EADI Newsletter 1–2010

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					EADI Newsletter 1–2010

                         EUROPEAN ASSOCIATION
                         OF DEVELOPMENT RESEARCH
                         AND TRAINING INSTITUTES

                                 Urban Chances


                                2011 EADI/DSA
In this Issue

EU Development Policy

The European External Action Service and EU Development Policy: Safeguards Required
- by Mark Furness

Coherence of Multi- and Bilateral Development Co-operation in the Case of the Euro-Mediterranean
Region - Conference Report
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Urban Chances - Chance2Sustain                                                                      European Association of Development Re-
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Urban Chances - City Growth and the Sustainability Challenge - Chance2Sustain
                                                                                                    D-53113 Bonn, Allemagne
                                                                                                    Tel.: (+49) 228 - 26 18 101
Inclusive Adaptation: Linking Participatory Learning and Knowledge Management to Urban Resilience   Fax: (+49) 228 - 26 18 103
- by Isa Baud and Michaela Hordijk                                                                  Web:
                                                                                                    Executive Secretary: Thomas Lawo
Involving Stakeholders in Responding to Climate Change: Experiences from Low- and Middle-
                                                                                                    Editor: Susanne von Itter
income Countries - by David Dodman                                                                  E-mail:

Climate Change, Participation and Civil Society: Towards an Action Research Approach                LANGUAGE CHECKING:
- by Liliana Miranda Sara                                                                           Ute Reusch

Climate Finance and Europe: Lost Momentum and Challenges Ahead                                      V + V Druck, Bonn
- by Merylyn Hedger
                                                                                                    COVER PICTURE:
News from EADI                                                                                      Editha Loeffelholz von Colberg

Rethinking Development in an Age of Scarcity and Uncertainty - New Values, Voices and Alliances     Material from the EADI Newsletter may be
for Increased Resilience: EADI-DSA 2011 Conference                                                  reproduced or adapted with prior
                                                                                                    permission of EADI, provided it is not
News from EADI Working Groups                                                                       distributed for profit and is attributed to the
                                                                                                    original author(s).

                                                                                                    The views expressed are those of the indi-
                                                                                                    vidual authors and do not necessarily
                                                                                                    reflect those of EADI.
                                                                                                                                       EADI Newsletter 1-2010            1

“The European Challenge after Lisbon” would                 producers in the South. The terms of trade were
be a fitting title for this issue of the EADI newsletter.   never fair and just for the developing countries.
A strong European Union and strong Member                   That needs to be changed if we want to create
States - that was the dream the founding fathers            a sustainable future for all.
of the European project had 50 years ago. Today,
now that the “Lisbon Treaty” has become the                     The European Union as the biggest donor
one and only legal basis of the “New Europe”,               and, with 500 million people, a potential global
I look at the institutions of the EU and the                player, also needs to get its act together. “New
difficulties of quite a few - if not almost all - of        Challenges, New Beginnings” is the title of a
the Member States as they try to cope with new              recent publication by a group of four EADI
challenges of varying degrees, economic crises,             members and think-tanks. It provides a sound
growing social stratification and exclusion; there          analysis of the key areas of action, charting the      sound research and existing evidence from the
are growing numbers of unemployed, poor and                 next steps in European development cooperation         field. We know most of the “ideal scenarios”,
disenchanted people in our so-called developed              (EDC) and trying to impact on the different            yet need to bring about changes in behaviour
countries; quite a number are having difficulties           actors' roles, organisation and the division of        and action of opinion-formers, policy-makers and
forming robust governments; people are losing               labour between them, including the newly created       practitioners, so that sustainable and human
their trust and confidence in established institutions,     European External Action Service (EAS), which          living conditions can be created for all. This will
including in their own government and civil                 is headed by Lady Catherine Ashton, a hitherto         also call for new alliances of solidarity. Keep the
administration at the local, regional, national or          unknown person in European circles, the                date (19 - 22 September 2011) and join us in
European level; social groupings, such as political         development or international relations                 York, UK for this event.
parties, trade unions or faith-based groups, are            communities. Mark Furness from the DIE provides
also in a kind of perennial identity crisis and no          some more insight into this.
longer seen as the guardians of people's interest.
                                                                A large section of this newsletter is devoted      Thomas Lawo
   In the age of globalisation, where economic,             to our newest EADI project “chance2sustain”,           Executive Secretary
social, cultural, demographic and technological             which focuses on the future and development            E-mail:
realities are changing the entire fabric of our             of rapidly growing big cities and the chances of
societies, as compared to previous decades, the             providing people in these urban conglomerations
European identity, or, in fact identities, must be          with a sustainable life. In 2009/ 2010, according
sought anew and re-defined, since the                       to UN statistics, half of the world's population
responsibility for a sustainable future for all, the        was living in cities and this share will increase to
protection of values and norms are at stake.                60% by the year 2050. To find out more about
Solidarity with the poor in the South is more               this international research project, please visit
than demanding the reaffirmation of the 0.7%                our website.
of GDP or GNI target for aid to developing
countries. This is also about delivering on                   The EADI General Conference 2011 is being
promises, slashing unfair trade regimes, giving             prepared with some of these issues,
up on the unfair protection of national interests           contradictions and ambiguities in mind. We shall
vis-à-vis the disadvantaged trading partners and            have to come up with clear answers, based on
2        EADI Newsletter 1-2010

