On Thin Ice - DOC

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					                 On Thin Ice?
Climatic Influence on Energy Flow and Trophic
    Structure in Arctic Marine Ecosystems
    Cruise plan, August – September 2003
                 Draft 20 June



Autumn cruise with R/V Lance, 10 August – 06 September

Departure from Longyearbyen 10 August, Sunday morning 0800
(it will probably be possible to sleep on board from the 9th)
Arrival Longyearbyen 6 September, Saturday morning 1000


Chief scientist / Cruise leader: Stig Falk-Petersen, stig@npolar.no

Head of the Programme: Mike Carroll, Akvaplan-niva

Partners:
Benthos, Akvaplan-niva, Michael Carroll, michael.carroll@akvaplan.niva.no
Ice Fauna/Zooplankton, Norwegian Polar Institute, Stig Falk-Petersen and Haakon
Hop, haakon.hop@npolar.no
Primary production/Ice algae, Norwegian College of Fisheries Science, University of
Tromsø, Else Nøst Hegseth, else@nfh.uit.no,.

Communication to Lance:
Iridum 00 8816 314 59719
INMARSAT 00 (871) 1313 776         or 00 (873) 1313 776
fax 00 (871) 81 1313 777 or 00 (873) 81 1313 777
GSM              +47 900 19346 (in harbour only)
e-mail           lance@npolar.no
On Thin Ice
Hypothesis and background

Sea ice is a dominant feature of marine ecosystems in the Arctic. Its presence directly
or indirectly mediates many of the physical, chemical, and biological processes of
Arctic marine ecosystems, especially on the shelves where benthic and pelagic
systems are extensively coupled. Ice is also one of the features of the Arctic seas that
are most profoundly affected by local, regional, and global climate, varying on scales
ranging from days to millennia. Therefore, sea ice can be seen as a lever through
which changes in climatic regimes can have far-reaching consequences on the
structure and function of Arctic marine ecosystems.
Using this rationale, we aim to test the hypothesis that changing ice conditions
associated with different climatic regimes drives primary production on the northern
Svalbard shelf through different dominant sources (ice algae vs. phytoplankton). We
propose that such variation in the dominant source pathways of primary production
has concomitant effects on both the pelagic and benthic systems, as well as the trophic
pathways by which they are coupled. We will use field measurements and laboratory
analyses to test a series of working hypotheses related to the primary producers,
zooplankton, and benthic components in a region of the northern Barents Sea near
northeast Spitsbergen. In this region, sea ice varies on small spatial and temporal
scales during the biologically active portion of the year (Arctic spring and summer)
and an unusually high benthic biomass supports an extensive shrimp fishery and a
large local population of walrus.
Ultimately, this study aims to provide some insight into the energetic pathways and
trophic structure of this ecosystem and its stability versus sensitivity in the face of
predicted future climate changes. International policy-making bodies (e.g.
Whitehorse Declaration, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment) recognize that such an
ecosystem-based approach to assessing effects of climate change is the most effective
means to understand the possible consequences of climate change to biotic systems.
Objectives and Tasks
        Objective                                         Task

Objective 1: Pelagic and   T1: Determine in situ ice algal spring primary production under
ice-algal primary             variable ice thickness and snow cover (variable light
production (UiTø/ NFH)        conditions)
                           T2: Simultaneous investigation of pelagic primary production to
                              be able to partition the total primary production in spring
                           T3: Determine experimentally the influence of a changing UV
                              radiation on ice algal primary production
Objective 2: Herbivore     T4: Determine ice fauna abundance/biomass relative to ice extent
communities (NP)              and thickness
                           T5: Determine ecosystem response to key zooplankton species to
                              climate variability
Objective 3: Benthic     T6: Characterize the variability of benthic biomass along gradients
community structure(APN)    in ice-cover
                         T7: Determine benthic community composition in order to
                            identify patterns of taxonomic dominance or key species.
                            Compare/contrast benthic species/community parameters
                            between regions, seasons, and years
                           T8: Assess the bioturbatory potential of the dominant infaunal
                              organisms in the principal benthic associations and their
                              potential sensitivity to differing qualities of organic input
                           T9: Identify the primary source of carbon for the northern
                              Svalbard shelf benthic production
Objective 4:               T10: Ice concentration and dynamics and from satellite images and
Characterization of Sea       historical data sets.
Ice Dynamics (NP)
Objective 5: Integrative   T11: Determine food web trophic structure based on measurements
                                                 13         15
Ecosystem Assessment                                           N) and species
(All)                         abundance/biomass data
                           T12: Determine food web response to climate variability measured
                              by lipid biomarkers and fatty acid profiles
                           T13: Develop a descriptive framework of ecosystem response given
                              various sets of directions of future climate
FIRE
Flame retardants Integrated Risk assessment for Endocrine effects Risk Assessment of
Brominated Flame Retardants as Suspected Endocrine Disrupters for Human and
Wildlife Health
Supported by the European Commission, 5th Framework programme for research,
technological development and demonstration activities, first activity, Quality of Life
and Management of Living Resources (QoL), Key Action 4: Environment and Health
Contract No: QLK4-CT-2002-00596
website: http://www.rivm.nl/fire/

Overall objectives
      The overall objective of this multi- and interdisciplinary project is to improve
risk assessment of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) for human health and wildlife.
BFRs, such as the high production volume chemicals polybrominated diphenyl ethers
(PBDEs), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD)
have been identified as potential endocrine disrupters. PBDE levels have been steadily
increasing in biota over the last decades. Using in vitro cell systems of particular
relevance for endocrine effects, BFRs will be selected for rodent and fish toxicity
studies with emphasis on endocrine and immune system. After further selection,
reproduction studies in the rat (with neurobehavioral and immune function tests) and
partial life-cycle assays in zebrafish will be carried out. The exposure part includes
congener specific identification, regional distribution and temporal trends of BFRs in
tissue of wildlife and fish, human milk and diet within the EU. By integrating
information on exposure, fate and toxicity this project aims a highly significant
contribution to integrated risk assessment for humans and aquatic environment with
respect to endocrine disruption by BFRs.

