The Joy Of Java 3d by nutailor

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									The Joy of Java 3D
Introduction
Java 3D is an addition to Java for displaying three-dimensional graphics. Programs written in Java 3D can
be run on several different types of computer and over the internet.

The Java 3D class library provides a simpler interface than most other graphics libraries, but has enough
capabilities to produce good games and animation. Java 3D builds on existing technology such as DirectX
and OpenGL so the programs do not run as slowly as you might expect. Also, Java 3D can incorporate
objects created by 3D modeling packages like TrueSpace and VRML models.

This tutorial is an introduction to Java 3D. Examples lead you through the basic methods for producing 3D
images and animation. You do not need to have any knowledge of 3D graphics or Java 3D to learn from
this tutorial, but it will help if you have a basic understanding of the Java programming language.
Programming in three dimensions can seem complicated because of the amount of jargon and the
mathematics involved, this tutorial will keep things as simple as possible.

Please help to improve this tutorial for future readers by reporting any mistakes you find or suggesting
improvements to editor@java3d.org.


Installing and Running Java 3D
The software you need to use Java 3D is available free from Sun Microsystems at http://java.sun.com/.

Sun often releases new versions so it is better to look at their site than rely on this document to find what
you need. You will have to register as a member of "Java Developer Connection" to download some of the
files.

At time of writing, the newest version of Java (6.3) is at http://java.sun.com/javase/downloads/index.jsp.
The current version of the Java 3D extension (1.5.1) is at https://java3d.dev.java.net/#Downloads Netscape
and Internet Explorer both require you to download plug-ins if you want to use up-to-date versions of Java
and Java3D in applets, the plug-in can be found at http://java.sun.com/products/plugin/.

Once you have installed Java and Java 3D you can compile programs using the command:

javac FileName.java

And run them using:

java FileName

The FileName should always be the same as the name of the public class defined in that file. In some
versions of Java 3D you may get a message about a null graphics configuration, but you can just ignore
this.


Getting Started – Your First Program



                                                                                                                1
The following program shows you the basic steps needed to display 3D objects.

1.   Create a virtual universe to contain your scene.
2.   Create a data structure to contain a group of objects.
3.   Add an object to the group
4.   Position the viewer so that they are looking at the object
5.   Add the group of objects to the universe



Look at the Hello3d() constructor and you will see the five lines that perform each of these steps. The
program displays a glowing cube, the viewer is looking directly at the red face of the cube, so what you
actually see is a red square on a black background


import    com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.SimpleUniverse;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.ColorCube;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.Sphere;
import    javax.media.j3d.BranchGroup;

public class Hello3d {

public Hello3d()
{
    SimpleUniverse universe = new SimpleUniverse();
    BranchGroup group = new BranchGroup();
    group.addChild(new ColorCube(0.3));
    universe.getViewingPlatform().setNominalViewingTransform();
    universe.addBranchGraph(group);
}

public static void main( String[] args ) {
   new Hello3d();
}
} // end of class Hello3d

The import statements at the beginning of this program use various parts of Java 3D, so compiling and
running this program is a good test that you have installed Java 3D correctly.




                                                                                                           2
Lighting up the World
OK, the first example was a good start, but was it 3D? If you don’t think a square
qualifies as three-dimensional, you are going to need to add some lights to your
universe. The way the light falls on an object provides us with the shading that
helps us see shapes in three dimensions

The next example illustrates how to display a ball lit by a red light:


import    com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.*;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.*;
import    javax.media.j3d.*;
import    javax.vecmath.*;

public class Ball {
  public Ball() {
    // Create the universe
    SimpleUniverse universe = new SimpleUniverse();

      // Create a structure to contain objects
      BranchGroup group = new BranchGroup();

      // Create a ball and add it to the group of objects
      Sphere sphere = new Sphere(0.5f);
      group.addChild(sphere);

      // Create a red light that shines for 100m from the origin
      Color3f light1Color = new Color3f(1.8f, 0.1f, 0.1f);
      BoundingSphere bounds =
         new BoundingSphere(new Point3d(0.0,0.0,0.0), 100.0);
      Vector3f light1Direction = new Vector3f(4.0f, -7.0f, -12.0f);
      DirectionalLight light1
        = new DirectionalLight(light1Color, light1Direction);
      light1.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);
      group.addChild(light1);

      // look towards the ball
      universe.getViewingPlatform().setNominalViewingTransform();

      // add the group of objects to the Universe
      universe.addBranchGraph(group);
}
    public static void main(String[] args) { new Ball(); }
}

The sphere we created is white (the default), it appears red because of the colored light. Since it is a
DirectionalLight, we also have to specify how far the light shines and in what direction. In the example, the
light shines for 100 meters from the origin and the direction is to the right, down and into the screen (this is
defined by the vector: 4.0 right, -7.0 down, and -12.0 into the screen).

You can also create an AmbientLight which will produce a directionless light, or a SpotLight if you want to
focus on a particular part of your scene. A combination of a strong directional light and a weaker ambient
light gives a natural-looking appearance to your scene. Java 3D lights do not produce shadows.



                                                                                                               3
Positioning the Objects
So far, the examples have created objects in the same place, the center
of the universe. In Java 3D, locations are described by using x, y, z
coordinates. Increasing coordinates go along the x-axis to the right,
along the y-axis upwards, and along the z-axis out of the screen. In the
picture, x, y and z are represented by spheres, cones and cylinders.

This is called a “right-handed” coordinate system because the thumb
and first two fingers of your right hand can be used to represent the
three directions. All the distances are measured in meters.

To place your objects in the scene, you start at point (0,0,0), and then move the objects wherever you want.
Moving the objects is called a “transformation”, so the classes you use are: TransformGroup and
Transform3D. You add both the object and the Transform3D to a TransformGroup before adding the
TransformGroup to the rest of your scene.


