“This nation will remain a neutral
nation, but I cannot ask that
every American remain neutral in
thought as well.” FDR, 1939
Dictators Threaten World Peace
Mussolini, Dictator of Italy. Extreme
Nationalism, and Militaristic.
Hitler, Germany. Extreme Racism and
militaristic. Nazi Party.
Stalin, Soviet Union, Communist,
Revolution by workers.
Japan, Military Leaders.
Reasons for Rise of Dictatorships
Economic Turmoil: World wide depression,
Germany paying war reparations
Sagging National Spirit: Restore past
Individual had no rights.
Only the “state” is important
Restore past glory of Rome
Gain overseas colonies: attacked Ethiopia
Aimed to be an industrial giant.
Initiated the “Great Purge” 3 million
political opponents removed.
Stopped political, religious, and human
Wanted communism to spread
Military groups in 1920’s
Revive Samurai Code-Glorify Warriors
Engage in naval armament race with Great
Look to expand, and gain raw materials
Looks at the U.S. as the chief rival of the
Created the National Socialist Party: Nazis
Hitler: Tremendous motivator of the
Restore national pride
Promised order out of chaos.
Germany’s problems blamed on the Jews,
International Bankers, Communists, Old
German Leaders, and nations who signed
the Treaty of Versailles
Wrote “Mein Kampf” in jail and plans a new
German Empire (Reich) that would last 100
Belief that Germans are the master race and all
other races such as Jews, Slavs were inferior
and less than human.
Final Solution: Exterminate Jews from the earth.
Dictatorship was the only form of government
that would work. Give power to the strong.
Members of the Nazi Hierarchy
Herman Goerring: Leader of Luftwaffe,
old-time friend of Hitler
Heinrich Himmler: Head of Nazi SS, in
charge of dealing with the final solution
Joseph Goebels: Minister of Propaganda,
kept final solution a secret.
Rudolph Hess: Head of Gestapo (Secret
Minister of Propaganda
Hitler’s Goals/Movement Towards
Restore National Pride
Regain lost territory
Gain living space
Purify Europe: Final Solution
German Territorial Acquisitions
1936: Germany marches into Rhineland.
Mussolini and Hitler signs Rome-Berlin Axis
1938: German marches into Austria to quiet civil
disorder, next day Austria is declared part of
Hitler demands Czechoslovakia to evacuate the
Sudentland. Policy of appeasement is at its
highest, Sudentland is signed over.
Germany can’t achieve goals
England has radar
German planes too far to fly no escort
Do not stick to original plan of eliminating
U.S. Increases involvement
Involvement with lend-lease program
FDR worries allies will run out of money
Becomes arsenal of democracy
7 billion $ for ships, planes, tanks
American warships begin convoy duty
Atlantic charter August 1941 Roosevelt
meets with Churchill to discuss the post
Countries have the right to determine
their own government.
Japan sees America as a sleeping giant,
U.S. will enter war after the attack on
“I have seen war, and I hate