Objective concerning NTNU involvement in FIRE - project
     Human and aquatic wildlife exposure assessment: For the aquatic wildlife
exposure assessment (WP7, 8, 10), information will be obtained on i) the food chain
transfer of BFRs from water, sediment to invertebrates to predators (fish) and fish-
eating top-predators (tern, seal and polar bear), ii) temporal trends, iii) environmental
transformation (WP8). A predictive food web model will be developed (WP10). For
the food chain transfer (WP7) samples will be collected at different levels of BFR
pollution exposure in the marine environment, estuaries and freshwater locations.
Reference sites will be Arctic. Oslofjord and Froan (Norway) and more polluted
locations will include The Netherlands (close to a BFR production plant as well as the
Wadden Sea), UK (Clyde and Mersey), France (Seine estuary), Germany (Elbe) and
Czech Republic (Elbe). BFRs (e.g. PBDEs, HBCD and TBBPA) will be determined
and an interlaboratory study will be conducted between the laboratories that perform
the BFRs analysis. Temporal trends of BFRs in aquatic wildlife will be investigated
using harbour seal samples of a time period of the last 10 years, and dated sediment
cores collected in one area of the fish-eating bird species (WP 7). In WP8
environmental transformation reactions of BFRs in the abiotic system (UV-
irradiation) and biotic system (micro-organisms and microsomal systems of fish,
birds, and marine mammals (e.g., harbour seals) will be studied. On the basis of the
aquatic food chain transfer and environmental transformation data, a predictive food
web model of BFRs in abiotic environment to the top-predators will be developed
(WP10). WP9 is strongly linked to both human (WP6) and aquatic wildlife exposure
(WP7, 8) and should provide information on the contribution of the levels of BFRs
from human and wildlife samples to the total in vitro endocrine disrupter response.

Lance-voyage :
     Sample invertebrates and fish for analysis of BFR's and d15N og d13C (to
determine trophic level). If Atlantic Cod is available blood will be samples for
analysis of biomarker responses. The following species is aimed to be samples; high
priority; Calanus spp, Euphausiids spp, bentic invertebrates (one or two speices),
polar cod (pelagic fish), Atlantic cod and/or other species of bottom-dwelling fish.
Amounts required; fish - 10-25 specimens (adults) and invertebrates more than 200
gram of each speices.
Digestibility of ice algae and phytoplankton: The
potential impacts of changing food supply to the
arctic benthos
Funded jointly by the Norwegian Research Council and the U.S. National Science
Foundation. Akvaplan-niva is the coordinator of Norwegian participation, with
several U.S institutes represented (East Carolina University, Bates College, University
of Georgia, and State University of New York Stoneybrook).

Project Summary
In Arctic marine ecosystems, primary production is partitioned between ice algae and
phytoplankton. Reduced thickness and extent of sea ice associated with climatic
shifts will likely lead to changes in the relative proportions of these two components
to total primary productivity. There are potentially significant implications of such
changes to benthic communities, which are totally dependent upon sedimenting
organic matter from the overlying water column for their energetic requirements. To
date it has been assumed that because both ice algae and phytoplankton are dominated
by taxonomically similar species (e.g. diatoms and flagellates), both sources of food
are identical in quality. Several indirect observations challenge this assumption.
However, the comparative roles of ice algal- and phytoplankton-derived organic
matter to the energetics of benthic species and communities has never been
quantitatively addressed. We propose to investigate whether there are differences in
the digestability of ice algae and phytoplankton-derived organic matter to Arctic
benthos. We have designed a series of ship-board and land-based experiments to
identify patterns of differential selection, absorption, and assimilation of ice algae and
phytoplankton on whole benthic communities and selected dominant taxa, and we will
carry out simultaneous, identical experiments in Svalbard and Alaska in order to
assess whether results are region-specific or pan-Arctic in nature. This project has
been designed to compliment and derive synergistic benefits from the goals and
workplan of the Thin Ice project and an ongoing NSF project in Kotzebue, Alaska.

Objectives

The overall goal of the project is to assess the quality of ice algae (two types) and
phytoplankton as food sources for the arctic benthos.

Digestibility includes three components, all of which will be experimentally tested during the
course of the project: 1) selection (is encountered organic material consumed or rejected?); 2)
absorption (is ingested organic material absorbed during passage through the gut, or is it
egested in the feces?); and 3) assimilation (is absorbed organic material assimilated into
biomass?).

Goals and Workplan for the Lance cruise

The digestibility work for the autumn 2003 will focus on the short term absorption of
ice algal and phytoplankton-based material to selected benthic macrofauna. Two
main techniques will be employed: (1) Ash-ratio method to measure absorption
efficiency and (2) Pulse-chase radiotracer (14C) method to measure carbon retention
efficiency. The ash ratio method will also be employed to measure integrated
absorption efficiency of the whole benthic community.
Safety
List of participants shall be delivered to the captain before departure
    Name of participants
    Name of next of kin for each participant
    Next of kin address
    Next of kin daytime and night-time telephone number

Safety on board
Safety briefing will be given by the ships officer when we leave the harbour.
Emergency exits, life boats, fire equipment etc

Weapons and Polar Bears
Instruction and shooting training by Haakon Hop

Ships safety
The safety of the ship will always be the captain’s responsibility. He therefore has full
rights to deviate from the cruise plan if visibility, weather, ice conditions or other
circumstances should compromise the ship’s safety.