    The European External Action Service and EU
    Development Policy: Safeguards Required
    by Mark Furness
    The Lisbon Treaty entrenches development policy              good governance and regional stability. However,    forward looking studies and policy coherence
    as a “shared competence” under the mandate                   there are risks inherent in attempting to exploit   team - has long standing experience reporting
    of both High Representative for Common Foreign               synergies between development and foreign           on PCD. Further consideration of practical means
    and Security Policy (CSFP) Catherine Ashton                  policy, and robust measures promoting policy        by which the Commission can ensure policy
    and Development Commissioner Andris Piebalgs.                coherence are needed to reduce development's        coherence for development drives the EEAS'
    Measuring up to the letter and spirit of the                 vulnerability, especially in times of crisis.       work on ODA programming is needed.
    Lisbon Treaty requires strengthening the EU as                  The EEAS can promote policy coherence for
    a development actor, while ensuring that                     development in its own work but it cannot be        Second, the EEAS should be part of a
    development policy is flexible enough to respond             expected to safeguard it. This is largely because   coordinated intra-EU development
    to - but not be dominated by - the demands                                                                            cooperation structure.
    of a changing foreign policy environment.
    The new European External Action Ser-                                                                                   As the EEAS will be the organisation that
    vice (EEAS) will be the key EU external                                                                                 links the Commission, member states and
    policy institution and will play an important                                                                           partner countries, it will have a key role
    role in EU development policymaking.                                                                                    in promoting coordination among them.
                                                                                                                            The EEAS will share responsibility for
        The EU Council approved Ashton's                                                                                    programming the EU's ODA instruments
    proposal establishing the EEAS in late                                                                                  with the Commission's DG for
    April, and agreement with the European                                                                                  Development. ODA programming
    Parliament was reached on 21 June. The                                                                                  documents are to be prepared jointly by
    proposal's intention is to improve the                                                                                  the relevant services in the EEAS and the
    links between development and foreign                                                                                   Commission. However, the “chain of
    policy, combine the European                                                                                            command” in EU development
    Commission's technical expertise with the                                                                               cooperation remains unclear. Ashton's
    Council's political weight, and thus                                                                                    proposal states that ODA programming
    increase the EU's global role. As                                                                                       will be under the responsibility of
    development policy will not be as strongly                                                                              Commissioner Piebalgs, but does not clearly
    ring-fenced as before the Lisbon Treaty                                                                                 delineate the EEAS' and the Commission's
    clear institutional safeguards are required                                                                             roles on the key coordination questions
    if the EEAS is to help strengthen EU                                                                                    of who will set the agenda and how the
    development cooperation in three areas:                                                                                 Commissioner will exercise oversight.
                                                  Mark Furness
                                                                                                                                A practical solution for coordinating
    First, the EEAS must facilitate policy                       it will have little influence over agriculture,     ODA programming within the EEAS and linking
    coherence for development (PCD)                              fisheries and trade policies.                       with DG Development is still needed. One way
                                                                                                                     this could be done is through an EEAS ‘working
    EU external security and economic policies must                 The European Commission is the appropriate       group’ led by a deputy Director General and
    at least do no harm to the development of third              body for safeguarding PCD. Its responsibility for   comprised of officials from several directorates
    countries, and should at best actively support               ensuring that Official Development Assistance       and country desks. Such an arrangement would
    development objectives. Ashton's proposal                    (ODA) instruments are used appropriately is         provide the necessary coordination within the
    envisages that the priorities of the Common                  enshrined in EU Treaty law. Its powers as the EU    EEAS while treading carefully around the delicate
    Foreign and Security Policy will inform development          executive enable it to maintain an overview of      issue of hierarchy in the College of
    policy and vice-versa. There is a strong case for            policy areas which the EEAS, as an external         Commissioners.
    linking the CFSP more closely with development               service, will not be able to do. The Commission        “Soft law” has long guided EU development
    policy in the interests of coherence. Development            also has existing expertise: DG Development's       policy and it is understandable that Ashton's
    cooperation cannot be isolated from foreign policy           horizontal issues directorate - in particular the   proposal leaves certain processes to be bedded
    issues such as democratisation, human security,
                                                                                                                                 EADI Newsletter 1-2010            3

