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FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT _FBA_ and BEHAVIOR

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									THE FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORAL
     ASSESSMENT (FBA)
                     FBA-BIP


                     and

BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION PLAN
           (BIP)
         Presented by:
         Nancy Myers
         Isley Germaine
         Christine Luciano
         Abby Miller
                         Time For Behavior???

There is always time for discipline!!??

    Do the Math…….

               _________minutes per period
              X _________ periods per day
              = _________ minutes per day
                 _________minutes per day
              X _____5___ days per week
               = _________minutes per week
               __________minutes per week
             : ____60____
              =__________ hours per week


               ___________hours per week
               _____36____school weeks
             = ___________hours per school year
     Identify Typical Behavior Problems
     Exhibited by Students in Educational
     Settings

1.

2.

3.
The discipline strategies used the most are often the LEAST effective…
Punishment
                    Exclusion
                                        Counseling


     The Three C’s
   Consider that the student’s desire to belong is a fundamental need.

   Students in school need to satisfy the three C’s in order to experience this
    sense of belonging.

  They need to:
Feel Capable (of completing tasks in a manner that meets the needs of the
   school)
Connect (with teachers and peers)
Contribute (to the group in a significant way)

   By finding ways to satisfy the three C’s a teacher can fulfill the student’ s
    needs and therefore aid in minimizing inappropriate behavior.

   One of the strongest tools we have is encouragement, without which the
    student can not develop the tools for success. (50 Ways to Say Well Done!)
Simple Paragraph Reading Activity

 •Please work alone
 •Read the paragraph
 •This is a timed test: 4 minutes
 •Answer the questions that follow
     the paragraph

 THIS IS A TEST!
       How Do You Spend Your Energy?
                              The Four Goals of Misbehavior

   Attention – Some students choose to misbehave in order to get extra attention. They
    may constantly interrupt of gain the attention of teachers and/or parents with
    negative or annoying behavior.
   Power (active or passive) – Some students misbehave in search of power. They want
    to be the boss of themselves, the teacher, the other students and even the [parents.
    These students often do not follow the rules of the classroom or home.
   Revenge (active or passive) – Some students want to get even for times that they
    felt hurt by somebody else. These feelings can be based on real or imagined
    occurrences. The target of the revenge can be a parent, teacher, sibling or anybody
    else.
   Avoidance of failure or inadequacy – Some children feel as though they can not live
    up to the expectations set by their families or teacher. They feel like failures and so
    they may choose to display withdrawal behavior. When they withdraw they try to
    look even more inferior in the hopes that we will just leave them alone at last. In
    this way they feel certain that they will not experience real failure anymore.
Create a Classroom Code of
Conduct
Examples:
  I am respectful
  I am responsible
  I am safe
  I am prepared
Or:
We are here to learn. Therefore I will:
  Respect myself, others and the environment
  Cooperate with all the school people
  Do nothing to keep the teacher from teaching or the learner
   from learning
*Class Codes should be stated in positive terms and made be
   decided upon as a class or by the teacher.
         Three Stages of a Volcanic Classroom
    The strategies for dealing with the stages include:


  Rumbling Stage: The Graceful Exit
  Eruption Stage: Use of Time Out
  Resolution Stage: Setting consequences in a teacher- student
   conference - Behavior Reflections
*If a graceful exit is successful the eruption stage may be avoided.
   Employing relaxed body language, a quiet voice, humor (not
   directed at the student) can prevent the situation from escalating.
Other Strategies:
Remove the audience
Table the matter or call a TIMEOUT
Schedule a conference
Use a “fogging technique”
Agree with the student
Change the subject
State both viewpoints
Take a teacher time-out
Defusing Confrontations
Be Proactive!!!
   Anticipate activities that will be difficult for children
   Conference with child and have a plan
     Reinforce strategies, teach, re-teach reinforce
    Differentiate instruction based in learning styles,
    interests and readiness levels
   Use Active/Interactive supervision techniques
   Allow for breaks, frequent support and contact with
    adults and build in rewards with clear expectations.
                                  Successful Planning for Student Achievement
    Conducting Functional Behavioral Assessments to provide data for the design of Behavior Intervention Plans


                                           Main Points
                Build a team that includes a strong partnership with the family