Personnel safety
The safety of the personnel onboard is the responsibility of the captain. Cruise
participants should therefore always follow any directions given by the officers. When
putting parties ashore, the captain is responsible for the transport to and from the
shore, and he has the right to postpone or cancel this operation if he finds the
conditions unacceptable.
During helicopter transport, the pilot is responsible for personnel safety.
The cruise leader is responsible for the safety of people ashore. Guns with sufficient
stopping power should always be brought ashore with every group for protection
against polar bears. Handheld VHF-communications is recommended for
communication between groups ashore, and between shore parties and Lance. VHF-
radios are available on Lance for this use.

Illness
Persons with heart conditions or other serious illnesses should consult their doctor
before participating on the cruise.

Allergy, special food requirements
If there are vegetarians or people with food allergies among the participants, this
should be communicated as soon as possible to give the ship time to get the necessary
provisions. The ship can accommodate most such needs provided they are given this
information in advance.
Cruise report
The cruise report should be ready at the end of this cruise

The report should be approx. 10 pages and consists of a data log where the daily
activity are logged and a short report for each sub activity. Each activity should be
described one a page and contain tables of the samples taken. Where and how the
sampled are stored should be noted and planed analyses. The following sub-activity
are suggested,

      Physical oceanography and ice-characteristics
      Ice fauna and diving operations
      Zooplankton
      Benthos
      Phytoplankton and ice algae
      Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and the FIRE project
Daily routines
We will follow the watches, dinner times and routines of the ship

A daily meeting will be held around 2100:
    Discuss the results of last days work
    Plans for the next day
    Safety and other matter
    Daily talk (scientific, slide show or other informative talks)

Note
All participants has to give a talk about their project
Scientist and students are asked to give additional talks a scientific
team of interest
Overall time schedule
This plan will be modified and updated daily dependent on progress with sampling,
weather and ice conditions.


On Thin Ice, August-September 2003, R/V 'Lance'
Date          Location               Task                            Hrs
10 August     LYR-Kongsfjorden       Steaming                        8   depart 08:00
10-11 August Kongsfjorden            Zooplankton MPS, WP3, TT        16 1600 -1800
              Kongsfj.-
11 August     Norskebanken           Steaming                        10   depart Kongsf
11- 14 August Norskebanken ( 3 d)                                         Depart 14.08, 2200
                                     Benthos multi corer             4
                                     Zooplankton (MPS, WP-3, TT)     8
                                     Benthos multi corer (cont.)     8
                                     Benthic box corer/ van Veen
                                     Grab                            4
                                     Transect with TT and station
15-16 August Hinlopen                MPS
                                     Benthos faunal sampling (van
                                     Veen grab,l multicore?)
                                     6-8 hrs ashore
                                                                          Establishment of
              Oxfordhalvøya ,                                             depot in
              Wahlenbergfjorden                                           Wahlenbergfjorden
             Eirik Eiriksen strait
16-18 August (EE)                    Ice primary production
             Ice Station 1.          Ice flora/fauna
                                     Zooplankton
                                     Benthic fauna
19-23 August Ice station 2 (C3)      Ice primary production
                                     Ice flora/fauna
                                     Zooplankton
                                     Benthic fauna
24 August    Kvitøya                 Visit Kvitøya?
25-27 August Ice Station 3 (C4)      Ice primary production
                                     Ice flora/fauna
                                     Zooplankton
                                     Benthic fauna
28-30 August Ice station 4 (C5)      Ice primary production
                                     Ice flora/fauna
                                     Zooplankton
                                     Benthic fauna
30 August-1
September     Ice Station 5 (IE)     Ice primary production
                                     Ice flora/fauna
                                     Zooplankton
                                  Benthic fauna
               Visit ashore and
2-3 September steaming
4-5 September                     Kongsfjorden

6 September                       Longyearbyen    Arrival at 1000
List of stations and map

                              N          E       Name                Comments
Outer Kongsfjorden          79,00      7,70      V6
                            79,00      8,50      V10
                            79,00      10,90     V15

Inner Kongsfjorden          79,03      11,44 Kb1
                            78,98      11,73 Kb2
                            79,06      11,94 Kb3

Northwest Svalbard 80°07.053' 8°46.725' Flaket                  Resample spring ’03
                           79°44.62' 11°06.60' Smeerenburgfjord stations

Norskebanken                80,30      12,50 N1
                            80,50      12,50 N2
                            80,90      12,50 N3

Artic Ocean Ice Edge 82,00             12,50 IE
3 Ice stations

Erik Eriksen Stretet        79,00      25,00 EE
3 Ice stations

Cabanera transect           78,80      30,00 C3
                            81,00      30,00 C4
                            82,00      28,00 C5




Kongsfjorden
           Pos N, Pos N,   Pos N,   Pos E,   Pos E,   Pos E,   Distance   Depth   Time
 Station   deci deg        min      deci     deg      min      [km]       [m]     [min]
 V5        78,87 78        52,0     7,08     7        5,0      0,0        2000    110
 V6        78,91 78        54,4     7,77     7        46,2     14,7       1125    66
 V7        78,91 78        54,7     8,20     8        12,0     9,2        899     55
 V8        78,92 78        55,4     8,37     8        22,2     3,6        697     45
 V9        78,93 78        55,7     8,48     8        29,1     2,4        489     34
 V10       78,93 78        56,0     8,55     8        33,1     1,4        291     25
 V11       78,95 78        57,3     8,94     8        56,6     8,3        228     21
 V12       78,98 78        58,8     9,50     9        30,1     11,9       224     21
 V13       79,00 79        0,0      10,01    10       0,6      10,8       260     23
 V14       79,02 79        1,2      10,48    10       28,9     10,0       294     25
 V15       79,03 79        1,6      10,90    10       54,0     8,8        320     26
                 Total
                 CTD
                 time   7,5        hrs
                 Steami
                 ng     4,4        hrs
                 Total
                 time   11,9       hrs

                 CTD time is calculated from typical down- and upcast velocities
                 (below) + 10 minutes for prep, turnaround + firing bottles
                 downca
                 st      0,5     m/s
                 upcast 1        m/s
                 Steaming equals total length of transect
                 divided by 10 knots

         Transect could be placed slightly further south, to follow the
         bathymetry of the Kongsfjordrenna!

