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					Hands-on workshop:
Phenological monitoring from field to database, and beyond




          early spring                          late spring                         early autumn
                                   From Richardson et al., 2007. Oecologia.




             Brian Haggerty           haggerty@lifesci.ucsb.edu               805.893.8066
            Susan Mazer                   mazer@lifesci.ucsb.edu              805.893.8011

                         Department of Ecology, Evolution & Marine Biology
                              University of California, Santa Barbara
Hands-on workshop:                                                                      1

Phenological monitoring from field to database, and beyond

• Introduce local players & provide program overview
• Phenology: what is it & why is it important?
• The relationship between phenology & climate change
• Phenological monitoring in the U.S. and elsewhere: past, present, future
    • Introduction to the USA National Phenology Network
• Phenological Monitoring Goals for different “clients”: Citizen scientists,
  Professional Scientists, & Teachers
• Establishing a Phenological Monitoring Program
• A Botany Primer/Refresher: classroom instruction & outdoor hands-on practice
• Team efforts to create new interactive activities with participants (park visitors,
  students, docents, naturalists)
• Creation of customized visual aids: field guide to your species
                                                                                                 2
About us…

            Susan Mazer, PhD
              • Professor of Ecology & Evolution at UCSB.
              • Research: evolution of life history, reproductive, and physiological traits within
                and among species of wild plants.
              • Board of Directors (Vice Chair), USA National Phenology Network.
              • Co-PI on 5-year NSF grant to establish the USA-NPN.

            Brian Haggerty, M.S.
              • 3rd-year PhD student at UCSB with Mazer.
              • B.S., M.S., and PhD research on causes & consequences of phenological
                variation across biological scales.
              • Variety of roles in USA National Phenology Network:
                    • Species & protocols working group
                    • Networks working group
                    • Development of training & outreach materials



                                          Haggerty & Mazer established the
                                            UCSB Phenology Stewardship
                                                   Program in Spring 2007


                     Our model site: UCSB’s Coal Oil
                     Point Natural Reserve
                                                                                    3
Current programs

              Phenology research, environmental education & community
              outreach to connect people with nature & the USA-NPN

         Formal science education
           UCSB freshman seminar, UCSB Teacher Education Program (M.S. students),
           undergraduate phenology stewardship program & curriculum development.
         Informal science education & public outreach
           Kids In Nature (5th grade year-long environmental education),
           Osher Lifelong Learning Institute (adult ed.), public seminars.
         Native Plant Phenology Gardens
           Phenological monitoring & curriculum with native plants.
           Two already installed at elementary schools, 1 underway
           for Boys & Girls Club.
         Phenology Trails & maps
           Easy to establish with existing hiking/walking trails.

         Reconstructing historical phenology –
         Detecting climate change in the herbarium.
           Simple methods & analyses to examine long-term phenology
           patterns, compare to current phenological observations.
Phenology is the study of recurring plant and animal life cycle events.                  4
A framework for understanding and connecting with the natural world, any time of year.

      Some prominent phenological events in Santa Barbara             Applications
    Monarch butterflies in residence
             California Poppy in bloom                               Wild species,
               Northbound Gray Whale migration                       Ecotourism
                    Pine & grass pollen
                                                                     Allergens
               Strawberry season
                                      Tomato season
                                                                     Agriculture,
                                                  Peach season       local food
                                                                     economy
 winter            spring                 summer



   We can consistently identify distinct phenophases in all plants and animals.
                                     Example: Common Lilac
     Leaf budburst & emerging leaves               First flowers   Peak flowering
                                                                                        5
Phenology & Climate Change



Our workshop includes:
• Overview of up-to-date climate change data & information sources (IPCC).
• The “Fingerprint of Climate Change”: biological responses to climate change in space
  and time.
• Examples of phenological responses to climate change & consequences of
  “phenological mismatches” between co-dependent species (like plants & pollinators).




                        earlier                       persistent
                        spring                         summer
Temperature                       Expanding growing
                                       season


                 warmer winter
                    winter           summer
                           Time of Year
                                                                                                      6
Applications of phenological research – it‟s not just for climate change research!