                Behavior is not the problem; it is a symptom of a problem




     Only when we fully understand the student’s perspective, do we understand
      the motivation for problem behavior
      All behavior is motivated by some underlying unmet need
     The extent to which our responses satisfy that need determines whether
      behavior will or will not occur again in the future i.e., our responses
      reinforce or extinguish behavior
     Hypothesis statements should provide enough detail to create
      Behavioral Intervention Plans that include:
        Proactive strategies to prevent behavior from occurring
        Instruction to teach replacement skills that effectively replace problem
         behavior
          Intense responses for appropriate behavior
                         All behavior is driven by a desire to:
                          •Get something we want (access)
                  •Get out of something we don’t want (escape)
Observation Checklist
(Anecdotal)
Setting – Where and When (Class subject, Room,
  Time, Period)
People – The people who interacted with the child
  before, during and after the behavior
Activity – What was the child doing when the
  behavior occurred?
Behavior – In behavioral terms. Only the actions and
  statements.
Antecedent – What happened right before the
  targeted behavior?
            EXAMPLE
“John is a behavior problem.
  He throws his book almost
       every day. He uses
 inappropriate language and
     refuses to get started.
   I don’t know what to do.”
The teacher frequently sends
        him to the dean.
    This student needs

A FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIOR
   ASSESSMENT (FBA)
           and
A BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION
       PLAN (BIP)
What is an FBA?

Functional behavior
assessment is the process
of determining why a
student engages in
“challenging” behavior and
how the student’s behavior
relates to the environment.
           COMPONENTS of an FBA
           The Functional Behavioral Assessment
           provides information to develop a hypothesis as to:



   What the behavior is
    (In concrete terms: John throws the book in class.)

   Why the student engages in the behavior
   When the student is most likely to demonstrate
    the behavior
   Where and/or situations in which the behavior
    is most likely to occur
An FBA is not:
   A particular tool or assessment
    instrument

   A one shot meeting or observation

   Intended to be conducted by a single
    person
     An FBA is …

a problem solving process that uses
information from a variety of sources
collected over time that identifies
variables contributing to occurrences of
problem behavior and helps us to
understand the reasons why problem
behavior is occurring.
     For whom should an FBA/BIP be
     formulated?
   General education students who are at risk due to
    behavioral difficulties (Should)
   Students initially referred for special education whose
    behavior impedes learning
    (RE: “Initial Referral Form”) (Must)
   Students with disabilities who are suspended for more
    than 10 days (Must)
   Students with disabilities who are being reevaluated
    due to behavior impeding learning (Must)
   Students who have a Crisis Management
    Paraprofessional, as per their IEP must have a BIP
    completed
         DEVELOPING THE FBA
               STEP 1
   Identification of the target behavior
      Discuss student with classroom
       teacher(s) and other personnel that
       are directly involved with the
       student
      Clarify the presenting problem

       (i.e. fighting, running out of
       classroom, cursing)
   EXAMPLE: John, Step 1
 One of John’s
targeted behaviors is
that he throws
books.
          DEVELOPING THE FBA
                STEP 2
   Review all student records and
    previous interventions
     Include teacher reports, school
      records, educational evaluations,
      psychological reports, medical
      history, etc. Use whatever you can
      obtain!
     Review all successes the student

      experiences during the school day.
EXAMPLE: John, Step 2
A review of John’s records indicate that he
has demonstrated this behavior in prior
years, but not to the extent of this year.
A review also revealed that John is
reading below level.
The science teacher reports that John
does not demonstrate the target behavior
in science lab.
       DEVELOPING THE FBA
             STEP 3
   Direct observation of the student to
    obtain a baseline of the targeted
    behavior
    Includes:
      Frequency

       (how often the behavior occurs)
      Intensity

       (mild, moderate, or severe)
      Duration

       (length of time the behavior occurs)
    EXAMPLE: John, Step 3

   Frequency: John often throws
    book twice a day

   Intensity: Mild (throws book on
    floor, not at another child)

   Duration: Very short outburst
           DEVELOPING THE FBA
                 STEP 4

   Observe and identify factors that seem to
    cause and maintain the targeted behavior
   Use interview tools (see resources) gather
    data
      What triggers the behavior? (antecedents)

      What are the events that coincide with the

       onset of the behavior?
      What are the consequences of the behavior?
     EXAMPLE: John, Step 4
 Trigger: Using interview tools, it was
  found that John throws his book at
  the beginning of a lesson.
 This behavior usually takes place
  right after the teacher announces
  that the students will be doing oral
  reading.
 Consequence: John is removed from
  the activity .
                       DEVELOPING THE FBA
                             STEP 5
   Identify the function (the need) the targeted behavior serves for the
    student
    For example:
      Gain attention (teacher, peers)

      Avoid task

      Avoid embarrassing class reaction to event (ridicule, reprimand)

      Leave room (Environmental factors-Too hot? Stuffy? Too crowded?
       Unpleasant odor?)
      Fulfill a physical need? (Food? Bathroom?)

      Avoid fearful/hostile situation (Bullied? Bothered?)

        No other graceful exit or de-escalation available

     (This list is not inclusive)
      EXAMPLE: John, Step 5

What is John’s need/motivation?