                 Additional stations - if time allows - could be located between St
                 10 and 11 and 5-7 to improve resolution
Norske
banke
n
                                                                         Dept
        Pos N,   Pos N,   Pos N,   Pos E,   Pos E,   Pos E,   Distance   h [m] Time
Station deci     deg      min      deci     deg      min      [km]       *     [min]
N0_1 80,00       80       0,0      12,50    12       30,0     0,0        100 15
N0_2 80,10       80       6,0      10,50    10       30,0     11,1       150 18
N0_3 80,15       80       9,0      10,50    10       30,0     5,6        200 20
N0_4 80,20       80       12,0     10,50    10       30,0     5,6        200 20
N0_5 80,25       80       15,0     10,50    10       30,0     5,6        200 20
N1      80,30    80       18,0     10,50    10       30,0     5,6        200 20
N1_1 80,35       80       21,0     10,50    10       30,0     5,6        250 23
N1_2 80,40       80       24,0     10,50    10       30,0     5,6        400 30
N1_3 80,45       80       27,0     10,50    10       30,0     5,6        600 40
N2      80,50    80       30,0     10,50    10       30,0     5,6        800 50
N2_1 80,60       80       36,0     10,50    10       30,0     11,1       1200 70
N2_2 80,70       80       42,0     10,50    10       30,0     11,1       1600 90
N2_3 80,80       80       48,0     10,50    10       30,0     11,1       2000 110
N3      80,90    80       54,0     10,50    10       30,0     11,1       2500 135

                 Total
                 CTD                                                     * Depths are
                 time   11,0       hrs                                   not accurate!
                 Steami
                 ng     5,4        hrs
                 Total
                 time   16,4       hrs

                 CTD time is calculated from typical down- and upcast velocities
                 (below) + 10 minutes for prep, turnaround + firing bottles
                 downcast                  0,5           m/s
                 upcast                    1             m/s
               Hinlopen to be decided
               later
Caban
transec
t
          Pos N,
Station   deci Pos N, deg          Pos N, min   Pos E, deci   Pos E, deg
C3        78,80 78                 48,0         30,00         30
C3_1      79,24 79                 14,4         30,00         30
C3_2      79,68 79                 40,8         30,00         30
C3_3      80,12 80                 7,2          30,00         30
C3_4      80,56 80                 33,6         30,00         30
C4        81,00 81                 0,0          30,00         30
C4_1      81,20 81                 12,0         29,6          29
C4_2      81,40 81                 24,0         29,2          29
C4_3      81,60 81                 36,0         28,8          28
C4_4      81,80 81                 48,0         28,4          28
C5        82,00 82                 0,0          28,0          28

               Total CTD time      10,3         hrs
               Steaming            19,5         hrs
               Total time          29,7         hrs



               downcast            0,5          m/s
               upcast              1            m/s
List of participants

Name                                                     Adress                    E-mail
                                   Chief                 Norsk Polarinstitutt,
                                   scientist/Cruise      Polar Miljøsenteret, N-
Stig Falk-Petersen          NP     leader                9296 Tromsø               stig@npolar.no
                                                         Norsk Polarinstitutt,
                                                         Polar Miljøsenteret, N-
Haakon Hop                  NP     Ice fauna/diver       9296 Tromsø               haakon.hop@npolar.no


Stig Nordang                NP     Ice fauna/Diver                                 stnordan@frisurf.no

                                                         Galaktyczna 2A, 80 299
Katarzyna Blachowiak-Samolyk NP    Zooplankton           Gdansk, Poland            kasiab@iopan.gda.pl
                                                         Norsk Polarinstitutt,
                                                         Polar Miljøsenteret, N-
Anette Wold                 NP     Zooplankton/lipid     9296 Tromsø               anette@npolar.no
                                                         Norsk Polarinstitutt,
                                   Zooplankton/Ice       Polar Miljøsenteret, N-
Marte Lundberg              NP     fauna/diver           9296 Tromsø               marte@npolar.no
                                                         Norsk Polarinstitutt,
                                                         Polar Miljøsenteret, N-
Tor Ivan Karsen             NP     Multinet/CTD          9296 Tromsø               karlsen@npolar.no
                                                         Norges Fiskerihøgskole,
                                   Phytoplankton/Ice     Universitetet i Tromsø,
Else Nøst Hegseth           NFH    algae                 9037 Tromsø               elseh@nfh.uit.no
                                                         Norges Fiskerihøgskole,
                                   Phytoplankton/Ice     Universitetet i Tromsø,
Kriss Wenche Iversen        NFH    algae                 9037 Tromsø               ehux2000@yahoo.no
                                                         Akvaplan niva, Polar
                                                         Environmental Center,
Michael Carroll             APN    Benthos               N-9296 Tromsø Norway      mcarroll@akvaplan.niva.no


Kirsti Dahle                       Benthos                                         Kirsti.dahle@npolar.no

