VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 4 POSTED ON: 10/4/2011
<trinity Sight logo> <Start of Right to sight video (slightly edited)> [first 30 seconds] <slide show of African picture (maybe cataracts to be talked over.) Intro A cataract is a clouding that develops in the lens of the eye eventually stopping light entering the eye and causing blindness. Cataracts are the main cause of preventable blindness in the world. According to the World Health Organisation, over 25 million eyes develop visual impairment due to cataracts every year. Also there are 30 million cataract removal operations needed each year but only 10 million performed. Blindness due to cataracts affects 1 in every 200 people in sub Saharan Africa. Cataracts are a major problem, especially in the developing world. <right to sight logo → right to sight website> Project After some research and contact with the charity Right To Sight, we found the main reason cataracts are so wide spread in the developing world is due to a shortage of both performing cataract surgeons and surgeons to train new ones. The aim of our project was to make a surgical training simulator to aid in the training of surgeons to perform this much needed surgery. The Cataract Removal Surgery consists of a small number of precise steps, so it is a prime candidate for simulator training <eye surgery simulator pictures> The existing simulator for training surgeons costs 180 thousand euro, far to much to be feasible in the developing world. <scroll various Microsoft software logo's> We aimed to create a surgical simulator that would be much cheaper than this existing machine by making it from low cost, widely available hardware components and developing it using a range of Microsoft software. <video of actual eye surgery from 'somewhere> Cataract Removal Surgery requires the surgeon to operate without directly looking at their hands. Our Simulator will help trainees to overcome this dependence, as well as familiarizing them with the major surgery steps. The Simulator would also provide a way for trained surgeons to keep their skills sharp when there is a shortage of Cataract patients – A problem many Cataract surgeons face even in the developed world. <picture of surgeon visiting Africa> At the moment, a new cataract surgeon's training must be performed almost completely under the supervision of a trained surgeon. Our Simulator would enable the most time consuming aspects of the training process to be performed by the trainee alone, freeing up the severely limited supply of trained surgeons to see to a larger number of students. Impact <slowly un-blur picture of African child smiling> This project will impact a huge number of people. By increasing the number of trainees the qualified surgeons can see in their allotted time we hope to create a large number of people capable of performing the cataract operation. With this in place the number of performed could be brought closer to the 30 million needed every year. The fact that 1 in 200 people in sub Saharan Africa is blinded by cataracts shows just how many people a project like this could help. Consistency The theme for this years cup is tied into the UN millennium goals MDG 1 : Eradicate Extreme Poverty and Hunger Blind people in Africa find it almost impossible to find work or support and in many cases are completely dependent on other for their most basic needs. *MDG 2*: Achieve universal primary education Approximately 90% of visually impaired children in low-income countries are deprived of schooling *MDG 4*:Reduce Child Mortality. Up to 60% of children in low income countries are likely to die within one year of becoming blind. Moreover, around 500,000 children become blind each year *MDG 5*: Improve Maternal Health Seeing how difficult it is for a blind women to survive in Africa. Imagine if that woman is pregnant . *MDG 6*: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases Cataract related blindness is a serious and wide spread disease which this project can alleviate. *MDG 8*: Develop a global partnership Our online community will foster a partnership between trained surgeons and trainees world wide. As you can see our project to help alleviate cataract relates blindness clearly helps achieve these goals. Technology In creating this simulator we used a range of technologies (text in bold is shown on screen) Windows/.net framework Our project was built using the dot net framework and is designed to run on a windows PC. Visual Studio 2008/XNA 3.0 <video of code being edited in vis studio> Visual studio was the development environment of choice throughout the project. As the simulator is written in C#. XNA is a tool set and a run time environment for creating computer games for the PC and X box 360.Although XNA is designed primarily for creating games, we felt it was a useful platform on which to develop our surgical simulator. It allowed us to easily manage our content, for example sound effects and models. We were also able to utilise it to create a world for our simulator and detect basic interactions between objects in the world. Blender <model rotating in blender.> Blender allowed us to create all the models needed to represent the pieces needed in the simulator. SilverLight & Expression Studio Expression Studio and Silverlight were used to design our website and provide multi-media functionality SQL server our simulator features a scoring system which is connected to a world wide server to allow trainees to get an idea of how they are progressing and to let surgeon monitor which trainees are ready to move onto the next stage of training. This scoring system runs on a windows server with an SQL database Motion Sensitive Controller Our simulator uses a Motion Sensitive Controller as its user interface device. By using it in combination with a small LED array , of our own design, it lets us transfer the users real life movements into the same movements in the simulator world. Currently we are using Nintendo Wii- motes as our controller but we hope to switch over to a X box 360 compatible controller as soon as possible. (innovation) Using gaming motion sensitive devices for the purpose of surgical training simulator was completely unheard of before we started to implement this project. (complexity management) (user experience) Demo This is the main menu of our surgical simulator from here you can select levels, access the options menu, view the ranking systems and find more information on the charity we have been working with. The first level represents Capsulorrhexis. This is the point in the surgery where a small incision is made in the lens capsule and then gripping is a small circular hole is torn in it to allow easy access to the cataract. In the simulator the user must grab the upper ball and pull it towards the center point marked by the other sphere, frequently releasing it in order to get a circular tear. This is one of the trickiest steps in the surgery and is a very delicate procedure. The second level represents creating a scleral tunnel under the cataract. This lifts the cataract away from the eye allowing it to be removed without damaging the eye below it. This is done using a round edged blade in a sweeping motion to create the cut. Using our simple maze, the user gets used to the sweeping motion needed by the surgery while also making sure to keep vertical movement to a minimum to ensure the patients eye is not damaged. The third level represents phaco grooving. The cataract must be broken into small pieces before it can be removed by the phaco tool. This is done by carving a cross shaped groove in the cataract allowing it to be easily snapped. The user must keep the tools inside the 2 incisions in the eye while making the groove. As the cataract is no longer rooted to the eye it can now be rotated freely, allowing the user to better access the parts of the cataract furthest from the incisions. The fourth level shows the final aspiration of the remaining cataract through the small vacuum in the phaco tool. In a similar vein to the previous level the user must remove the cataract pieces using the phaco tool, while rotating the cataract to remove the furthest pieces. Each user has a profile which saves their top score in each level. Also locally the top 10 scores on each level are stored one a ranking table which is viewable from the ranking selection on the main menu. Each unit can also connect to a centralised server which has the top 10 world wide scores for each discipline. When ever the unit connects to the server before pulling down the top 10 scores the list is checked against the units local scores and and updates the server list if necessary. The options menu lets the user switch the controls to a left handed version and to change the difficulty level of the training levels. This is done by scaling the distances received by the motion sensitive controller to increase or decrease the size of the eye relative to the users movement. (effectiveness, need information from Princeton.) Extendability Despite using the Nintendo Wii mote as our motion sensitive controller, we have been looking into other potential controller as we feel we could do with a more sensitive measurement of the users movements. One of the controllers we have been looking at is the game trek freedom. At the time of filming this is still unreleased but its is designed to give accurate real world position first and act as a pointer second, the opposite of the Wii mote. Also it is compatible with the X box which would further decrease the cost of one of our simulator set ups. Another option is the just announced Project Natal. If this were sensitive enough, we could do away with bulky controllers and have the trainees using similarly sized and shaped tools and just track the movements made by their hands that way.
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