Step                                                        Example
1. Create a transform, a transform group and an object      Transform transform= new Transform3D();
                                                            TransformGroup tg = new TransformGroup();
                                                            Cone cone = new Cone(0.5f, 0.5f);
2.   Specify a location for the object                      Vector3f vector = new Vector3f(-.2f,.1f , -.4f);
3.   Set the transform to move (translate) the object to    transform.setTranslation(vector);
     that location
4.   Add the transform to the transform group               tg.setTransform(transform);
5.   Add the object to the transform group                  tg.addChild(cone);

This may seem complicated, but the transform groups enable you to collect objects together and move them
as one unit. For example, a table could be made up of cylinders for legs and a box for the top. If you add all
the parts of the table to a single transform group, you can move the whole table with one translation.

The Transform3D class can do much more than specifying the co-ordinates of the object. The functions
include setScale to change the size of an object and rotX, rotY and rotZ for rotating an object around each
axis (counter clockwise).

This example displays the different objects on each axis.

import     com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.*;
import     com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.*;
import     javax.media.j3d.*;
import     javax.vecmath.*;

public class Position {

     public Position() {
       SimpleUniverse universe = new SimpleUniverse();
       BranchGroup group = new BranchGroup();
       // X axis made of spheres
       for (float x = -1.0f; x <= 1.0f; x = x + 0.1f)
       {
           Sphere sphere = new Sphere(0.05f);
           TransformGroup tg = new TransformGroup();
           Transform3D transform = new Transform3D();
           Vector3f vector = new Vector3f( x, .0f, .0f);


                                                                                                               4
          transform.setTranslation(vector);
          tg.setTransform(transform);
          tg.addChild(sphere);
          group.addChild(tg);
      }
      // Y axis made of cones
      for (float y = -1.0f; y <= 1.0f; y = y + 0.1f)
      {
          TransformGroup tg = new TransformGroup();
          Transform3D transform = new Transform3D();
          Cone cone = new Cone(0.05f, 0.1f);
          Vector3f vector = new Vector3f(.0f, y, .0f);
          transform.setTranslation(vector);
          tg.setTransform(transform);
          tg.addChild(cone);
          group.addChild(tg);
      }
      // Z axis made of cylinders
      for (float z = -1.0f; z <= 1.0f; z = z+ 0.1f)
      {
          TransformGroup tg = new TransformGroup();
          Transform3D transform = new Transform3D();
          Cylinder cylinder = new Cylinder(0.05f, 0.1f);
          Vector3f vector = new Vector3f(.0f, .0f, z);
          transform.setTranslation(vector);
          tg.setTransform(transform);
          tg.addChild(cylinder);
          group.addChild(tg);
      }

      Color3f light1Color = new Color3f(.1f, 1.4f, .1f); // green light
      BoundingSphere bounds =
            new BoundingSphere(new Point3d(0.0,0.0,0.0), 100.0);
      Vector3f light1Direction = new Vector3f(4.0f, -7.0f, -12.0f);
      DirectionalLight light1
        = new DirectionalLight(light1Color, light1Direction);
      light1.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);
      group.addChild(light1);
      universe.getViewingPlatform().setNominalViewingTransform();

      // add the group of objects to the Universe
      universe.addBranchGraph(group);
}
    public static void main(String[] args) {
      new Position();
    }
}




                                                                          5
Appearance Is Everything
There are many ways to change the way that objects in your scene look.
You can change their color, how much light they reflect. You can paint
them with two-dimensional images, or add rough textures to their
surfaces. The Appearance class contains the functions for making these
changes. This section shows you how to use these functions.

The simplest way of setting the appearance is by specifying only the
color and the shading method. This works for setting an object to being
a simple color, but to make an object look realistic, you need to specify
how an object appears under lights. You do this by creating a Material.



Step                                         Example
1. Create an object                          Sphere sphere = new Sphere();
2. Create an appearance                      Appearance ap = new Appearance();
3. Create a color                            Color3f col = new Color3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
4. Create the coloring attributes            ColoringAttributes ca = new ColoringAttributes
                                             (col, ColoringAttributes.NICEST);
5.   Add the attributes to the appearance    ap.setColoringAttributes(ca);
6.   Set the appearance for the object       sphere.setAppearance(ap);

Materials
Materials have five properties that enable you to specify how the object appears. There are four colors:
Ambient, Emissive, Diffuse, and Specular. The fifth property is shininess, that you specify with a number.
Each color specifies what light is given off in a certain situation.

    Ambient color reflects light that been scattered so much by the environment that the direction is
     impossible to determine. This is created by an AmbientLight in Java 3D.
    Emissive color is given off even in darkness. You could use this for a neon sign or a glow-in-the-dark
     object
    Diffuse color reflects light that comes from one direction, so it's brighter if it comes squarely down on
     a surface that if it barely glances off the surface. This is used with a DirectionalLight.
    Specular light comes from a particular direction, and it tends to bounce off the surface in a preferred
     direction. Shiny metal or plastic have a high specular component. The amount of specular light that
     reaches the viewer depends on the location of the viewer and the angle of the light bouncing off the
     object.

Changing the shininess factor affects not just how shiny the object is, but whether it shines with a small
glint in one area, or a larger area with less of a gleaming look.

For most objects you can use one color for both Ambient and Diffuse components, and black for Emissive
(most things don’t glow in the dark). If it’s a shiny object, you would use a lighter color for Specular
reflections. For example, the material for a red billiard ball might be:

// billiard ball
//                                          ambient emissive diffuse specular shininess

// Material mat = new Material(red,                       black,        red,       white,       70f);




                                                                                                             6
 For a rubber ball, you could use a black or red specular light instead of white which would make the ball
appear less shiny. Reducing the shininess factor from 70 to 0 would not work the way you might expect, it
would spread the white reflection across the whole object instead of it being concentrated in one spot.


Texture
Materials make change the appearance of a whole shape, but sometimes even the shiniest objects can seem
dull. By adding texture you can produce more interesting effects like marbling or wrapping a two-
dimensional image around your object.

The TextureLoader class enables you to load an image to use as a texture. The dimensions of your image
must be powers of two, for example 128 pixels by 256. When you load the texture you can also specify
how you want to use the image. For example, RGB to use the color of the image or LUMINANCE to see
the image in black and white.