•Gain attention (teacher, peers)
  •Avoid task
  •Avoid embarrassing class reaction to event (ridicule, reprimand)
  •Leave room (Environmental factors-Too hot? Stuffy? Too crowded?
  Unpleasant odor?)
  •Fulfill a physical need? (Food? Bathroom?)
  •Avoid fearful/hostile situation (Bullied? Bothered?)
  •No other graceful exit or de-escalation available
          DEVELOPING THE FBA
                STEP 6
   Identify specific deficits contributing
    to the targeted behavior
    For example:
      Lacking academic skills?

      Ineffective social problem-solving
       strategies?
      Inadequate attention span?

      Poor impulse control?
          EXAMPLE: John, Step 6
   John, age 15, reads at a 4th grade level.
          This may be a contributing factor
He might feel embarrassed when asked to read out loud.


        Which is more painful to John?
       Getting a detention or suspension?
                        OR
      Being embarrassed in front of his peers?
          DEVELOPING THE FBA
                STEP 7
   Formulate the Hypothesis based on
    specific deficits contributing to the
    targeted behavior
    We hypothesize that:
John’s behavior (throwing the book) is his
response to avoid the task and his
embarrassment because he perceives that
his classmates will tease him for reading
below level.
       Your Turn:
      Group Activity

Complete an FBA based on
  your case study and
    formulate your
     hypothesis…
CASE STUDY # 1
Xavier is an 11year old boy of average intelligence. He reads on grade level and is
above grade level in both science and math. However, when it comes time to write in
the classroom, Xavier will do anything to avoid the activity. He gets out of his seat,
walks around the room, teases his peers and plays with his pencils. What is Xavier’s
problem and how can the classroom teacher overcome this difficulty?

Functional Behavioral Assessment:
COMPONENTS of an FBA
The Functional Behavioral Assessment provides information to develop a hypothesis as to:

•What the behavior is (In concrete terms)
_____________________________________________________________
•Why the student engages in the behavior
_______________________________________________________________________
•When the student is most likely to demonstrate the behavior
_____________________________________________________________
•Where and/or situations in which the behavior is most likely to occur
_____________________________________________________________

•YOUR FBA HYPOTHESIS:
___________________________________________________________________________
CASE STUDY # 2
Alpha is a student of above average intelligence. He is 17 and has accumulated 15
credits. He is the oldest of four children in his family. He rarely completes
assignments in the classroom or for homework . His teachers note that he does not
argue about it. He just does not do it. When the teacher asks him why he does not do
his work he just says that he does not feel like it. What is the difficulty with Alfa and
how can the classroom teacher assist Alpha in overcoming his difficulty?
Functional Behavioral Assessment:
COMPONENTS of an FBA
The Functional Behavioral Assessment provides information to develop a hypothesis as to:

•What the behavior is (In concrete terms)
_____________________________________________________________
•Why the student engages in the behavior
_______________________________________________________________________
•When the student is most likely to demonstrate the behavior
_____________________________________________________________
•Where and/or situations in which the behavior is most likely to occur
_____________________________________________________________

•YOUR FBA HYPOTHESIS:
___________________________________________________________________________
CASE STUDY # 3
Tiffany is a Freshman and has had no problem in school until the last month. All of a
sudden, Tiffany has been initiating verbal arguments with her peers. When asked
about this behavior, Tiffany denies doing or saying anything and claims that she is the
victim. What can the teacher do about Tiffany’s new behavior of verbal arguing?

Functional Behavioral Assessment:
COMPONENTS of an FBA
The Functional Behavioral Assessment provides information to develop a hypothesis as to:

•What the behavior is (In concrete terms)
_____________________________________________________________
•Why the student engages in the behavior
_______________________________________________________________________
•When the student is most likely to demonstrate the behavior
_____________________________________________________________
•Where and/or situations in which the behavior is most likely to occur
_____________________________________________________________

•YOUR FBA HYPOTHESIS:
___________________________________________________________________________
      FUNCTIONAL BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENT



               Helpful Interview
                     Tools

Useful to identify and collect information from people not at
the meeting
   Samples:
   The Functional Assessment Interview Tools (FAIT):
       • Staff version
       • Student version
       • Parent version
                             Overview of the Positive Behavior Support Process
                                                 Functional Behavioral Assessment Process
                         1. Setting up and Preparing for the Initial FBA Meeting
                            A. Identify people to be included on the team and schedule the team meeting.
Facilitation Steps




                            B. Send team members a letter confirming the meeting time and provide directions for completing and
                            returning the Functional Assessment Interview Tool (FAIT).
                            C. Prepare for the meeting including summarizing the information obtained from the completed FAITs.
                         2. Facilitating a Productive FBA Meeting
                            A. Guide the team through a group discussion to define and clarify information.
                            B. Develop a plan for collecting data.
                         3. Gathering and Summarizing Assessment Data
                            A. Collect direct occurrence data and gather additional information from people and records as needed.
                            B. Summarize the data collected.