in over time. Nevertheless, formal institutional     report to Ashton in her capacity as Vice-President       structures can be created, development
coordination measures to keep development at         of the Commission rather than as High                    cooperation could become the means by which
the forefront of EU external policy should be        Representative for CFSP. This seemingly arcane           the EU becomes a more consequential global
there from the outset.                               provision requires the EEAS' budget to be subject        player.
                                                     to the same discharge procedure as that of the              The full implications of the Lisbon Treaty are
Third, the EEAS must be accepted as                  Commission, meaning that the Parliament will             not yet clear, but the trend towards integration
legitimate.                                          have annual right of approval.                           in EU external relations, development and foreign
                                                        The extent to which this right gives                  policy is real, and development will have an
The more legitimacy the EEAS enjoys, the more        Parliamentarians policy leverage is unclear, as          increasingly important role. Many of Europe's
effective it will be in building the consensus it    refusing approval for the EEAS' budget would             foreign policy and security interests are also
will need to carry out its development and foreign   be a “nuclear option.” In spite of the fact that         development issues: state fragility and illegal
policy tasks. The EEAS' legitimacy should not be     member governments are sometimes                         migration are just two examples. Those tasked
in question as it will represent 27 democratic       uncomfortable with foreign policy positions taken        with designing the EU's external relations
member states. Nevertheless, the potential for       by the European Parliament, enabling                     architecture have a unique opportunity to serve
opaque decision-making that is ever-present in       Parliamentary scrutiny of senior appointments            global development and European foreign policy
foreign policy does not exclude the EU.              and key policy decisions would be an added               goals simultaneously. Clearer institutional
   Greater transparency would further the EEAS'      means of building the EEAS' long term legitimacy         safeguards for EU development policy would
efforts to build legitimacy. Although EU officials   within the EU.                                           make an important contribution on both fronts.
are careful to refer to the EEAS as a “service”
and not an “institution”, Ashton's proposal          Development Power Europe?                                Dr. Mark Furness, Department “Bi- and Multila-
establishes the EEAS as an “institution” within                                                               teral Development Cooperation”, German
the meaning of Article I of the EU's financial       What has been missing from debates on the                Development Institute / Deutsches Institut für
regulation.                                          post-Lisbon Treaty EU thus far is a unifying             Entwicklungspolitik (DIE)
   The European Parliament, which rejected           strategic concept for EU external policy.
Ashton's initial proposal because of its lack of     Development cooperation is arguably the area             E-mail:
checks and balances, will have a major role in       in which the EU and its members can make the
promoting the transparency and long-term             greatest global impact. Assuming that member
legitimacy of the EEAS. The Service will have an     governments are able provide the necessary
administrative Directorate-General which will        political will, and that effective institutional

Conference Report

Coherence of Multi- and Bilateral Development Co-operation in the Case of the
Euro-Mediterranean Region

