1839

[On White Europeans]                                  [On Native Americans]
The Caucasian Race is characterized by a              The American Race is marked by a brown complexion,
                                                          long, black, lank hair, and deficient beard. The eyes
    naturally fair skin, susceptible of every tint;
                                                          are black and deep set, the brow low, the cheek-
    hair fine, long and curling, and of various           bones high, the nose large and aquiline, the mouth
    colors. The skull is large and oval, and its          large, and Americans are averse to cultivation [I.e.
    anterior portion full and elevated. The face          learning], and slow in acquiring knowledge; restless,
    is small in proportion to the head, of an             revengeful, and fond of war, and wholly destitute of
    oval form, with well-proportioned features.           maritime adventure.
    …This race is distinguished for the facility      They are crafty, sensual, ungrateful, obstinate and
    with which it attains the highest intellectual        unfeeling, and much of their affection for their
    endowments…                                           children may be traced to purely selfish motives.
                                                          They devour the most disgusting aliments uncooked
The spontaneous fertility of this tract [the              and uncleaned, and seem to have no idea beyond
    Caucasians] has rendered it the hive of               providing for the present moment… Their mental
    many nations, with extending their                    faculties, from infancy to old age, present a
    migrations in every direction, have peopled           continued childhood….[Indians] are not only averse
    the finest portions of the earth, and given           to the restraints of education, but for the most part
                                                          are incapable of a continued process of reasoning on
    birth to its fairest inhabitants. (p.5)
                                                          abstract subjects. (pp.54 and 81)
Hampton Institute Sr. Class
Minister Henry Ward Beecher

                     "The common schools
                are the stomachs of the country
              in which all people that come to us
              are assimilated within a generation.
                    When a lion eats an ox,
                 the lion does not become an ox
                    but the ox becomes a lion."
                              ..Henry Ward Beecher
  Sitting Bull
(Hunkapatha Sioux)

          "If the Great Spirit had desired me
                        to be a white man
               he would have made me so
                         in the first place.
                    He put in your heart
                certain wishes and plans;
                     in my heart he put
               other and different desires.
                        Each man is good
            in the sight of the Great Spirit.
                     It is not necessary,
             that eagles should be crows.”
             ..Sitting Bull (Hunkapatha Sioux)
Captain Richard Henry Pratt
              •   Richard Henry Pratt was an army
                  officer who participated in the
                  Indian wars on the Great Plains.
                  After a successful experiment with
                  the"education" of Native American
                  prisoners at Fort Marion in Florida,
                  Pratt received permission to
                  establish an industrial training
                  school for Native American
                  children at Carlisle, Pennsylvania.
                  He served as superintendent of the
                  school from 1879 to 1904.
   Pratt's philosophy on the indoctrination of
             Native American youth
• passionately expressed in a speech given in 1892 at the Nineteenth
  Annual Conference of Charities and Corrections in Denver, Colorado.
• He distinguished his school from reservation schools by pointing out
  that reservation schools did not separate Native American children
  from their cultural surroundings, thus dooming the schools' efforts to
  assimilate them.
• transplanted Native American children to a setting outside of their
  traditional culture
• "outing system" - that is, they would live with white farm families near
  the school for part of the year.
What do you observe from this
What do you observe from this
      How are these two people
        different? The same?

Tom Torlino       Tom Torlino
    Nineteenth Annual Conference of Charities
       and Corrections in Denver, Colorado
           Capt. Richard H. Pratt 1892
•   The following are excerpts from a speech given by Richard Henry Pratt at the
    Nineteenth Annual Conference of Charities and Correction in Denver,
    Colorado (1892).

• “A great general has said that the only good Indian
  is a dead one, and that high sanction of his
  destruction has been an enormous factor in
  promoting Indian massacres. In a sense, I agree
  with the sentiment, but only in this: that all the
  Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the
  Indian in him, and save the man.…” 3
• “We make our greatest mistake in feeding our civilization
  to the Indians instead of feeding the Indians to our
  civilization. America has different customs and
  civilizations from Germany. What would be the result of
  an attempt to plant American customs and civilization
  among the Germans in Germany, demanding that they
  shall become thoroughly American before we admit them
  to the country? Now, what we have all along attempted to
  do for and with the Indians is just exactly that, and nothing
• We invite the Germans to come into our
  country and communities, and share our
  customs, our civilization, to be of it; and the
  result is immediate success. Why not try it
  on the Indians? Why not invite them into
  experiences in our communities? Why
  always invite and compel them to remain a
  people unto themselves?
• It is a great mistake to think that the Indian is born an
  inevitable savage. He is born a blank, like all the rest of us.
  Left in the surroundings of savagery, he grows to possess a
  savage language, life, and purpose. Transfer the infant
  white to the savage surroundings, he will grow to possess a
  savage language, superstition, and habit. Transfer the
  savage-born infant to the surroundings of civilization, and
  he will grow to possess a civilized language and habit.
  These results have been established over and over again
  beyond all question; and it is also well established that
  those advanced in life, even to maturity, of either class,
  lose already acquired qualities belonging to the side of
  their birth, and gradually take on those of the side to which
  they have been transferred....4

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