After the texture is loaded, you can change the TextureAttributes to say whether you want the image to
replace the object underneath or modulate the underlying color. You can also apply it as a decal or blend
the image with the color of your choice.

If you are using a simple object like a sphere then you will also have to enable texturing by setting the
“primitive flags”. These can be set to Primitive.GENERATE_NORMALS +
Primitive.GENERATE_TEXTURE_COORDS when you create the object.

In case this is starting to sound a bit complicated, here is an example. You can experiment with the texture
settings in this example and compare the results. You can download the picture I used from
http://www.java3d.org/Arizona.jpg or you can substitute a picture of your own.

import    com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.*;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.*;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.image.*;
import    javax.media.j3d.*;
import    javax.vecmath.*;
import    java.awt.Container;

public class PictureBall {

   public PictureBall() {

      // Create the universe
      SimpleUniverse universe = new SimpleUniverse();

      // Create a structure to contain objects
      BranchGroup group = new BranchGroup();

      // Set up colors
      Color3f black = new Color3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
      Color3f white = new Color3f(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
      Color3f red = new Color3f(0.7f, .15f, .15f);

      // Set up the texture map
      TextureLoader loader = new TextureLoader("K:\\3d\\Arizona.jpg",
                                "LUMINANCE", new Container());
      Texture texture = loader.getTexture();
      texture.setBoundaryModeS(Texture.WRAP);
      texture.setBoundaryModeT(Texture.WRAP);
      texture.setBoundaryColor( new Color4f( 0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f ) );


                                                                                                               7
      // Set up the texture attributes
      //could be REPLACE, BLEND or DECAL instead of MODULATE
      TextureAttributes texAttr = new TextureAttributes();
      texAttr.setTextureMode(TextureAttributes.MODULATE);
      Appearance ap = new Appearance();
      ap.setTexture(texture);
      ap.setTextureAttributes(texAttr);

      //set up the material
      ap.setMaterial(new Material(red, black, red, black, 1.0f));

      // Create a ball to demonstrate textures
      int primflags = Primitive.GENERATE_NORMALS +
                      Primitive.GENERATE_TEXTURE_COORDS;
      Sphere sphere = new Sphere(0.5f, primflags, ap);
      group.addChild(sphere);

      // Create lights
      Color3f light1Color = new Color3f(1f, 1f, 1f);
      BoundingSphere bounds =
            new BoundingSphere(new Point3d(0.0,0.0,0.0), 100.0);

      Vector3f light1Direction = new Vector3f(4.0f, -7.0f, -12.0f);
      DirectionalLight light1
        = new DirectionalLight(light1Color, light1Direction);
      light1.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);
      group.addChild(light1);

      AmbientLight ambientLight =
        new AmbientLight(new Color3f(.5f,.5f,.5f));
      ambientLight.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);
      group.addChild(ambientLight);

      // look towards the ball
      universe.getViewingPlatform().setNominalViewingTransform();

      // add the group of objects to the Universe
      universe.addBranchGraph(group);
   }
   public static void main(String[] args) {
     new PictureBall();
   }
}
You can also set up three-dimensional textures, using shapes instead of a flat image. Unfortunately, these
do not currently work very well across different platforms.

Special Effects
 Look at the AppearanceTest example that comes with Java 3D for more effects you can use. For example
you can display objects as wire-frames, display only the corners of an object and so on. You can even make
objects transparent, with the following settings:
TransparencyAttributes t_attr =
   new TransparencyAttributes(TransparencyAttributes.BLENDED,0.5f,
      TransparencyAttributes.BLEND_SRC_ALPHA,
      TransparencyAttributes.BLEND_ONE);
ap.setTransparencyAttributes( t_attr );



                                                                                                             8
Java 3D and the User Interface
Most real-life applications use a mixture of three dimensional and two-dimensional elements. This section
describes how to combine your Java 3D with the rest of your program.

Canvas3D
Each area where three-dimensional graphics can be painted is called a Canvas3D. This is a rectangle that
contains a view of the objects in your universe. You place the canvas inside a frame, then you create a
universe to be displayed in the canvas.

 The following example shows how to create a canvas in a frame with labels at the top and bottom. The
program can be run as either an applet or an application.

import    com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.SimpleUniverse;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.ColorCube;
import    javax.media.j3d.BranchGroup;
import    javax.media.j3d.Canvas3D;
import    java.awt.GraphicsConfiguration;
import    java.awt.BorderLayout;
import    java.awt.Label;
import    java.applet.Applet;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.applet.MainFrame;
public    class CanvasDemo extends Applet {

      public CanvasDemo()             {

            setLayout(new BorderLayout());
            GraphicsConfiguration config =
                SimpleUniverse.getPreferredConfiguration();
            Canvas3D canvas = new Canvas3D(config);
            add("North",new Label("This is the top"));
            add("Center", canvas);
            add("South",new Label("This is the bottom"));
            BranchGroup contents = new BranchGroup();
            contents.addChild(new ColorCube(0.3));
            SimpleUniverse universe = new SimpleUniverse(canvas);
            universe.getViewingPlatform().setNominalViewingTransform();
            universe.addBranchGraph(contents);
      }

      public static void main( String[] args ) {
          CanvasDemo demo = new CanvasDemo();
          new MainFrame(demo,400,400);
      }
}

Java 3D and Swing

The Canvas3D takes advantage of your computer’s graphics card to increase performance. Unfortunately,
this means that it does not mix very well with Sun’s swing user interface components. These components
are called “lightweight” Lightweight components can be hidden by a Canvas3D even if they are supposed
to be at the front.

There are several solutions to this problem:




                                                                                                            9
   You can mix lightweight and heavyweight components on the same screen if you keep them in
    separate containers.

   If you use Popup menus, a static function on JPopupMenu fixes the problem:
    setDefaultLightWeightPopupEnabled(false);

   You can use the older AWT components instead of swing.




