How Do I Do Research On The Internet by pengxiuhui

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									How Do I Do Research
  On The Internet?
    Living Online Lesson 4
          Mrs. Elzey
           Lesson Objectives
 List some reasons for searching the Internet.
 Describe different search approaches.
 Define a search engine.
 Explain how search engines work.
 Describe how search engines search.
 Identify some of the more popular search
  engines.
 List some of the specialty search engines.
 Describe the subject directory search approach.
 Describe some search tips and tricks.
The Key to a Successful Search
 Understand the tools available
 Some are more suitable for some
  purposes than others
 Two basic tools to find info online
    – Search engines – automated programs
    – Subject directories – assembled by people
                 Search Engines
 A software program
 Hundreds of different ones each one works a
  little differently
 Most have common search features:
    – Keyword searchers
    – Concept-based searching
        The search engine returns hits that relate to the keyword(s).
    – Stemming or “related” sites
        The search engine finds variations of the word.
    Search Engine‟s 3 main parts
 Main component: software program – searches
  through millions of records in a database
 2nd part: spider or crawler – a robot program
  that searches the Internet for keywords and
  returns the pages it finds to the search engine
 3rd part: index – when the spider finds a page it
  submits it to the index. Once indexed it becomes
  available to that search engine.
              Keyword searches
 The most common method used, but not the most
  effective
 Keywords are placed in meta tags in the web page
  document
    – <meta name = “keywords” content =“Nintendo 64, Mario,
      James Bond, Donkey Kong”>
 Tags may be used to create an index
 If no tag – the keyword is looked for in a database on a
  server
 Each time the word is found it returns a hit on a Web
  site
 Usually produces 1000s of hits
    – The page may have a relevance rating percentage
    – As you move down the page the relevant number becomes less.
Tools and Techniques for Searching
   Phrase
    – Entered using double quotation marks
    – Separate multiple phrases or proper names with a
      comma
   Math Symbols– filters in or out unwanted sites
    – (+) inclusion operator: before words that must
      appear
    – (-) exclusion operator: before words that should
      not appear
                Let‟s Practice
 Go to www.google.com
 Enter the keywords
    cookie recipe
 How many hits did you get?
 Now enter “cookie recipe”
 How many hits did you get?
 Now enter +cookie +recipe
 How many hits did you get?
        Let‟s narrow our search
   Enter the words
    +cookie +recipe +chocolate
   How many hits did you get?
   Now enter
    +cookie +recipe +chocolate –coconut
   Add the word sugarless
    +cookie +recipe +chocolate –coconut
    +sugarless
   The hits should continue to reduce
Some Popular Search Engines
             Google
              – www.google.com
             HotBot
              – www.hotbot.com
             AlltheWeb
              – www.alltheweb.com



  Check out this website for more help
 working with particular search engines.
 http://www.infopeople.org/search/guide.html
Specialty Search Engines
     Specialty Search Engines
  Also known as “Category-oriented” search
  tools
 Focuses on a particular topic
 Use when you are looking for information
  in a particular format.
        Specialty Search Engines
   Looking for a dictionary?
    – www.thefreedictionary.com
   Looking for an online encyclopedia?
    – http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
   Want to do some online shopping?
    – www.bizrate.com
    – www.froogle.com
   Looking for a place to visit?
    – www.expedia.com
    – www.orbitz.com
Some Specialty Search Engines
   Maps
    – www.mapquest.com
   People
    – www.peoplesite.com
    – www.yellow.com
   Multimedia
    – www.multimedia-search.com
    – www.audiofind.com
     Subject Directory Searching
   Assembled by people
   Web sites are checked to make sure they meet a
    particular set of standards
   URL is added to the database
   Organized by subject categories
   Internet resources are arranged by subject
   Displayed in a series of menus
    – Goes from general to specific
        Subject Directories
 Provide a more guided approach than
  entering keywords into a search engine.
 You are not searching the entire Web.
 The Web sites have been handpicked and
  evaluated.
 They produce better quality hits on
  searches for common items.
Some Popular Subject Directories
            Librarian‟s index
               – www.lii.org
                   Yahoo
             – www.yahoo.com
                   Galaxy
             – www.galaxy.com
            Other Search Tools
   Boolean Logical Operators
    – AND
    – OR
    – NOT
   Wildcard
    – (*) symbol used when not sure of the spelling of a
      word
   Title – only used by some search engines
    – Place title between double quotations
   Related
    – Seen with pages that have „similar pages‟ or „related
      pages‟ or „more pages like this‟, etc.
                               Boolean
   AND
     – The search may look like this:
           cookies AND recipes AND chocolate
   OR
     – One term or the other or both will return results
     – The search may look like this:
           cookies OR cake AND recipes
   NOT
     – Similar to the exclusion operator (-)
     – Excludes results with this term
     – The search may look like this:
           cookies OR cake AND recipes NOT chocolate
   You may find logical searches under an additional search tab such
    as “Advanced Search”
   Not all search engines support Boolean logic.
             Wildcard Searching
 Used when you don‟t know the spelling of a
  word
 Also used when you want to search plurals or
  variations of a word.
 Example:
    – Search for baseball cards and Nolan Ryan but not
      sure how to spell the name.
    – The search may look like this:
        “baseball cards”, N*, “Ryan”
        “baseball cards”, No*, Ry*
   Some search engines do not support wildcard
    searches
               Title Searching
 Looking for a Web page title.
 The search may look like this:
    – “Internet Tutorial”
   Not all search engines support title
    searches.
              Related searches
   Preprogrammed queries or questions suggested
    by the search engine
   Leads to other Web pages containing similar
    information
   Can improve your odds of finding information.
   Several search engines offer this feature
   you may see terms such as:
    – Similar pages
    – Related pages
    – More pages like this
       Meta Search Engines
 Also known as a multi-threaded search
  engine
 Transmits your search simultaneously to
  databases maintained by search engine
  companies.
         Meta-Search Engines
   Web Crawler
    – www.webcrawler.com
   Dogpile
    – www.dogpile.com

								
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