                                                      Behavior Intervention Plan Process
                         4. Developing an Intervention Plan
    Facilitation Steps




                            A. Reconvene the team meeting. Using the data summaries develop hypothesis statements. Begin to
                            develop support strategies. If the support plan is not completed at this meeting an additional meeting
                            might be necessary.
                            B. Using the hypothesis statement(s) develop the behavior intervention plan.

                         5. Implement, Monitor, and Adjust Intervention Strategies
                            A. Develop a monitoring plan that is implemented within two weeks of the intervention being implemented.

                            B. Meet on a periodic but regularly scheduled basis to monitor the plan and work through emerging issues.
                            If meetings are suspended because goals have been attained, have a plan for reconvening in the event
                            that behavior patterns begin to remerge.
Sample FBA Meeting Script:
Today we are meeting to begin conducting a functional behavioral assessment (FBA). For students who engage in
problem behavior, FBAs are a standard of practice that help us to understand the reason or explanation for why the
behavior is occurring. Functional assessment is a process. This means that over the next couple of weeks we will be
gathering information that will help us to develop a behavior intervention plan. This process will include our discussion
today, gathering information from people who are not here today, and conducting observations of the student in school
settings that are problematic. Research has shown that when we use this process, the intervention plans have a better
chance of being successful and having long term effects. This is an overview of the sequence of steps we will be
following over the next couple of weeks:

    In today’s meeting I will ask you a series of questions about the behavior and the difficult conditions under which
     behavior occurs. We will also develop a plan for collecting additional information.
    We will have a second meeting where I will bring a summary of all the information we have gathered. As a team
     we will look at that summary use that information to develop a behavior intervention plan.
    We will implement the plan, making sure that all relevant people are familiar with the plan.
    We will meet again about 2 weeks later to determine how the plan is doing and to make adjustments as need.
     This process of monitoring and making adjustments will continue until we see an acceptable improvement in
     behavior.

We should expect that we will encounter some challenges and frustrations along the way. What is important is that we
think of ourselves as a team who supports one another to get through the difficult periods. By the end of the meeting, if
you think you need specific supports to help you get through the next couple of weeks please raise them for discussion.
As a team we want to make sure all of our members have what they need to be successful with this student.

We do not have a lot of time in today’s meeting, so I am going to ask that we follow three team norms:

   1. Stay on topic – we have to answer the questions directly. Use the post it notes to jot down other things you want to
      mention that may not be directly relevant to the topic being discussed. If we don’t get to them by the end of the
      meeting, make sure you give me the post it notes to use in follow up.
   2. Speak respectfully about one another, the student, and the student’s family – sometimes our emotions get the best
      of us, in this meeting we want to make sure that we are treating one another and referring to one another in
      collaborative and respectful ways.
   3. Have one conversation at a time: please reframe from having side bar conversations. Our attention needs to be
      focused and unified so we all stay on the same page.
          Functional Assessment Interview Tool: Staff Version
Student:_____________________________ Date Completed:_________

Staff Person:        _______________________________




One of your students, ________________________, has been having behavior
difficulties at school. _____________________’s IEP team has met and determined
that it will be helpful to complete a functional behavioral assessment. This process
involves getting information from staff and conducting observations of the student in
classroom and nonclassroom settings. We know that everyone cannot be at the IEP
meetings, but your opinions and observations about the student are important and we
want to make sure we are taking your information into consideration as a plan is
developed. The purpose of this tool is to get information from you about four key
things: 1) what behaviors are a problem in your classroom, 2) what are the student’s
strengths/preferences and the effective strategies for the student, 3) what happens
right before the behavior, and 4) how do you and peers respond when the behavior
occurs. Any information you can provide will be extremely helpful in this process. We
know you are extremely busy and appreciate the time you are taking to complete this
assessment tool.

