PRESCHOOL STUTTERING Information and resources for people working with preschool children Website A survey of 100 preschool teachers by the Stuttering Interest Group of the Speech Pathology Association of Australia, identified a need for stuttering information amongst professionals working with younger children (Block, Carey, Borg & Ross, 2006). A website with resources for preschool teachers and childcare workers has been designed to help meet this need. The Preschool Stuttering website www.latrobe.edu.au/hcs/projects/ preschoolstuttering Presentation Outline •What is stuttering? •What are the causes? •Facts about stuttering •What treatment is available •How you can help What is Stuttering? The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines stuttering as: A “disorder in the rhythm of speech, in which an individual knows precisely what he wishes to say, but at the time is unable to say it because of an involuntary, repetitive prolongation or cessation of a sound”. Imagine there‟s a train line going from your brain to your mouth. When you speak, the train carries your message and delivers it to your mouth smoothly. Imagine there are rocks on this track from your brain to your mouth. The train now gets stuck and makes it harder for the message on your train to reach it‟s destination. That’s what it’s like to stutter. Getting the message from the brain to the mouth is the tricky part. You know what station you want to get to, the train just can‟t get there. Description of Stuttering Each child is different and will have a different combination of stuttering behaviours. Stuttering Behaviours Repetitions • Repetitions can occur at the start, middle, or end of a word or sentence, but most commonly at the beginning of the sentence. • They are often what first comes to mind when thinking about typical stuttering behaviours and are quite easy to recognize. Stuttering Behaviours… Repetitions: Examples • Sound: „c-c-can I have some chocolate?‟ • Syllable: „can I have some choc-choc-choc- chocolate?‟ • Word: „can-can-can-can I have some chocolate?‟ • Phrase: „Can I - can I – can I have some chocolate?‟ • Sentence: „Can I have some chocolate? Can I have some chocolate? Stuttering Behaviours… Blocking • Occurs when there is a stoppage of airflow and therefore no sound comes out. • The child may attempt to speak, but appears to struggle to get the words out. • Usually occurs at the start of the word. Stuttering Behaviours… Prolongation • The child seems to „stretch‟ the sound out. • It can occur on sounds in any position in the word or sentence and can vary in length. • Example: „aeeeeeeeeroplane‟ Stuttering Behaviours… Interjections • Also known as „fillers‟ • Interjections are the frequent insertion of words like „um‟ and „ah‟. Stuttering Behaviours… Other behaviours may also occur. These include things like: • Tension and struggle in the face • Lack of eye contact • Body movements • Avoiding particular words • Avoiding particular situations Stuttering Behaviours… There are times when a child who stutters may not stutter at all. Particular situations when stuttering is not likely to occur are when the child is: • Whispering • Singing • Talking to animals and babies • Talking alone • Acting and putting on voices Normal Disfluency? Not all children go through a period of normal disfluency (disruption of flow), so any child who is disfluent should be carefully monitored. It is difficult to predict who will continue to stutter and who will grow out of it. Therefore, if you hear any disfluency (lasting 3-6 months), refer to a Speech Pathologist. Facts about Stuttering • There is no known single underlying cause for stuttering. • Current thoughts are that “…stuttering is most likely due to some problem with the neural processing (brain activity) that underlies speech production” (ASRC, 2006). Facts about Stuttering… • Stuttering tends to run in families and is thought to have a genetic link. • Affects three times as many boys than girls in preschool aged children • Is not caused by parent interaction • Is not a psychological problem Facts about Stuttering… • Is not caused by anxiety. Certain situations when a child is anxious may exacerbate their stuttering behaviours, however being anxious does not cause stuttering. • A child who stutters is no less intelligent than his or her peers. • Fluency can fluctuate. Children may be more fluent on certain days that others. Treatment • The most widely accepted and recommended stuttering treatment for pre-school children is the Lidcombe program. • This program has shown to be effective through scientific studies that have demonstrated successful results lasting long after treatment has been concluded. Treatment… • The Lidcombe program is a parent-based program which is most effective for preschool and early primary school-age children. • The program focuses on reinforcement and rewards, and requires that the parents spend time each day at home talking with their child. Treatment… • During weekly visits to a Speech Pathologist, the parent learns how to carry out the treatment and rate the child‟s speech performance each day. • The Speech Pathologist supports, monitors the child‟s progress, gives parental feedback and adjusts the program to meet the individual child‟s needs. Treatment… • The Lidcombe program promotes fluent speech while maintaining and developing a child‟s confidence in speaking. • The time taken to complete the treatment differs between children, but is usually within the range of 6 – 24 visits. • After the treatment phase children are then placed on a maintenance program to ensure that fluency is maintained. • Treatment for young children is fun and based around enjoyable activities. How you can help… • Download the Stuttering Checklist: a resource available on our website which will help you identify stuttering. • Observe the child over a couple of weeks. • Record your observations of their speech behaviour. How you can help Inform Parents: • Tell the child‟s parents that you have noticed some stuttering. • Ask the child‟s parents if they have noticed anything unusual at home or if they have had contact with a Speech Pathologist. DO NOT IGNORE THE PROBLEM – CHECK WHETHER THE PARENTS ARE AWARE. IF IN DOUBT, REFER. Referral… • Preschool Field Officer (PFO) • Inclusion Support Facilitator (ISF) (formerly Children‟s Services Resource and Development Officers - CSRDO) • General Practitioner • Maternal Health Nurse Referral… • Alternatively, parents can contact Speech Pathologists directly. • Speech Pathologists can be found in local community health settings Referral… La Trobe University Communication Clinic also runs the Lidcombe Program Kingsbury Drive Bundoora, 3083 Ph: 03 9479 1921 Parents may also contact the clinic for further information. For further information you can go to our website: www.latrobe.edu.au/hcs/projects/ preschoolstuttering General Communication Strategies: • Allow the child adequate time to process what has been said and to answer questions. • Ensure you have the child‟s eye contact when communicating with him/her. • Reduce distractions and interruptions during conversations with the child. General Communication Strategies: • Check whether other children are interrupting. • Do not draw unnecessary attention to stuttering but acknowledge if the child is distressed by this. • Continue to encourage the child the talk. YOU MAY BE THE FIRST PERSON TO IDENTIFY STUTTERING… DON’T LET A CHILD TAKE IT TO SCHOOL.
Pages to are hidden for
"pdp"Please download to view full document