The Slovenian Platform of Development NGOs           on the Mediterranean region and tried to answer          Euromed area. The UfM should expand its focus
(SLOGA), the European Association of                 the following question: Based on problematic             from a region into a place of mutual respect for
Development Research Institutes (EADI), the          experiences in the past, how can multilateral            cultures and civilisations. There are numerous
Euro-Mediterranean University (EMUNI) and the        and bilateral mechanisms of development co-              good practices reflecting this aim and Slovenia
EMUNI Foundation organised an international          operation in the Euromed area under the Union            plays an important role here. The Euromed
conference entitled “Coherence of Multi- and         for the Mediterranean (UfM) best be combined             University has its headquarters in Slovenia and
Bilateral Development Co-operation in the Case       in a coherent and mutually beneficial way?               the country hosted the Second Euro-
of the Euro-Mediterranean Region” that was                                                                    Mediterranean Ministerial Conference in the field
held in Ljubljana on 15 April 2010.                     The conference was opened by Dragoljuba               of Higher Education, Research and Innovation
   The aim of the conference that gathered           Bencina, State Secretary at the Ministry of              on 25/26 April 2010. There is, however, further
together more than 70 researchers, NGO               Foreign Affairs, who emphasised that                     Slovenian interest in working in the region in the
representatives, policy-makers and members of        development co-operation in the Euro-                    future too.
diplomatic corps was to explore the dilemma          Mediterranean area and beyond is not just an
regarding the coherence of the EU's and its          expression of solidarity, but is in the vital interest      The opening of the conference was followed
Member States' international development co-         of all of us, since Slovenia feels particularly          by a number of panels, beginning with one on
operation in cases of institutionalised regional     responsible for neighbouring countries and areas.        Coherence and Complementarity of EU-
co-operation. The conference focused in particular   There is a need to work coherently in the                Mediterranean Regional Co-operation.
4       EADI Newsletter 1-2010