                                                      PO Box 405 Kotzebue,
Melinda Reynolds                   Benthos            AK 99752                     melinda_reynolds@yahoo.com
                                                      Marine Sciences
                                                      Research Center, Stony
                                                      Brook University, Stony
                                                      Brook, NY 11794-5000
Glenn Lopez                        Benthos            USA, 631 689-8660            Glenn.Lopez@sunysb.edu
                                                      Akvaplan niva, Polar
                                   Zooplankton/Stable Environmental Center,
Janne Søreide               APN    isotop,lipids      N-9296 Tromsø Norway         janne@akvaplan.niva.no
                                                      Norsk Polarinstitutt,
                                                      Polar Environmental
                                                      Center, N-9296 Tromsø
Arild Sundfjord             APN    CTD                Norway                       arild@npolar.no

                                   Journalist/Photogra
Frank A. Jensen             NRK    pher                                            lo-safaa@online.no


Øistein Bjørbæk             NRK    Photographer

                                 Brominated              Øvre Solbakken 71,
Eugen Gravningen Sørmo      NTNU substances              7550 Hommelvik            eugen.sormo@bio.ntnu.no

                                 Brominated           Brattsbergveien 56,
Maria Pettersvik Salmer     NTNU substances           7037 Trondheim               mariasalmer@hotmail.com
                                                      Botanical Institute
                                                      P.O. Box 461
                                                      SE 405 30 Göteborg
Sten-Åke Wängberg           UofGot Primary production Sweden                       SWA@botany.gu.se
Sampling programme August – September 2003, R/V
Lance
Steaming from LYR to Kongsfjorden

Kongsfjorden ( 10-11 August and 4-5 September)
Environmental parameter (all station):
CTD/fluorescence
Water samples for phytoplankton/chlorophyll
Multi Plankton Sampler
Additional CTD-stations shall be taken close to SAMS mooring as specified by
Finlo Cottier. N 78 58.307 E 011 39.11 (260m depth) Close to "Stuphallet" shore. However, there
is a subsurface pellet quite close to the surface so it's better not to go too close. If there are suitable
resources aboard (i.e. the manpower)perhaps you could fire bottles at depths 0m, 10m, 20m and 30m
and process them for Chlorophyll.

Zooplankton
A Transect 6-7 stations from the slope to KB3 off Ny-Aalesund, standard transect.
Community structure, see where are the three components of Calanus: Calanus
finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus. MPS (5 nets, depth stratified) (

B. V6, KB1, KB3. Food path ways and trophic structure. Lipid and stable isotopes.
WP 3, TT

C. V6, KB1, KB3. Population structure of krill and amphipods. TT. Preserve on 10%
formaldehyde.


Norskebanken
Environmental parameter (all station):
CTD/fluorescence
Water samples for phytoplankton/chlorophyll
Multi Plankton Sampler

Zooplankton
A Transect 3 stations from over the slope, N1, N2, N3.
Community structure, see where are the three components of Calanus: Calanus
finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus. MPS (5 nets, depth stratified) (

B. N1, N2, N3. Food path ways and trophic structure. Lipid and stable isotopes. WP
3, TT

C. N1, N2, N3. Population structure of krill and amphipods. TT

Benthic sampling on Norskebanken
Community studies:          3 box core hauls, and possibly van Veen grab ~4h
Whole-core algae/plankton:? Diver collections of ice algae
                            Water pump filtration of phytoplankton
Sediments/fanua 234Th:      Box cores
Stable isotopes and lipids.   Samples from shrimp trawlers (opportunistic)
                              Bottom trawl and epibenthic sledge (macro-benthos

Phytoplankton sampling on Norskebanken
Purpose: identify phytoplankton biomass and species distribution, data for calculation
of primary production on temporal and geographical scale


Hinlopen
2 stations for MPS and TT, positions to be decided
    A. Community structure, see where are the three components of Calanus: Calanus
    finmarchicus, C. glacialis, C. hyperboreus. MPS (5 nets, depth stratified)
    B. Population structure of krill and amphipods. TT


Sampling at Ice Stations, station IE, EE, C3, C4, C5.
Phytoplankton towards the ice stations
CTD/fluorescence/O2/under-water light. Water samples for
phytoplankton/chlorophyll/nutrients/deck incubations (some or all). Distance between
sampe points has to be desided.

Environmental parameters
Ice conditions:               obs. of ice density (% cover) from ship's bridge (crew)
                              photograph of ice with digital camera
                              satellite images (AVHRR, SAR)
Ice characteristics:          thickness (SIPRE-cores)
                              snow depth
                              freeboard
                              ice draft (depth profile from dive computer)
CTD measurements:             on arrival at ice stations (before MPS)

Zooplankton at ice stations:
Community sampling:          MPS
(day/night)                  WP-3

Stable isotopes/lipids:       Shallow Tucker trawls (2)
(when leaving station)        Deep Tucker trawls (2)
                              WP-2, WP-3 (on stations)
                              Samples from shrimp trawlers (opportunistic)
                              Bottom trawl and epibenthic sledge (macro-benthos)

Ice fauna at ice stations.
Community studies:            Frame sampling with suction pump, divers
                              (5 replicates x 10 frames x flats x ridges x 5 floes)
Stable isotopes/lipids:       Mass sampling with suction pump, divers
                              (3 replicates per sample type)
Ice algae at ice stations:
Microelectrodes:              Deploy from hole in first-year ice
Light measurements:           Under-ice
Community studies:            Frame sampling by diver, species comp. and biomass
Stable isotopes/lipids,       Mass sampling with suction pump and hand net
incubation, cultures
Incubation:                   Under-ice and on deck
PAM experiments:              Community photosynthesis (in situ)
                              Species-specific response (microscope)