                                                                                                10
Animation and Interaction – a Bouncing Ball
To create animation you need to move the objects between each frame of animation. You can use a timer
and move the 3D objects by a small amount each time. Also, you can modify the objects in other ways, the
next example scales the ball so that it looks squashed at the bottom of each bounce.

For interaction with the user, you can process keystrokes or clicks on buttons or other components.

One thing to notice is that you have to tell Java3D you are going to move something by setting a capability.
Otherwise, you will not be able to move anything once it has been drawn.

TransformGroup objTrans = new TransformGroup();
objTrans.setCapability(TransformGroup.ALLOW_TRANSFORM_WRITE);

The following example combines these techniques. You start it by clicking on the button, then the ball
bounces up and down, and you can press a or s to move the ball left or right.

import    java.applet.Applet;
import    java.awt.*;
import    java.awt.event.*;
import    java.awt.event.WindowAdapter;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.applet.MainFrame;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.*;
import    javax.media.j3d.*;
import    javax.vecmath.*;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.Sphere;
import    javax.swing.Timer;

public class BouncingBall extends Applet implements ActionListener,
KeyListener {
    private Button go = new Button("Go");
    private TransformGroup objTrans;
    private Transform3D trans = new Transform3D();
    private float height=0.0f;
    private float sign = 1.0f; // going up or down
    private Timer timer;
    private float xloc=0.0f;
    public BranchGroup createSceneGraph() {
      // Create the root of the branch graph
      BranchGroup objRoot = new BranchGroup();
      objTrans = new TransformGroup();
      objTrans.setCapability(TransformGroup.ALLOW_TRANSFORM_WRITE);
      objRoot.addChild(objTrans);

        // Create a simple shape leaf node, add it to the scene graph.
      Sphere sphere = new Sphere(0.25f);
      objTrans = new TransformGroup();
      objTrans.setCapability(TransformGroup.ALLOW_TRANSFORM_WRITE);
      Transform3D pos1 = new Transform3D();
      pos1.setTranslation(new Vector3f(0.0f,0.0f,0.0f));
      objTrans.setTransform(pos1);
      objTrans.addChild(sphere);
      objRoot.addChild(objTrans);
          BoundingSphere bounds =
            new BoundingSphere(new Point3d(0.0,0.0,0.0), 100.0);




                                                                                                         11
    Color3f light1Color = new Color3f(1.0f, 0.0f, 0.2f);
    Vector3f light1Direction = new Vector3f(4.0f, -7.0f, -12.0f);
    DirectionalLight light1
      = new DirectionalLight(light1Color, light1Direction);
    light1.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);
    objRoot.addChild(light1);

     // Set up the ambient light
    Color3f ambientColor = new Color3f(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
    AmbientLight ambientLightNode = new AmbientLight(ambientColor);
    ambientLightNode.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);
    objRoot.addChild(ambientLightNode);

        return objRoot;
    }

    public BouncingBall() {
           setLayout(new BorderLayout());
         GraphicsConfiguration config =
             SimpleUniverse.getPreferredConfiguration();
         Canvas3D c = new Canvas3D(config);
           add("Center", c);
         c.addKeyListener(this);
         timer = new Timer(100,this);
         //timer.start();
           Panel p =new Panel();
           p.add(go);
           add("North",p);
           go.addActionListener(this);
           go.addKeyListener(this);
           // Create a simple scene and attach it to the virtual
universe
           BranchGroup scene = createSceneGraph();

            SimpleUniverse u = new SimpleUniverse(c);
          u.getViewingPlatform().setNominalViewingTransform();
            u.addBranchGraph(scene);
    }
    public void keyPressed(KeyEvent e) {
        //Invoked when a key has been pressed.
        if (e.getKeyChar()=='s') {xloc = xloc + .1f;}
        if (e.getKeyChar()=='a') {xloc = xloc - .1f;}
    }

    public void keyReleased(KeyEvent e){
        // Invoked when a key has been released.
    }
    public void keyTyped(KeyEvent e){
        //Invoked when a key has been typed.
    }
    public void actionPerformed(ActionEvent e ) {
        // start timer when button is pressed
          if (e.getSource()==go){
              if (!timer.isRunning()) {
                  timer.start();
            }


                                                                      12
        }
        else {
               height += .1 * sign;
        if (Math.abs(height *2) >= 1 ) sign = -1.0f * sign;
        if (height<-0.4f) {
            trans.setScale(new Vector3d(1.0, .8, 1.0));
        }
        else {
            trans.setScale(new Vector3d(1.0, 1.0, 1.0));
        }
        trans.setTranslation(new Vector3f(xloc,height,0.0f));
               objTrans.setTransform(trans);
          }
    }
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Program Started");
        BouncingBall bb = new BouncingBall();
        bb.addKeyListener(bb);
          MainFrame mf = new MainFrame(bb, 256, 256);
    }
}




                                                                13
Natural Selection
Once you have created a 3D scene you may want to interact with the objects
within it. A first step is to select an object with the mouse. The Java 3D
picking classes help you to do this, you can use them in the following way:




    1.   Create a PickCanvas from the Canvas 3D and the BranchGroup you want to pick from.
         PickCanvas pickCanvas = new PickCanvas(canvas, group);

    2.   Set the pickCanvas to use the bounds of the object for picking.
         pickCanvas.setMode(PickCanvas.BOUNDS);

    3.   Handle the mouse event by extending MouseAdapter and listening for mouse events on the
         Canvas3D using canvas.addMouseListener(this).

    4.   Define the mouseClicked function so that the PickCanvas calls the PickClosest
         function to return the PickResult.