Please return this tool to:
    Sample:

    Student’s Name:
Indicate all of the strengths, preferences, and learning style conditions suggested by team members

Positive Things About the Student     Student’s Preferences or Interests             Successful Learning Conditions

 Friendly                           List known or suspected preferences:          Lessons/activities that:
 Helpful
 Sociable                                                                            Encourage reflective thinking
 Organized                           For example:                                    Use analytical skills
                                     Things the student is good at
 Natural leader                      Things the student likes to talk about          Involve building/constructing
 Liked by peers                      Learning or social conditions in which the      Involve applying concepts or
 Has lots of friends                 student excels                                  formulas
                                     Strategies that seem to work well
 Self starter                                                                        Involve experiments or testing
 Socially aware                       Strengths     Preferences   Learning           Use creative writing
 Follows directions                                               Style              Utilize the computer
 Honest                                Friendly     Football   Class              Allow for artistic expression of
                                       Helpful      NASCAR      outline
 Easygoing                             Athletic     geography  Bulleted           concepts
 Attentive to instruction                                            directions
 Kind to adults                                                                      Other:
 Kind to other students
 Good sense of humor                                                                 Other:
  Has a positive
 attitude/outlook                                                                    Other:
 Good communication
 skills                                                                              Other:
 Hard worker
 Other:
 Other:
 Other:
 Other:
                                                                                                       Staff Version

                                    What Works Well for the Student?
What have you observed are the student’s strengths or preferences?     Student’s Name ____________________________

Positive Things About the Student    Student’s Preferences or Interests       Successful Learning Conditions

   Friendly                          List known or suspected preferences:   Lessons/activities that:
   Helpful
   Sociable                                                                    Encourage reflective thinking
   Organized                                                                   Use analytical skills
   Natural leader                                                              Involve building/constructing
   Liked by peers                                                              Involve applying concepts or
   Has lots of friends                                                         formulas
   Self starter                                                                Involve experiments or testing
   Socially aware                                                              Use creative writing
   Follows directions                                                          Utilize the computer
   Honest                                                                      Allow for artistic expression of
   Easygoing                                                                   concepts
   Attentive to instruction
   Kind to adults                                                              Other:
   Kind to other students
   Good sense of humor                                                         Other:
    Has a positive
   attitude/outlook                                                            Other:
   Good communication
   skills                                                                      Other:
   Hard worker
   Other:
   Other:
   Other:
   Other:
Student’s Name ____________________________                                                                                 Staff Version
                                           What Behaviors are a Concern for You?
In the blank space provided, please list behaviors that are a concern for you in your classroom or area. Please be specific and provide
examples of behaviors you have observed. Please check whether the student behavior in your class is: redirectable (i.e., occurs once or
twice and then not again after redirections), repeated (i.e., occurs on and off throughout class, typically stops after a redirection but then
occurs again a short time later), or unmanageable (i.e., the behavior is too disruptive for the student to remain in class). Finally, list any
strategies you have tried to deal with this behavior.

                                     Problem Behavior and Definition                                                    How would you
                                                                                                                         describe this
                                                                                                                           behavior

                                                                                                                         Redirectable
                                                                                                                         Repeated
                                                                                                                         Unmanageable


                                                                                                                         Redirectable
                                                                                                                         Repeated
                                                                                                                         Unmanageable


                                                                                                                         Redirectable
                                                                                                                         Repeated
                                                                                                                         Unmanageable


                                                                                                                         Redirectable
                                                                                                                         Repeated
                                                                                                                         Unmanageable


                                                                                                                         Redirectable
                                                                                                                         Repeated
                                                                                                                         Unmanageable
  Student’s Name ____________________________                                                                         Staff Version
                              What Contributes to Occurrences of Problem Behavior?
Thinking about the problem behaviors you identified that occurred in your classroom, please review the following list and check
off any conditions that serve as triggers for the student’s problem behavior (i.e. set the student off):
    When asked to do a chore or helping task                          Transition at the beginning of a class/routine/activity
    When it is time to do academic work                               Unstructured situations or settings
    When told to do something non preferred                           When given a direction to follow
    When held to a time limit (e.g., curfew or time for class         When corrected
    Tasks that are difficult or confuse the student                   When he/she can not have something they want
    When working/playing/entertaining independently                   Preferred peer group present
    When working in group activities                                  When given an ultimatum
    Not prepared with materials                                       When he or she is told “no” or stop
    Multi-step work or projects                                       When there is a change in routine
    Lecture: with note taking OR without note taking                  When adult attention is on others
    Public response required (e.g., read aloud)                       When there are visitors to the setting
    Being teased or being joked around with                           Other:

When problem behavior occurs, how do you (or students in the class) typically respond?
  Give a non verbal cue (e.g., look at student)                   Deduct points from an assignment
  Verbally correct the student privately                          Send the student to an administrator
  Verbally correct the student publicly                           Other students laugh or “egg” the student on
  Help the student to get on task                                 Give the student a pass to guidance or CST
  Speak to the student after class                                Have the student take a break (e.g., go to the bathroom)
  Call the student’s parents                                      Teacher assigned detention
  Take away recess or other free time                             Student gets out of or delays doing work
  Moved seat                                                      Provide a reminder of what is and isn’t appropriate in class
  Student – teacher conference                                    Try to explain and discuss the issue
  Take a privilege away                                           Other:
  Let the student have what they are asking for