Phytoplankton at ice stations:
Sampling (per station) CTD/fluorescence/O2/under-water light
Water samples for phytoplankton
Community studies:             Water samples for species comp. and chlorophyll
                               other biomass parameters
Stable isotopes/lipids:        Mass sampling by pump
Nutrients                      N, P, Si in water samples
Primary production             Deck incubations
Resting stages:                Thin upper sediment layer, multi corer

Benthic sampling at ice stations:
Community studies:             3 box core hauls, and possibly van Veen grab ~4h
Isotopes, lipids, 234Th, guts: Box core, epibenthic sledge, bottom trawl, opportunistic
Resting stages, geochem:       Multi corer drop at the end of ice stations
Procedures for handling of stable isotope and lipid sampling

Stable isotopes
Food web structure (13C, 15N)     - 3 replicates (125)
- 400 samples analyzed (max 600 coll.)
Primary source of carbon (13C)     - 3 replicates per sample type
Parallel samples to stable isotopes

Lipid samples
Fatty acids (food chain biomarkers)
For fatty acids stored on Chloroform /Methanol on small tubs (2-10ml). Larger
animals are stored individually. C.finmarchicus pool 10 animals, C. glacialis pool 5
animals, C. hyperboreus pool 2-3 animals. Keep species/stages separetly.
Total lipids (only if time permits).
For total lipids ice amphipods are frozen in plastic bags, max 10 animals and only if
access animals are available.
Fore Calanus and smaller animals pool 5 and 5 animals and store on C/M.
For total lipid freeze en plastic bags
For fatty acids, animals are stored individually in tubes with C/M. Frozen max 5 test
tubes pr station.
For total lipids ice amphipods are frozen in plastic bags, max 10 animals and only if
access animals are available.
Fore Calanus and smaller animals pool 5 and 5 animals and store on C/M.
For total lipid freeze en plastic bags

Taxa to be sampled
Ice algae:
- diatoms
- Melosira arctica (remove copepods/large organisms)
- detritus on horizontal ice surfaces
- cultures of algae
Ice fauna:
         - ice amphipods (4 species)
         - polychates in ice
         - polar cod
         - ice-associated copepods (Jaschnovia brevis)
Phytoplankton:
         - water bottle from CTD at Chlorophyll maximum
Zooplankton
Dominant species only:
         - Calanus (3 spp.)
         - Chaetognaths (2 spp.)
         - Krill (2 spp.)
         - Themisto (2 spp.)
         - Mertensia ovum
         - Beröe cucumis
         - Limacina helicina
         - Clione limacine
Fish
         - polar cod (sympagic/pelagic/benthic)
         - benthic fishes (shrimp trawler)
Shrimp
      - shrimp species (several)
      - opportunistic samples (shrimp trawler)
Benthos
      - bivalves (2 spp.)
      - polychates (4 spp.)
      - echinoderms (3 spp.)
      - crustaceans (6+ spp.)
      - nemertines
      - gastropods (predatory)

Whalrus
      -     opportunistic samples from dead animals (Lydersen/NP)
Experimental work involving stable isotopes

Feeding experiments with cultures of:
       - phytoplankton and/or ice algae
       - zooplankton
       - ice amphipods
       - benthos

Gut clearance experiments for:
       -zooplankton
       -ice amphipods
       -benthos


Lipase activity
Lipase assay procedures
Lipases can be viewed both as lipolytic and esterolytic activity enzymes, being
catalysts for a large numbers of esters. The activity of lipases can thus be assayed by
monitoring the release of either fatty acids or glycerol from triacylglycerols or fatty
acid esters. Further, since lipase acts at the oil/water interface, change in the
properties of the interface is an important criterion for measuring lipolysis.
Estimation of released fatty acid
The fatty acids released by lipase-mediated hydrolysis can be determined qualitatively
by gel-diffusion assay and quantitatively using a) colorimetric assays, b)
chromatography procedures (TLC/HPLC).
Qualitative methods: Lipase-producing strains from a wide population are
conventionally screened on agar plates supplemented by Tween 20. A zone of Tween
20 hydrolysis is indicative of both esterase and lipase activity. More recently, agar
plates supplemented with olive oil have also been employed for screening lipase-
positive colonies. Agar plates, supplemented with lipids from Copepods, could be a
very useful tool for screening lipase activity using Psychrobacter sp. TAD1 as
bacterial strain. The presence and the diameter of the aloe during bacterial growth
may demonstrate the capacity of this strain to degrade natural fatty acids.
Quantitative methods: The lipolytic activity demonstrated on natural fatty acids will
be quantified utilising, colorimetric assays and chromatography procedures.
Sampling.
Several samples of a few gram of the 3 Calanus species frozen separately for the
different species on board, the lipid extract with chloroform/methanol on the lab in
Tromso, blown with nitrogen and send it to Italy after further agreement with:
Dr. Donatella de Pascale, Institute of Protein Biochemistry, CNR
Via Marconi 12, 80125 Naples, ITALY, phone +39 081 7257246-234
fax +39 081 2396525, e-mail depascal@dafne.ibpe.na.cnr.it

Viser til tilsendt toktplan og beskrivelse. Sysselmannen har ikke
innvendinger til toktplanene. Har dere innhentet nødvendige
tillatelser fra Fiskeridirektoratet? Mh
Øystein Overrein
Sysselmannen på Svalbard
EQUIPMENT LIST