    5.   Call getNode on PickResult to find out more about the object that has been picked.
Here is a complete example that displays two objects (a cube and a sphere). When you click the mouse it
prints out the class name of the selected object.

import com.sun.j3d.utils.picking.*;
import com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.SimpleUniverse;
import com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.*;
import javax.media.j3d.*;
import javax.vecmath.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
import java.awt.*;
public class Pick extends MouseAdapter {
private PickCanvas pickCanvas;
public Pick()
{
    Frame frame = new Frame("Box and Sphere");
    GraphicsConfiguration config =
SimpleUniverse.getPreferredConfiguration();
    Canvas3D canvas = new Canvas3D(config);
    canvas.setSize(400, 400);
    SimpleUniverse universe = new SimpleUniverse(canvas);
    BranchGroup group = new BranchGroup();
    // create a color cube
    Vector3f vector = new Vector3f(-0.3f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
    Transform3D transform = new Transform3D();
    transform.setTranslation(vector);
    TransformGroup transformGroup = new TransformGroup(transform);
    ColorCube cube = new ColorCube(0.3);
    transformGroup.addChild(cube);
    group.addChild(transformGroup);
    //create a sphere
    Vector3f vector2 = new Vector3f(+0.3f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
    Transform3D transform2 = new Transform3D();



                                                                                                          14
      transform2.setTranslation(vector2);
      TransformGroup transformGroup2 = new TransformGroup(transform2);
      Appearance appearance = new Appearance();
      appearance.setPolygonAttributes(
          new PolygonAttributes(PolygonAttributes.POLYGON_LINE,
          PolygonAttributes.CULL_BACK,0.0f));
      Sphere sphere = new Sphere(0.3f,appearance);
      transformGroup2.addChild(sphere);
      group.addChild(transformGroup2);
      universe.getViewingPlatform().setNominalViewingTransform();
      universe.addBranchGraph(group);
      frame.addWindowListener(new WindowAdapter() {
          public void windowClosing(WindowEvent winEvent) {
             System.exit(0);
          }
      });
      frame.add(canvas);
      pickCanvas = new PickCanvas(canvas, group);
      pickCanvas.setMode(PickCanvas.BOUNDS);
      canvas.addMouseListener(this);
      frame.pack();
      frame.show();
}
public static void main( String[] args ) {
    new Pick();
}
public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent e)
{
    pickCanvas.setShapeLocation(e);
    PickResult result = pickCanvas.pickClosest();
    if (result == null) {
       System.out.println("Nothing picked");
    } else {
       Primitive p = (Primitive)result.getNode(PickResult.PRIMITIVE);
       Shape3D s = (Shape3D)result.getNode(PickResult.SHAPE3D);
       if (p != null) {
          System.out.println(p.getClass().getName());
       } else if (s != null) {
             System.out.println(s.getClass().getName());
       } else{
          System.out.println("null");
       }
    }
}
} // end of class Pick
More Accurate Picking
The previous example shows the most basic form of picking, based on the bounds of the object. If you try
the example and click near the sphere you can see that it isn't very accurate. If you imagine a box around
the sphere and click anywhere within that box, the program will report that you have picked the sphere.
This is because the box and the sphere both have the same bounds.
If you need to be more accurate you need to use geometry picking. Change the line:


pickCanvas.setMode(PickCanvas.BOUNDS);


                                                                                                         15
to
pickCanvas.setMode(PickCanvas.GEOMETRY);

Unfortunately, this is not the whole story. For geometry picking to work you need to set
various capabilities on the objects in your scene. These capabilities are set to off by
default so that applications that do not use advanced picking are not slowed down
unnecessarily. To turn them on, use:
node.setCapability(Node.ENABLE_PICK_REPORTING);
PickTool.setCapabilities(node, PickTool.INTERSECT_FULL);

If you set the capabilities on all the objects you have added to the scene, you may find
that detailed picking still does not work. This is because objects may be made up of other
objects. For example instead of setting them once for a cube, you may need to set the
capabilities six times, once for each face. The easiest way to make sure that all parts of
each object are pickable is to call the following function on BranchGroup of your scene:
public void enablePicking(Node node) {
      node.setPickable(true);
      node.setCapability(Node.ENABLE_PICK_REPORTING);
      try {
            Group group = (Group) node;
            for (Enumeration e = group.getAllChildren();
e.hasMoreElements();) {
                enablePicking((Node)e.nextElement());
            }
      }
      catch(ClassCastException e) {
              // if not a group node, there are no children so ignore
exception
      }
      try {
                Shape3D shape = (Shape3D) node;
                PickTool.setCapabilities(node, PickTool.INTERSECT_FULL);
                for (Enumeration e = shape.getAllGeometries();
e.hasMoreElements();) {
                    Geometry g = (Geometry)e.nextElement();
                    g.setCapability(g.ALLOW_INTERSECT);
                }
            }
      catch(ClassCastException e) {
            // not a Shape3D node ignore exception
      }
}
After all the capabilities are set you can use System.out.println on your pick result to find the full
range of information available. You can also use PickAllSorted instead of PickClosest to pick
more than one object at the same time.
Pick Shapes
So far the examples have picked objects using the default shape: an imaginary ray going from the viewer's
eye position through the mouse pointer into infinity. Instead of a thin ray you can change the shape used for
picking. For example, you might use a cylinder instead of a narrow ray to make picking points easier. A
cone shaped area is an easy way to pick anything that a viewer can see.


                                                                                                          16
The setShape function on PickCanvas (and PickTool) can set the shape to a Cone, Cylinder, Point
or Ray. Each of these shapes can either go on forever (a ray) or stop after a fixed distance (a segment), you
can also pick based on a Bounds object.
As well as setting the shape you can set the tolerance for the picking operation. This is the distance (in
pixels) that your PickShape can miss the target object by and still select the object.

Advanced Picking
Picking can be used for more than just mouse selection. The pick shapes can be located anywhere and can
be moved around within your scene. They can be used for collision detection or avoidance. For example,
you could use a pick shape in front of a person to detect potential obstacles and stop them from bumping
into things. If you were writing a pool game you could use a PickRaySegment to represent the pool cue and
you could pick with BoundingSphere to detecting collisions between the balls.




                                                                                                           17
Of Mice and Men

To be able to work with objects in Java 3D, it
helps if you understand where the viewer and the
mouse pointer are in the scene.

For example we can create a cube that you can
draw on; the mouse pointer represents the end of a
pencil. To draw on the cube, we need to know
where the mouse pointer touches a face of the
cube.