What is your best guess as to why the problem behavior is occurring?
  Get out of situations/work that is too hard                      Get out of the situation because they are not sure of what to do
  Get out of situations/work that is perceived as boring           or what is expected
  Get out of work/class to avoid being embarrassed                 Student shows off to win the validation of peers
  Save face in front of friends                                    To get control over the situation
   To be left alone                                                To get adults to pay attention to him/her (even if it is negative)
   To get something he/she wants                                   To get peers to pay attention to him/her
   Student wants more of OR less stimulation/excitement            Have predictability to know what comes next
                         Functional Assessment Interview Tool: Parent/Guardian Version

Student:             _____________________________               Date Completed:        _____________

Parent/Guardian:     _______________________________




Recently, your child has been having behavior difficulties at school.            To better understand how we can support
______________________ at school, we are conducting a functional behavioral assessment. Your opinion is one important
part of this assessment. The functional behavioral assessment involves getting information from staff, the parent/guardian, and
the student. Additionally, observations of your child in classroom and non classroom settings are conducted.

The purpose of this tool is to get information from you about four key things: 1) What are your child’s strengths/preferences, 2)
What behaviors you are concerned about, 3) Situations where you have observed the behavior, and 4) How you and other
family members respond when the behavior occurs. Any information you can provide will be extremely helpful in this process.
We know you are extremely busy and appreciate the time you are taking to complete this assessment tool.

Please return this tool to:                                         by: ________________________
Student’s Name ____________________________                                                                  Parent Version
                                          What Works Well for Your Child?
What have you observed are your strengths or preferences?

    Positive Things About my Child            My Child’s Preferences or Interests    Learning Conditions that Work Well
                                                                                                for My Child

     Friendly                                 List known or suspected preferences:   Lessons/activities that:
     Helpful
     Sociable                                                                           Encourage reflective thinking
     Organized                                                                          Use analytical skills
     Natural leader                                                                     Involve building/constructing
     Liked by peers                                                                     Involve applying concepts or
     Has lots of friends                                                                formulas
     Self starter                                                                       Involve experiments or testing
     Socially aware                                                                     Use creative writing
     Follows directions                                                                 Utilize the computer
     Honest                                                                             Allow for artistic expression of
     Easygoing                                                                          concepts
     Attentive to instruction
     Kind to adults                                                                     Other:
     Kind to other students
     Good sense of humor                                                                Other:
     Has a positive
     attitude/outlook                                                                   Other:
     Good communication
     skills                                                                             Other:
     Hard worker
     Other:
     Other:
     Other:
     Other:
Student’s Name ____________________________                                                                                  Parent Version
                                What Contributes to Occurrences of Problem Behavior?
  Thinking about the problem behaviors you are concerned about, when do behaviors typically occur:
     When asked to do a chore or helping task                      Transition at the beginning of a class/routine/activity
     When it is time to do homework                                Unstructured situations or settings
     When told to do something non preferred                       When given a direction to follow
     When held to a time limit (e.g., curfew or time for class)    When corrected
     Tasks that are difficult or confusing to my child             When he/she can not have something they want
     When working/playing/entertaining independently               Preferred peer group present
     When working in group activities                              When given an ultimatum
     Not prepared with materials                                   When he or she is told “no” or stop
     Multi-step work or projects                                   When there is a change in routine
     Lecture: with note taking OR without note taking              When adult attention is on others
     Public response required (e.g., read aloud)                   When there are visitors to the setting
     Being teased or being joked around with                       Other:


  When problem behavior occurs, how do you (or other family members) typically respond?
    Give a non verbal cue (e.g., give look)                       Let him/her have what they are asking for
    Verbally correct or prompt                                    He/she gets out of or delays doing the task
    Help my child to get on task                                  Provide a reminder of what is and isn’t appropriate
    Speak to my child afterward                                   Try to explain and discuss the issue
    Take away an activity or free time                            Other:
    Take a privilege away

  What is your best guess as to why the problem behavior is occurring?
    Get out of situations that are too hard                          Get out of the situation because they are not sure of what to do
    Get out of situations that are perceived as boring               or what is expected
    Get out situations to avoid being embarrassed                    To win the validation of peers
    Save face in front of friends                                    To get control over the situation
     To be left alone                                                To get adults to pay attention to him/her (even if it is negative)
     To get something he/she wants                                   To get peers to pay attention to him/her
     To get more of OR less stimulation/excitement                   Have predictability to know what comes next
                      Functional Assessment Interview Tool – Student Version
                                        Interview Guide
 Student:_____________________________ Date Completed: ____________                    Interviewer:____________________

 How would you describe yourself?
 Allow for the student to generate his/her own ideas. If he/she is having a hard time, offer some examples of positive
 qualities. Write down all the student’s statements




 What are some of you interests or favorite things?
 Give examples of hobbies, interests, activities to help the student think of things they like and like to do.