Scientific Research                                  Human Health
Measuring and modeling the effects of climate        Timing and prediction of allergy and asthma
variability and change on population dynamics        problems
and species distributions; Predicting ecological     Study of vector-borne diseases (lyme disease,
synchrony; Estimating carbon sequestration;          avian flu, West Nile virus, Hanta virus)
Ground truthing for remote sensing; Assessing
ecohydrological change


                                                     Natural Resource
Education                                            Monitoring
Teach children and citizen scientists the            Prediction of forest pest and disease outbreaks;
methods of scientific observation; develop           fire management; invasive species management;
college curricula that encourage local               watershed management; selection of taxa to be
monitoring and education use of NPN data             used in „assisted migration‟ to conserve
management products                                  ecosystem services as climate change affects
                                                     species‟ ranges.


Tourism & Recreation                                 Agriculture
Informing the public of timing of bird migrations,   Predicting the timing of management activities
wildflower displays, and fall colors                 (pest and disease control, sowing, harvesting,
                                                     provision of pollinators), drought monitoring
                                                                                        7
Overview of the USA-NPN: history, goals, structure, and future.




  Unite data from existing scientific networks   Facilitate and promote phenological
                                                      monitoring by professional
                                                    scientists, citizen scientists, &
                                                        educational institutions




 In our workshop, we discuss
 accommodating different
 phenological monitoring goals
 for scientists, educators,
 citizen scientists, etc.
                                                                                         8
Establishing a phenological monitoring program
• Site selection (single place, trail, multiple sites)
• Species selection for your area
    • The NPN Species List & Calibration Species
    • Choosing one species, multiple species, or entire communities
    • Choosing species by time of year (e.g., spring vs. summer vs. fall bloom events)
• Recruiting & assigning data collectors (staff vs. the public vs. both)
• Setting up a monitoring schedule that integrates into your existing lifestyle
  and work program.
• Entering data (demonstrations of NPN & Budburst databases)
• Activities for visitors (one-time class visits vs. repeated visits by docents or
  the public).




                                    Phenology trails are easily
                                   established on existing trails,
                                       paths, and walkways.
                                                                                       9
Establishing a phenological monitoring program

 In our workshop we provide a “Botany Primer/Refresher” course…
 • Indoor lecture component: form & function of vegetative & reproductive
   structures, pollination biology, generalized life cycles & phenophases. Potential
   for hands-on activity with collected specimens.
 • Outdoor hands-on activity: recognizing & naming plant structures, identifying
   phenophases, recording observations onto data sheets.

       … as well as a guided brainstorming session on
        activity development for multiple audiences
        (scientists, park visitors, students)…




                … and tips on customizing visual aids for those audiences.
                         10
The Phenology Handbook
can be tailored for a
variety of audiences
                                                                                           11
Some of our partners




  Unite data from existing scientific networks             Facilitate and promote
                                                         phenological monitoring by
                                                        professional scientists, citizen
                                                          scientists, & educational
                                                                  institutions




                                                                                    Botanic
 UC Natural                                                                         Gardens
 Reserve System

                                                                              UCSB’s Cheadle
                                                                                    Center for
Sister phenology        UCSB                               U.S. Fish &          Biodiversity &
programs                Gevirtz         National Park        Wildlife              Ecological
(e.g., Virginia Tech)   School of         Service            Service              Restoration
                        Education                                             (Kids In Nature)
UCSB’s                Fairview                                                        12
Sedgwick              Organic                  Santa Barbara
Natural               Garden                   Botanic Garden
Reserve                                                              Lotusland Botanic
                                                                     Gardens
Isla Vista
Elementary                                                      Native Plant Phenology
School (future                                                  Gardens (3)
garden site)




                   UCSB “Teachers-in-         UCSB’s
                   training”, integrating     Carpinteria
                   phenology into existing
                                              Salt Marsh
                   middle school curricula

 UCSB’s
 Coal Oil
 Point
 Natural
 Reserve
                                                                   City of Oxnard with
                                                                   US Fish & Wildlife –
                 UCSB                                              future expansion of
                 Phenology Stewardship Program                     garden project
                 Gevirtz Grad School of Education                  throughout the
                 Cheadle Center for Biodiversity &                 community
                 Ecological Restoration
Hands-on workshop:
Phenological monitoring from field to database, and beyond




          early spring                          late spring                         early autumn
                                   From Richardson et al., 2007. Oecologia.




             Brian Haggerty           haggerty@lifesci.ucsb.edu               805.893.8066
            Susan Mazer                   mazer@lifesci.ucsb.edu              805.893.8011

                         Department of Ecology, Evolution & Marine Biology
                              University of California, Santa Barbara

				
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