When the mouse is dragged, the mouse event in
the mouseDragged callback gives us the x and
y co-ordinates of the mouse pointer. The following
code gets the location of the mouse in the image
plate and then transforms it into the location in the
virtual world.




Point3d mousePos = new Point3d();
canvas.getPixelLocationInImagePlate(event.getX(), event.getY(),
mousePos);
Transform3D transform = new Transform3D();
canvas.getImagePlateToVworld(transform);
transform.transform(mousePos);


The eye position (actually the position of the top of the viewers nose – the center eye) can be transformed
into virtual world co-ordinates in the same way.

Point3d eyePos = new Point3d();
canvas.getCenterEyeInImagePlate(eyePos);
transform.transform(eyePos);


Now that we know the points where the eye and the mouse pointer are, we want to find where on the cube
to draw. Let’s assume we want to draw on the front face of the cube. We can find where a line through
these two points intersects with the face of the cube. For the front face of a unit cube at the origin, the
corners are at: (.5, -.5, .5), (.5, .5, .5), (-.5, .5, .5), (-.5, -.5, .5).
We only need three of them to define a plane and then a bit of vector mathematics to give us the point
where a line from the eye to the mouse pointer hits the cube.

Point3d     p1 = new Point3d(.5, -.5, .5);
Point3d     p2 = new Point3d(.5, .5, .5);
Point3d     p3 = new Point3d(-.5, .5, .5);
Point3d     intersection = getIntersection(eyePos, mousePos, p1, p2, p3);




                                                                                                          18
        /**
          * Returns the point where a line crosses a plane
          */
        Point3d getIntersection(Point3d line1, Point3d line2,
                     Point3d plane1, Point3d plane2, Point3d plane3) {
               Vector3d p1 = new Vector3d(plane1);
               Vector3d p2 = new Vector3d(plane2);
               Vector3d p3 = new Vector3d(plane3);
               Vector3d p2minusp1 = new Vector3d(p2);
               p2minusp1.sub(p1);
               Vector3d p3minusp1 = new Vector3d(p3);
               p3minusp1.sub(p1);
               Vector3d normal = new Vector3d();
               normal.cross(p2minusp1, p3minusp1);
               // The plane can be defined by p1, n + d = 0
               double d = -p1.dot(normal);
               Vector3d i1 = new Vector3d(line1);
               Vector3d direction = new Vector3d(line1);
               direction.sub(line2);
               double dot = direction.dot(normal);
               if (dot == 0) return null;
               double t = (-d - i1.dot(normal)) / (dot);
               Vector3d intersection = new Vector3d(line1);
               Vector3d scaledDirection = new Vector3d(direction);
               scaledDirection.scale(t);
               intersection.add(scaledDirection);
               Point3d intersectionPoint = new Point3d(intersection);
               return intersectionPoint;
        }


Now we know where the intersection point is, it is easy to draw on an image that we can use as a texture on
the cube. Remember that the y coordinate for the mouse gets higher as you move the mouse pointer down
the screen. This has to be reversed to get to the y coordinate you are used to seeing on a graph.


public void mouseDragged(MouseEvent event) {
            Point3d intersectionPoint = getPosition(event);
            if (Math.abs(intersectionPoint.x) < 0.5 &&
            Math.abs(intersectionPoint.y) < 0.5) {
      double x = (0.5 + intersectionPoint.x) * imageWidth;
      double y = (0.5 - intersectionPoint.y) * imageHeight;
      Graphics2D g = (Graphics2D) frontImage.getGraphics();
      g.setColor( Color.BLACK);
      g.setStroke(new BasicStroke(3));
      int iX = (int)(x + .5);
      int iY = (int)(y + .5);
      if (lastX < 0) {
            lastX = iX;
            lastY = iY;
      }
      g.drawLine(lastX, lastY, iX, iY);
      lastX = iX;
      lastY = iY;
      changeTexture(texture, frontImage, frontShape);
}



                                                                                                         19
Of course, the method I’ve explained so far assumes that the cube always stays in the same place. In a real
application you are likely to have objects in different places and different orientations. Fortunately, it is
easy to allow for this by transforming the points of the plane from the local to virtual world coordinates and
then transforming the intersection point back to local coordinates at the end.

Transform3D currentTransform = new Transform3D();
box.getLocalToVworld(currentTransform);
currentTransform.transform(p1);
currentTransform.transform(p2);
currentTransform.transform(p3);
Point3d intersection = getIntersection(eyePos, mousePos, p1, p2, p3);
currentTransform.invert();
currentTransform.transform(intersection);


Here’s an example that puts all these techniques together. It shows a cube with different colored faces. You
can rotate the cube with the left mouse button, and draw on the front (blue) face with the right mouse
button.


import    java.applet.Applet;
import    java.awt.*;
import    java.awt.event.*;
import    java.awt.image.BufferedImage;
import    javax.media.j3d.*;
import    javax.vecmath.*;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.applet.MainFrame;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.behaviors.mouse.MouseRotate;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.geometry.*;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.image.TextureLoader;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.pickfast.PickCanvas;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.SimpleUniverse;
import    com.sun.j3d.utils.universe.ViewingPlatform;

public class DrawingExample extends Applet implements MouseListener,
MouseMotionListener {

         private     static final long serialVersionUID = 1L;
         private     MainFrame frame;
         private     Box box;
         private     int imageHeight = 256;
         private     int imageWidth = 256;
         private     Canvas3D canvas;
         private     SimpleUniverse universe;
         private     BranchGroup group = new BranchGroup();
         private     PickCanvas pickCanvas;
         private     BufferedImage frontImage;
         private     Shape3D frontShape;
         private     Texture texture;
         private     Appearance appearance;
         private     TextureLoader loader;
         private     int lastX=-1;
         private     int lastY=-1;
         private     int mouseButton = 0;
         private     TransformGroup boxTransformGroup;