 I’m going to show/read you a list of typical school activities. Which ones best answer the question:
  “I like school when…”?
       I can work by myself                   I understand and can do the work
       I can think creatively                 I get to write                         List any other things you like about
       I get involved in an activity          I’m learning new things that       your school day:
       I can work with other kids        interest
       I am interested in what I am            me
       learning                               I get to see and talk with friends
       There are activities or games          I get to work with other students

Now we are going to talk about times when you get in trouble.
What are some things you do that typically gets you in trouble with school staff?
                                                                                                    Student Version
 Student’s Name ____________________________




Antecedent Examples:

   Hard class material                                         Beginning of class
   Easy class material                                         Changing activities
   Have to work alone                                          Not knowing what to do
   Group work                                                  Teacher gives a direction to class
   Not being prepared for class                                Teacher gives a direction to me
   Multi-step work or projects                                 Being corrected in front of class
   Lecture: note taking required                               Not allowed to do something I want
   Lecture: listening only                                     My friends are around
   Have to read aloud or answer a question in front of class   Given an ultimatum
   Peers teasing                                               When work feels long



Teacher/Staff/Other Student Response Examples:

  Teacher gives me a look                                      Teacher takes a privilege away
  Teacher talks to me privately                                Teacher deducts points from an assignment
  Teacher corrects me in front of others                       I get sent to an administrator
  Teacher helps me with work                                   Other students laugh or “egg” me on
  Teacher speaks to me after class                             I go to guidance or CST
  Teacher calls my parents                                     Teacher has me take a break (e.g., go to the bathroom)
  Teacher takes away recess or other free time                 Teacher assigns me detention
Student’s Name____________________
There are no right or wrong answers. I want to know your opinion about what
is happening.
Behavior__________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

What was           Student’s thoughts and   Student’s perceptions about   Student’s thoughts
happening before   feelings while           staff and other students’     and feelings about
the behavior?      engaging in the          responses to the behavior     other people’s
                   behavior                                               responses to the
                                                                          behavior
  The next step is….


 DESIGN & IMPLEMENT A
BEHAVIOR INTERVENTION PLAN
             (BIP)
          DEVELOPING THE BIP



   (FBA) Hypothesize ways to be
    proactive (manipulate the
    antecedents) in order to reduce or
    eliminate the targeted behavior
   Use these hypotheses to develop a
    Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
              EXAMPLE:
    John gets antecedents modified
       (We hypothesize that this will work)

   Tell John he will not have to read
    during oral reading time, but will
    read to the teacher at another
    time.
   Tell John in advance which
    paragraph he will read so he can
    practice it in advance
   Occasional use of choral reading,
    as feasible
    (e.g. when reading poetry)
          John’s Behavior Intervention
                   Plan (BIP)
   Describe the behavior(s) that interfere(s) with learning
       John throws books on the floor

   What behavior changes are expected?
       It is expected that John will open his book and it will remain on his desk when
    requested to by the teacher

   What strategies are going to be tried to change the behavior?
        John will be told what paragraph he will read in advance so that he may rehearse
    it prior to being called upon.

   What supports will be employed to help the student change the behavior?
        The teacher will support John by telling him which paragraph he will be reading
    prior to being called upon. He/She will also review new vocabulary with John and
    encourage him to attempt new tasks in a risk-free environment. Occasional choral
    reading utilized when appropriate.
                                                          continued next page
                   John’s Behavior
               Intervention Plan (BIP)
                      (continued)




    Describe who is responsible for collecting and monitoring
     behavior?
         Teachers collect data.

    How will the behavior be monitored?
        Frequency of occurrences is recorded daily.

    When will the data be reviewed?
        2-3 weeks from implementation of plan

    Were the strategies useful? Outcome
        Discuss with Team Members John’s frequency of occurrence of the
     target behavior only, and come to decision.

Note: The environment, including adult behavior, is ALSO expected to
     change. Successful outcomes will depend on the fidelity of the process
     and the persistence with which it is applied, by EVERYONE who works
     with John.
       It is EXPECTED that the BIP will need “tweaking”
       following initial implementation



 Implement, Monitor, & Adjust the Behavior Intervention Plan

Important Reminder:
Develop a monitoring plan that is implemented within 2 weeks
of developing the BIP.

Meet Periodically to evaluate and adjust the plan.

