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The History of Cell Phones


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									The History of Cell Phones:

Samuel Morse was a man of vision. His vision, his dreams, have become the
paving stones for what is now known as the information superhighway. The
leading technology in the creation and progress of this telecommunication
spectacle is the cell phone and its derivatives. So you may wonder how we
got from Samuel Morse to where we are today…and where we’re going
tomorrow. To ease your curiosity, following is a history of cell phones.
Sit back, relax and enjoy.

Samuel Morse invents the telegraph
Any history of cell phones starts with Samuel Morse. He conceived of an
electromagnetic telegraph in 1832 and constructed an experimental version
in 1835. Then, on October 18, 1842, Morse laid wires between Governor's
Island and Castle Garden, New York, a distance of about a mile. Part of
that circuit was under water because Morse wanted to show that an
underwater cable could transmit signals as well as a copper wire
suspended on poles. But before he could complete this demonstration a
passing ship pulled up his cable, ending, it seemed, his experiment.
However, undaunted, Morse proceeded without the cable, passing his
telegraph signals through the water itself. This introduced the concept
of wireless by conduction. Quite simply, Samuel Morse’s telegraph was the
first device to send messages by electricity.

And the ideas started pouring in
So now there was the know-how to send messages. And the possibilities of
exactly how to do this were abounding. Now it was known that water could
conduct electricity and carry messages, other conductors were sought out.

In 1843, a skilled analytical chemist by the name of Michael Faraday
began exhaustive research into whether space could indeed conduct
electricity, using the principles already established by telegraphy.

In 1864, James Clerk Maxwell released his paper "Dynamical Theory of the
Electromagnetic Field" which concluded that light, electricity, and
magnetism, were all related. All of these worked hand in hand, and all
electromagnetic phenomena traveled in waves.

Then, in 1865, Dr. Mahlon Loomis of Virginia, a dentist, may have been
the first person to communicate through wireless via the atmosphere.
Between 1866 and 1873 he transmitted telegraphic messages at a distance
of 18 miles between the tops of Cohocton and Beorse Deer Mountains in
Virginia. He developed a method of transmitting and receiving messages by
using the Earth's atmosphere as a conductor and launching kites enclosed
with copper screens that were linked to the ground with copper wires.

Over the next thirty years, most inventors and developers concentrated on
wire line telegraphy, suspending wires between poles, which eventually
became what we know as telephone poles. Few tinkered exclusively with
wireless since a basic radio theory had not yet been worked out. Several
experiments conducted on a trial and error basis produced no results.
Telegraphy, however, did produce a good understanding of wireless by
induction since wires ran parallel to each other and often induced rogue
currents into other lines. So now they knew that electromagnetic messages
could travel through the air.

And the cell phone is born
We’ll now fast-forward a bit in our history of cell phones. The
principles necessary to send messages had been set. And then along came
another man with a vision – Martin Cooper, known by many as the father of
the cellular phone. Hired by Motorola in 1954, Mr. Cooper worked on
developing portable products, including the first portable handheld
police radios, made for the Chicago police department in 1967. He then
led Motorola's cellular research.

In the meantime, AT&T's research arm, Bell Laboratories, introduced the
idea of cellular communications in 1947. But Motorola and Bell Labs in
the sixties and early seventies were in a race to incorporate the
technology into portable devices.

Martin Cooper won that race! Cooper set up a base station in New York
with the first working prototype of a cellular telephone, the Motorola
Dyna-Tac (see picture below). After some initial testing in Washington
for the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), Mr. Cooper and Motorola
took the phone technology to New York to show the public.

On April 3, 1973, at a public demonstration and using a heavy 30-ounce
phone, Martin Cooper placed the first cell phone call to his rival at
AT&T Bell Labs from the streets of New York City. Mr. Cooper commented,
"As I walked down the street while talking on the phone, sophisticated
New Yorkers gaped at the sight of someone actually moving around while
making a phone call. Remember that in 1973, there weren't cordless
telephones or cellular phones. I made numerous calls, including one where
I crossed the street while talking to a New York radio reporter -
probably one of the more dangerous things I have ever done in my life."

This first cell phone call caused a fundamental technology and
communications market shift toward the person and away from the place. It
also created another vision for Martin Cooper. His vision was for
personal wireless communications. "People want to talk to other people -
not a house, or an office, or a car. Given a choice, people will demand
the freedom to communicate wherever they are, unfettered by the infamous
copper wire. It is that freedom we sought to vividly demonstrate in
1973," he said.

Martin Cooper started the 10-year process of bringing the portable cell
phone to market. Motorola introduced the 16-ounce "DynaTAC" phone into
commercial service in 1983, with each phone costing the consumer $3,500.
It took seven additional years before there were a million subscribers in
the United States. Today, there are more cellular subscribers than
wireline phone subscribers in the world, with mobile phones weighing as
little as 3 ounces.

What’s the next development?

With wireless number and home-to-cell phone portability now live,
wireless dominance is now inevitable. Over the next few years, your
telephone number can be just as important to you as your social security
number - you may only need one. Expect in the next few years the idea of
area codes to lose its importance of identifying the city and state you
live in. Change states, keep your number. Move 10 times, keep your

Other progressive changes will occur. For example, reception areas will
increase – worldwide. The concept of anytime minutes will no longer
exist. Several technological improvements with the phone itself will help
cut the landline cord. Imagine this:

A cell phone will be more like a PDA, with large address books, calendars
and the like.
Internet access ability - DSL on a phone? Broadband through a cell phone
is coming.
Cell phones interact with appliances. Forget to start the dishwasher? Set
it with your phone.
Store files and documents - your cell phone is now a desktop computer.
And this completes the current history of cell phones. But history is
being written daily. Technological advances are going to seem
overwhelming. But hang in there! You can participate in the history of
cell phones.

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