                                                                                                           20
public static void main(String[] args) {
      DrawingExample object = new DrawingExample();
      object.frame = new MainFrame(object, args,
                object.imageWidth, object.imageHeight);
      object.startSheet();
      object.validate();
}

public Point3d getPosition(MouseEvent event) {
      Point3d eyePos = new Point3d();
      Point3d mousePos = new Point3d();
      canvas.getCenterEyeInImagePlate(eyePos);
      canvas.getPixelLocationInImagePlate(event.getX(),
                 event.getY(), mousePos);
      Transform3D transform = new Transform3D();
      canvas.getImagePlateToVworld(transform);
      transform.transform(eyePos);
      transform.transform(mousePos);
      Vector3d direction = new Vector3d(eyePos);
      direction.sub(mousePos);
      // three points on the plane
      Point3d p1 = new Point3d(.5, -.5, .5);
      Point3d p2 = new Point3d(.5, .5, .5);
      Point3d p3 = new Point3d(-.5, .5, .5);
      Transform3D currentTransform = new Transform3D();
      box.getLocalToVworld(currentTransform);
      currentTransform.transform(p1);
      currentTransform.transform(p2);
      currentTransform.transform(p3);
      Point3d intersection = getIntersection(eyePos, mousePos,
                  p1, p2, p3);
      currentTransform.invert();
      currentTransform.transform(intersection);
      return intersection;
}

/**
 * Returns the point where a line crosses a plane
 */
Point3d getIntersection(Point3d line1, Point3d line2,
            Point3d plane1, Point3d plane2, Point3d plane3) {
      Vector3d p1 = new Vector3d(plane1);
      Vector3d p2 = new Vector3d(plane2);
      Vector3d p3 = new Vector3d(plane3);
      Vector3d p2minusp1 = new Vector3d(p2);
      p2minusp1.sub(p1);
      Vector3d p3minusp1 = new Vector3d(p3);
      p3minusp1.sub(p1);
      Vector3d normal = new Vector3d();
      normal.cross(p2minusp1, p3minusp1);
      // The plane can be defined by p1, n + d = 0
      double d = -p1.dot(normal);
      Vector3d i1 = new Vector3d(line1);
      Vector3d direction = new Vector3d(line1);
      direction.sub(line2);
      double dot = direction.dot(normal);
      if (dot == 0) return null;


                                                                 21
           double t = (-d - i1.dot(normal)) / (dot);
           Vector3d intersection = new Vector3d(line1);
           Vector3d scaledDirection = new Vector3d(direction);
           scaledDirection.scale(t);
           intersection.add(scaledDirection);
           Point3d intersectionPoint = new Point3d(intersection);
           return intersectionPoint;
     }

     private void startSheet() {
           setLayout(new BorderLayout());

           GraphicsConfiguration config = SimpleUniverse
                       .getPreferredConfiguration();
           canvas = new Canvas3D(config);
           universe = new SimpleUniverse(canvas);
           add("Center", canvas);
           positionViewer();
           getScene();
           universe.addBranchGraph(group);
           pickCanvas = new PickCanvas(canvas, group);
           pickCanvas.setMode(PickInfo.PICK_BOUNDS);

           canvas.addMouseMotionListener(this);
           frame.addMouseMotionListener(this);
           canvas.addMouseListener(this);
           frame.addMouseListener(this);

     }
     public void getScene() {
           addLights(group);
           Appearance ap = getAppearance(new Color3f(Color.blue));
           ap.setCapability(Appearance.ALLOW_TEXTURE_WRITE);
           ap.setCapability(Appearance.ALLOW_TEXGEN_WRITE);
           box = new Box(.5f, .5f, .5f,
                       Primitive.GENERATE_TEXTURE_COORDS,
                       getAppearance(new Color3f(Color.green)));
           box.setCapability(Box.ENABLE_APPEARANCE_MODIFY);
           box.setCapability(Box.GEOMETRY_NOT_SHARED);
           frontShape = box.getShape(Box.FRONT);
           frontShape.setAppearance(ap);



box.getShape(Box.TOP).setAppearance(getAppearance(Color.magenta));
box.getShape(Box.BOTTOM).setAppearance(
                         getAppearance(Color.orange)); ;
box.getShape(Box.RIGHT).setAppearance(
                         getAppearance(Color.red));
box.getShape(Box.LEFT).setAppearance(
                         getAppearance(Color.green));
box.getShape(Box.BACK).setAppearance(
                          getAppearance(Color.yellow));
frontImage = new BufferedImage(imageWidth, imageHeight,
                        BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB);
Graphics2D g = (Graphics2D)frontImage.getGraphics();
g.setColor(new Color(70,70,140));


                                                                     22
            g.fillRect(0, 0, imageWidth, imageHeight);
            addTexture(frontImage, frontShape);
            MouseRotate behavior = new MouseRotate();
          BoundingSphere bounds =
              new BoundingSphere(new Point3d(0.0,0.0,0.0), 100.0);
          boxTransformGroup = new TransformGroup();
            boxTransformGroup

      .setCapability(TransformGroup.ALLOW_TRANSFORM_READ);
            boxTransformGroup

      .setCapability(TransformGroup.ALLOW_TRANSFORM_WRITE);
            behavior.setTransformGroup(boxTransformGroup);
            boxTransformGroup.addChild(behavior);


            behavior.setSchedulingBounds(bounds);
            boxTransformGroup.addChild(box);
            group.addChild(boxTransformGroup);

      }
      public void addTexture(BufferedImage image, Shape3D shape) {
            frontShape.setCapability(Shape3D.ALLOW_APPEARANCE_WRITE);
            appearance = shape.getAppearance();

      appearance.setCapability(Appearance.ALLOW_TEXTURE_ATTRIBUTES_WRIT
E);
            appearance.setCapability(Appearance.ALLOW_TEXTURE_WRITE);
            appearance.setCapability(Appearance.ALLOW_MATERIAL_WRITE);
            changeTexture( texture, image, shape);
            Color3f col = new Color3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f);
            ColoringAttributes ca = new ColoringAttributes(col,
                        ColoringAttributes.NICEST);
            appearance.setColoringAttributes(ca);