NFH PHYTOPLANKTON & ICE ALGAE equipment list
Phytoplankton sampling
Rosette sampler with water bottles (on the CTD)
Fluorescence sensor (on the CTD)
Under-water light meter (Biospherical, PAR/UV)
Small CTD with O2-sensor (from Akvaplan)
Net (25 m mesh size)
Bottles for phytoplankton counting samples (100 ml)
Buckets
Amber polyethylene bottles for water samples
Formalin (neutralized with hexamin)
Dispenser 1-5 ml

Ice algal sampling & measuring
Suction pump with nets (10 and 25 m mesh size)
Plexiglas frame
Tents (1 small, 1 large from NP)
Plastic box
Graduated cylinder
Polyethylene wash bottle
Bottles for ice algal samples
Buckets for ice core samples
Thermos flasks
Glutaraldehyde
Conductivity meter, handheld, with 12 m cable
Light meter, handheld, for diving
Ice saw
Ice drill
Ice corer (from UNIS)

Filtering equipment
Vacuum pumps (2)
Sampling manifolds (Millipore) (2)
Sample cup extension barrels (2 sets)
Filtering manifolds
Filter holders (2.5 cm diameter)
Tubes
Glass bottle 5 l with stopper (2)

Chlorophyll analysis
Fluorometer (Turner Designs)
Cuvettes
Tube racks
Centrifuge tubes with stoppers
Methanol
HCl 10%
DCMU
Filter (Whatman glass fibre GF/F 2.5 cm)
Dispenser 1-5 ml
Dispenser 50 ml
Adjustable pipette 1-5 ml
Beakers (polyethylene, various)
Graduated cylinders (polyethylene, various)
Forceps
Aluminium foil

Primary production measurements
Frame to mount under the ice
Glass tubes with stoppers
14
  C ampoules
Dispenser (micro)
Filters (Whatman GF/F 2.5 cm)
Glass tubes, small
HCl cons.
Plastic boxes
Racks
Forceps
Water baths (2-3)
Disposable gloves
Tables for use in tent
Chairs for use in tent
Electric heater
75 m power cable (25 m on board)
Electric kettle

Other analyses (incl. nutrients)
Spectrophotometer
Cuvettes
Filters Whatman glas fibre GF/F (burned) 2.5 cm
Filters polycarbonate 2.5 cm
Polycarbonate tubes
Glass tubes
Time tape
Filtering flask glass, 1 l
Filter holder (4.7 cm diameter)
Filters Whatman glass fibre GF/C 4.7 cm
Bottles (polyethylene) 250 ml
H2SO4 conc.
Beakers (polyethylene)
Chemicals for nutrient analyses (phosphate)


Cell counting & identification
Microscope (compound) (2)
Extra light bulbs
Counting chambers (Palmer-Maloney)
Pasteur pipettes
Identification literature
Digital camera for microscope

AKVAPLAN BENTHOS PACKING LIST

AKVAPLAN BENTHOS PACKING LIST -
ARKTOK SPRING CRUISE 2003
(UPDATED 4/1)

Item                                        Quantity   Box #   Comments
Multicorer                                  1
Multicorer: tubes and bottoms               80
Multicorer: bottoms                         80
respiration tops                            7                  5 more coming from Will
extra O-rings for respiration tops          25
"Mascot" (step-down transformer)                               for 12/24V respiration motors -
Box corer
Box corer: extra boxes                      5
Box corer: extra spade
Box corer: dolly; wrenches, tools, etc.
Box corer: extra liners
van Veen grab                               2
Washing table                               1
Large Sieve: 0.5 mm                         2
Large Sieve: 1 mm                           2
Triangle Dredge                             1                  from Else - NFH
Epibenthic Sled                             1                  from Else - NFH
Otter Trawl (or other benthic trawl)                           from Else - NFH
Tubs (black, 90L)                           15                 for water, ice melting, sedimen
Formalin (full strength)                    25L
Borax
Alcohol: Ethanol                            10L                get from Else -NFH
Bottles
Rose Bengal
Buckets (2.3L) for faunal samples)          250
Plastic jars, various sizes, with tops      100 each
Small plastic jars, with lids               50                 for sediment grain size samples
Plastic bottles, various sizes, with tops
Labels
Vacuum pump unit and flasks                 1                  from Kristina Antarctica projec
Filters                                                        Will?
Phytoplankton net, netting
Zooplankton net, netting                                       prefilter zoops from, phytopl co
Subcores (size?)                                               for biota, for sediments?
Depuration chambers                                            Will?
Aquarium pumps, tubes and air stones                           Will bring most, also check wi
Aluminum foil
centrifuge tubes                                               Lisa
Coolers (Igloo)                                  1         Lisa
Handheld CTD-O
Extruder                                         1, 2?     Lisa
Whirlpaks                                        100       various sizes
Markers, Sharpie                                 1 box     thick and thin
Grease pencils                                   1 box
Forceps, rulers, etc
Computer, personal                               1
Computer, general use
Mustang suit
boots
hardhat
waterproof gloves + liners
aluminum boxes                                   6         1 lg, 2 small; 2 lg, 1 small for W
step-down transformers/plug adapters             2,3       from personal, house
drying oven                                                already on board JM
balance                                          1
generators                                       1,2       for ice camp
Digital camera                                             buy one for project?
duct tape                                        5 rolls
ID Keys
DI Water                                         200L      Else bring, Will confirm volum
DO2 chemical packets
Dissecting scope                                 1         Else
Station log book                                 1
Misc office supplies

Added 1 April:
Extra small sieves (500 and 250 um)              1 set
Sorting trays                                    6
Glue gun and glue sticks                         1
core rings for sectioning (lengths: 0.5, 1, 2cm) set
fish boxes (for holding cores upright)           6
bungie cords (for securing cores)                6