If a student is removed from class more than 2 times following
implementation of the BIP, the team should immediately
reconvene to modify and adjust the plan.
     Main Points Reviewed
        Build a team that includes a strong partnership with the family
        Behavior is not the problem; it is a symptom of a problem

  *All behavior is motivated by some underlying unmet need
  *Our responses reinforce or extinguish behavior
  *Hypothesis statements should provide enough detail to create
    Behavioral Intervention Plans that include:
      Proactive strategies to prevent behavior from occurring

      Instruction to teach replacement skills that effectively
        compete with problem behavior

      All behavior is driven by a desire to:
       •Get something we want (access)
•Get out of something we don’t want (escape)
    Strategies to Strengthen Behavior

   Social praise, your most powerful ally
    Prompts and reminders to use alternative skills
    Incentive systems
    Self monitoring and self-reinforcement
The Behavior Intervention Manual
             (BIM)

Surprise



            Thank you.
             CFN 107
        Your Turn:
       Group Activity

Using the FBA your Team
developed for your case study
student and using your
Behavior Intervention Manual
(BIM), write a Behavior
Intervention Plan for your
case study student
 CASE STUDY # 1
 Xavier is an 11 year old boy of average intelligence. He reads on grade level and is
 above grade level in both science and math. However, when it comes time to write in
 the classroom, Xavier will do anything to avoid the activity. He gets out of his seat, he
 balls up his paper, walks around the room, teases his peers and plays with his pencils.
 What is Xavier’s problem and how can the classroom teacher overcome this
 difficulty?
                                     Behavior Intervention Manual- BIM
    •      Using the BIM table of contents & the corresponding pages in the BIM manual, complete the chart
           below.
    •      Using on your FBA & BIM, write a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)


        Letter & Topic      Behavior                          Topic Sentence                          Page #
                            Number




Describe the behavior(s) that interfere(s) with learning
____________________________________________________________________________________________
What behavior changes are expected?
____________________________________________________________________________________________
What strategies are going to be tried to change the behavior?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What supports will be employed to help the student change the behavior?
____________________________________________________________________________________________
   CASE STUDY # 2
   Alpha is a student of above average intelligence. He is 17 and has accumulated 15
   credits. He does not complete assignment in the classroom or for homework. His
   teachers note that he does not argue about it. He just does not do it. When the
   teacher asks him why he just says that he doesn’t feel like it. What is the difficulty
   with Alfa and how can the classroom teacher assist Alpha in overcoming his
   difficulty?
                                     Behavior Intervention Manual- BIM
    •      Using the BIM table of contents & the corresponding pages in the BIM manual, complete the chart
           below.
    •      Using on your FBA & BIM, write a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

        Letter & Topic      Behavior                          Topic Sentence                          Page #
                            Number




Describe the behavior(s) that interfere(s) with learning
____________________________________________________________________________________________
What behavior changes are expected?
____________________________________________________________________________________________
What strategies are going to be tried to change the behavior?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What supports will be employed to help the student change the behavior?
____________________________________________________________________________________________
   CASE STUDY # 3
   Tiffany is a Freshman and has had no problem in school until the last month. All
   of a sudden, Tiffany has been initiating verbal arguments with her peers. When
   asked about this behavior, Tiffany denies doing it and states that she is the victim.
   What can the teacher do about Tiffany’s new behavior of verbal arguing?

                                     Behavior Intervention Manual- BIM
    •      Using the BIM table of contents & the corresponding pages in the BIM manual, complete the chart
           below.
    •      Using on your FBA & BIM, write a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)

        Letter & Topic      Behavior                          Topic Sentence                          Page #
                            Number




Describe the behavior(s) that interfere(s) with learning
____________________________________________________________________________________________
What behavior changes are expected?
____________________________________________________________________________________________
What strategies are going to be tried to change the behavior?
____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
What supports will be employed to help the student change the behavior?
____________________________________________________________________________________________
Activity:


   Linking Behavior & Learning
   Another Piece of the Puzzle
                COMMON STRATEGIES
• Task analysis -- break down tasks to smaller components
• Shorter assignments
• Extra time
• Be sure student understands the directions (simplify directions)
• Use manipulatives and concrete material
• Use a highlight marker to identify key words or ideas
• Use a tape recorder
• Use graph paper for math problems
• Color code material
• Enlarge printed material
• Use visual / picture cues
• Teach organizational skills
• Allow the student to use assistive technology
• Stress the student’s strengths and positive behavior rather than
  their weaknesses and negative behaviors
• Determine learning style and use it (visual, auditory or
  tactile/kinesthetic)
       REMEMBER

“All students can learn and
  succeed, but not on the
same day in the same way”
           -William G. Spady
           Change-Leaders, Standards Based Education Reform & Break-the-Mold Schools

								
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