            }
    public void changeTexture(Texture texture, BufferedImage image,
Shape3D shape) {
      loader = new TextureLoader(image, "RGB",
                        TextureLoader.ALLOW_NON_POWER_OF_TWO);
      texture = loader.getTexture();
            texture.setBoundaryModeS(Texture.CLAMP_TO_BOUNDARY);
            texture.setBoundaryModeT(Texture.CLAMP_TO_BOUNDARY);
            texture.setBoundaryColor(new Color4f(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.5f,
0f));
            // Set up the texture attributes
            // could be REPLACE, BLEND or DECAL instead of MODULATE

            // front = getAppearance(new Color3f(Color.YELLOW));
            Color3f black = new Color3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
            Color3f white = new Color3f(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
            Color3f red = new Color3f(0.7f, .15f, .15f);
            appearance.setMaterial(new Material(red, black, red, white,
1.0f));

            TextureAttributes texAttr = new TextureAttributes();




                                                                         23
            texAttr.setTextureMode(TextureAttributes.REPLACE);


            appearance.setTextureAttributes(texAttr);
            appearance.setTexture(texture);
            shape.setAppearance(appearance);
     }


     BufferedImage getStartingImage(int i, int width, int height) {
           BufferedImage image = new BufferedImage(width, height,
                       BufferedImage.TYPE_INT_RGB);
           Graphics2D g = (Graphics2D)image.getGraphics();
           g.setColor(new Color(70,70,140));
           g.fillRect(0, 0, width, height);
           return image;
     }
           public void positionViewer() {
           ViewingPlatform vp = universe.getViewingPlatform();
           TransformGroup tg1 = vp.getViewPlatformTransform();
           Transform3D t3d = new Transform3D();
           tg1.getTransform(t3d);
           vp.setNominalViewingTransform();

     }

      public static void addLights(BranchGroup group) {
            Color3f light1Color = new Color3f(0.7f, 0.8f, 0.8f);
            BoundingSphere bounds = new BoundingSphere(new Point3d(0.0,
0.0, 0.0),
                        100.0);
            Vector3f light1Direction = new Vector3f(4.0f, -7.0f, -
12.0f);
            DirectionalLight light1 = new DirectionalLight(light1Color,
                        light1Direction);
            light1.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);
            group.addChild(light1);
            AmbientLight light2 = new AmbientLight(new Color3f(0.3f,
0.3f, 0.3f));
            light2.setInfluencingBounds(bounds);
            group.addChild(light2);
      }
      public static Appearance getAppearance(Color color) {
            return getAppearance(new Color3f(color));
      }
      public static Appearance getAppearance(Color3f color) {
            Color3f black = new Color3f(0.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f);
            Color3f white = new Color3f(1.0f, 1.0f, 1.0f);
            Appearance ap = new Appearance();
            Texture texture = new Texture2D();
            TextureAttributes texAttr = new TextureAttributes();
            texAttr.setTextureMode(TextureAttributes.MODULATE);
            texture.setBoundaryModeS(Texture.WRAP);
            texture.setBoundaryModeT(Texture.WRAP);
            texture.setBoundaryColor(new Color4f(0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,
0.0f));




                                                                      24
              Material mat = new Material(color, black, color, white,
70f);
              ap.setTextureAttributes(texAttr);
              ap.setMaterial(mat);
              ap.setTexture(texture);
              ColoringAttributes ca = new ColoringAttributes(color,
                          ColoringAttributes.NICEST);
              ap.setColoringAttributes(ca);
              return ap;
        }
        @Override
        public void mouseClicked(MouseEvent arg0) {
        }

        @Override
        public void mouseEntered(MouseEvent arg0) {
        }

        @Override
        public void mouseExited(MouseEvent arg0) {
        }

        @Override
        public void mousePressed(MouseEvent event) {
              lastX=-1;
              lastY=-1;
              mouseButton = event.getButton();
        }

        @Override
        public void mouseReleased(MouseEvent arg0) {
        }

      @Override
      public void mouseDragged(MouseEvent event) {
             if (mouseButton==MouseEvent.BUTTON1) return;
             Point3d intersectionPoint = getPosition(event);
             if (Math.abs(intersectionPoint.x) < 0.5 &&
Math.abs(intersectionPoint.y) < 0.5) {
                   double x = (0.5 + intersectionPoint.x) * imageWidth;
                   double y = (0.5 - intersectionPoint.y) *
imageHeight;
                   Graphics2D g = (Graphics2D)
frontImage.getGraphics();
                   g.setColor( Color.BLACK);
                   g.setStroke(new BasicStroke(3));
                   int iX = (int)(x + .5);
                   int iY = (int)(y + .5);
                   if (lastX < 0) {
                          lastX = iX;
                          lastY = iY;
                   }
                   g.drawLine(lastX, lastY, iX, iY);
                   lastX = iX;
                   lastY = iY;
             changeTexture(texture, frontImage, frontShape);
             }


                                                                        25
    }

    @Override
    public void mouseMoved(MouseEvent arg0) {
    }
}




                                                26
Further Information
I hope this tutorial has got you interested in programming with Java 3D. You should now know enough to
program simple scenes, or games like the Pyramid game at http://www.fungames.org.

There are several sources of information to help you learn more.



Online Information

   Java 3D comes with several useful examples, these are described at:
    http://www.java.sun.com/products/java-
    media/3D/forDevelopers/J3D_1_2_API/j3dguide/AppendixExamples.html


   Sun’s tutorial is at:
    http://java.sun.com/products/java-media/3D/collateral/


   The API documentation is at:
    http://java.sun.com/products/java-media/3D/forDevelopers/j3dapi/index.html

   My site is at:
    http://www.java3d.org



Books

There the following books on Java 3D::

   Java 3D API Jump-Start, by Aaron E. Walsh and Doug Gehringer

   Killer Game Programming in Java

   3D User Interfaces with Java 3D, by John Barrilleaux

   Java 3D Programming, by Daniel Selman

   The Java 3D API Specification (With CD-ROM), by Henry Sowizral, Kevin Rushforth, Michael
    Deering




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