Polycarbonate bottles 2 l
f/2 medium
Light bank
Light meter for lab use
Neutral/blue filters/screening nets
Water baths (2)

Miscellanies

Laptop
Printer
Calculator
Tape
Ropes
Paper towels
Plastic bags (various)
Destilled water
Alcohol (96 % ethanol)
Norwegian Polar Institute Equipment List
Alphabetic list of all items
(minus diving equipment)
Item                                                               Case   Quanta
Atlas of the marine fauna of southern Spitsbergen                   16     2set
Bakk, large                                                          4       3
Bakker, deep ones in plastic                                         5       1
Bakker, shallow ones in plastic                                      5       2
Brush to dishing                                                     5       1
Bucket w/ lead                                          3L           5       6
Bucket, aluminium                                      10 L          5       1
Buckets, hard plastic                                  10 L          5      14
Buckets, plastic                                       2L?           5     ca. 8
Cloth pins                                                           4      10
Discs                                                                1       3
Dispenser chl./metanol, big                                          5       1
Dispenser chloroform/metanol                                         3       1
Dispenser formalin                                                   3       1
Dispenser new                                                        3       1
Duck tape                                                            4       1
Envelopes (small,brown)                                              1     many
Euphasiacea (blue folder)                                            1       1
Fawlson splitter                                                     4       2
Forceps, Federstahl pointed                                          2       8
Forceps, Federstahl thick                                            2       8
Forceps, hard                                                        2       2
Forceps, large                                                       2       2
Funnel                                                               3       4
Funnel                                                  small        4       2
Funnel                                              large,180 um     4       1
Funnel chl./metanol                                                  5       1
GF/F filter                                                          2     4pk.
Glass containers                                                     5     many
Glass containers, deep                                200 ml         2      10
Glass containers, shallow                              80 ml         2       7
Gloves                                                               2    1/2 pk.
Glue (for plastic)                                                   1       2
lupe                                                                13       1
Measuring boards                                                     4       2
Measuring boat, plastic                                large         4     20 ?
Measuring boat, plastic                               medium         4     50 ?
Measuring boat, plastic                                small         4     50 ?
Measuring container, plastic                          100 ml         5       1
Measuring container, plastic                          250 ml         5       3
Measuring container, plastic                          500 ml         5       2
Measuring container, plastic                          1000 ml        5       2
Measuring cylinder                                    100 ml         3       1
Measuring cylinder                                    250 ml         3       1
Measuring cylinder                                    500 ml         3       1
Measuring cylinder chl./metanol                                      5       1
Measuring cylinders                                                  5     many
Microscop glass                                                      2     5pk.
Microscop glass w/measuring lines                                    2     1pk.
Minigrip bags                                                        5     many
Needles                                                              2       4
Object glass                                                         2     3pk.
Parafilm                                                        1               1
Pen/pencils                                                     1             many
Petri dishes divided into 4 compartments, glass                 2            ca. 5 ?
Petri dishes plastic, large and small                           2              10
Petri dishes, glass                                             2              10
Pipettes, glass                                                 2              20
Pipettes, plastic                                               2              20
Plastic bags                                                    1             many
Plastic bags                                                    4             many
Post-it (Yellow)                                                1               4
Regatta suits                                     m,xl,xxl     15               4
Rope, green                                                     5               1
Rope, thin (hyssing)                                            2               1
Rope, white                                                     4               1
Rubberband                                                      2             many
Ruler                                                           2               2
Sieve                                              1 mm         5               1
Sieve                                             3.35 mm       5               1
Sieve                                             5.60 mm       5               1
Sieve                                             6.70 mm       5               1
Sieve                                             8.60 mm       5               1
Sieve                                             12.5 mm       5               1
Sieve (blanc )                                     1 mm         5               1
Sieve (blanc)                                     500 µm        5               1
Sieve (grey )                                     150 µm?       5               2
Sieves (small for tea)                                          2               3
Sieves, small (grey)                                            3               2
Smok for pipettes                                               2              10
South Atlantic zoopl. vol.1                                     1               1
South Atlantic zoopl. vol.2                                     1               1
Spaybottle, large                                               5               1
Spaybottle, small                                               3               5
Spoon                                                           2               2
Spoon w/ holes                                                  2               1
Steel wire (green)                                              4               1
Syringe                                                         3               2
Tub, big white                                                  5               1
Tube, plastic ca. 1m                                            3               1
Writing board                                                   1               1
Zoopl.sampling (blue folder)                                    1               1


Chemical equipment:
Formaldehyde                                       37 %        4x5 L
Hexamethyleneteramine                                          8x1kg
Chloroform                                                    1x2.5 L
                                                              1x1.8 L   opened
Methanol                                                       1x2 L    opened 25.03.2002
                                                              1x1.5 L   opened
                                                              1x0.8 L   opened
BHT                                                          1x50 mg
                                                             1x100 mg
                                                             1x250 mg
Chl./methanol + BHT (to lipids)                     2:1       1x0.5 L
                                                              1x0.8 L
                                                              2x2.5 L
                                                              2x2.5 L
Aceton                                                         1x1 L
Mukluk, str.8
VHF m/ladere (3)
Nødpeilesender
Gummibåt m/båtkasse
Snøscooter m/slede
Påhengsmotor (2)
Aggregat
Bensin (120 liter), olje, kanner og koblinger.

2.signalpistoler m/skudd
2.signalpenner m/skudd
3.radioer + lader og batterier
2 rifler m/skudd + protection cap
1 nødpeilesender
1 GPS
3 redningsdrakter
                                                 Cabin arrangement
MPS 3 units
WP 2 *2
WP 3 * 2             Shelter deck                                    Main deck
Tucker trawl
Pelagic trawl

				
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