                                                                        Democracy and Human Rights.         triangles, spatial development initiatives and other
                                                                        Furness stressed that the           micro-regional frameworks of co-operation.
                                                                        foreign policy interests might
                                                                        overshadow the development             The second panel focused on the multilateral
                                                                        objectives and emphasised the       and bilateral mechanisms of development co-
                                                                        need for co-ordinated action        operation under the UfM. Speakers presented
                                                                        between the DGs for                 examples of both mechanisms and also
                                                                        Development, Enlargement and        discussed challenges that have to be taken into
                                                                        Neighbourhood Policy. He also       consideration when applying each of them in
                                                                        stressed the issue of               the region. Gordana Berjan, from the North-
                                                                        professionalism in the              South Centre of the Council of Europe (NSC of
                                                                        Commission's bodies as the          CoE), emphasised that the NSC does not operate
                                                                        basis for efficiency and the need   under the UfM (since it is not a signatory of the
                                                                        to focus on good governance.        Paris Declaration). However, there are several
                                                                                                            activities that fully complement common goals
                                                                            In his presentation “Beyond     and purposes, such as the NSC's work on
    Dragoljuba Bencina
                                                                         Development Co-operation:          intercultural dialogue, global education and
                                                        Where is the UfM headed?” Tobias Schumacher,        activities for the promotion of gender equality.
       Paul Hoebink from the Centre for Internatio-
                                                        CIES Lisbon, expressed the concern that the         The NSC is very active in the field of establishing
    nal Development Issues Nijmegen introduced
                                                        UfM, which replaced the Barcelona process, is       dialogue as well as a key instrument for
    the policy coherence steps in the EU by outlining
                                                        faced with even greater problems: The               development in Europe and the southern
    some basic documents establishing development
                                                        unresolved Middle East conflict, strict             Mediterranean. That understanding of
    mechanism between the EU and the Euromed
                                                        development co-operation decisions with regards     complementarity is, however, possible only if
    area (Maastricht Treaty, Amsterdam, Nice
                                                        to the complex institutional and decision-making    the UfM is taken as a mix of sectors, instruments
    Convention, Treaty of Lisbon). He went on to
                                                        structure, time-consuming, untransparent and        and actors rather than a framework for technical
    introduce the causes of incoherence of the EU's
                                                        bureaucratic processes, and increased multilate-    development co-operation.
    development policies, such as the fact that many
                                                        ral decision-making as the membership in the
    policies follow the interests of individual
                                                        UfM is extended and now also includes the              Omar Benbekhti, representing the Institut de
    Members not of the Union, whilst developing
                                                        participation of the Arab League. The latter can    Developpement Durable des Ressources (IDDR),
    countries' interests are set aside and
                                                        be problematic in terms of its boycotting of        discussed some challenges that the Euromed
    representation of their interests is not clear.
                                                        decisions. In addition, in the light of project-    region is facing under the UfM. Although the
    Member States still pursue different foreign
                                                        based co-operation, vital issues such as            UfM represents a good initiative for upgrading
    policies without a common orientation, which
                                                        democracy, political reform and strengthening       the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership, additional
    results in inconsistency. Paul Hoebink emphasised
                                                        of human rights could receive even less attention   emphasis should be given to economic, security,
    that the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP)
                                                        than before.                                        cultural, political and social challenges in the
    requires new policies, whereas the Barcelona
                                                                                                            region. Furthermore, there are some demographic
    process brought some stagnation
                                                           Ana Bojinovic Fenko from the Faculty of Social   and economic imbalances, as well as the social,
    (democratisation agenda given away for the
                                                        Sciences, University of Ljubljana, focused on the   cultural and human partnerships, which need to
    security interests, addressing only freedoms of
                                                        consistency and coherence of policy instruments     be improved. Results in the field of the
    interest to the EU etc.). Concerns remain
                                                        in the Euro-Mediterranean area. She first           movement of people, reducing social incoherence
    regarding whether the UfM will be reduced to
                                                        introduced some past examples of regional co-       and economic development are insufficient. Thus,
    technical projects and led by Member states
                                                        operation in the Mediterranean. Some coherence      more attention should be devoted to the
    that are reluctant to address human rights and
                                                        of regional practices could be seen, but the        presentation of burning issues, and work should
    are most protectionist when it comes to
                                                        exclusively EU-exported policy instruments did      be done in the interest of all partners of the
    defending their agriculture and industries.
                                                        not offer success when it comes to                  UfM.
                                                        implementation of the Partnership. The original        Vince Caruana, from the Maltese Platform of
       Mark Furness, from the German
                                                        problem derives from the fact that the EU is        Development NGOs, presented the importance
    Development Institute, began by looking at the
                                                        itself a region and the ENP focus is on the EU      and current context in which civil society
    Council Decision of the EU High Representative
                                                        and not the Mediterranean. As a result, what is     organisations in the Euromed area operate today.
    for Foreign Policy on establishing the European
                                                        being built is an extremely unbalanced inter-       There are still some challenges between states
    External Action Service, which also sets out the
                                                        regional framework. The UfM enables stronger        and civil society organisations in the region that
    contribution to programming and management
                                                        institutionalisation of regional practices and      can influence the successful work of both sides.
    cycle for the Development Cooperation Instru-
                                                        norms but should be oriented towards the micro-     Also, numerous good practices initiated by civil
    ment and the European Instrument for
                                                        regional level in the form of promoting growth      society in the area, such as fair trade work, the
                                                                                                                                EADI Newsletter 1-2010               5

                                                     Vaggi from the University of Pavia, Robert               framework and instruments.
                                                     Krizanic, President of the Slovenian NGO             -   There is still incoherence in regard to diffe-
                                                     Association Povod, and Ibrahim Makram,                   rent politics and mechanisms in the region,
                                                     representing the Egyptian NGO Coptic Evangelic           as well as in the field of development co-
                                                     Organisation for Social Services (CEOSS). Robert         operation. Development emphasis in recent
                                                     Krizanic presented a few successful projects that        years has not brought the expected progress
                                                     are co-operating with civil society in the region        and the Lisbon Treaty only serves to increase
                                                     and are being implemented by his association,            these challenges rather than offer coherent
                                                     like the EuroMed “Rowing for a Better Future”            solutions.
                                                     project in Israel in late 2008. These projects,      -   There are, however, some good practices that
                                                     which are based on person-to-person relations,           were established under the Barcelona process
                                                     in his view promote a better understanding of a          and strengthened by the UfM. Many civil
                                                     variety of cultures, habits, languages and ways          society organisations are active and successful
Tobias Schumacher                                    of life in the Mediterranean. The other two              in the region. There are, also, other organisations,
preservation of a local small-scale agriculture,     speakers agreed with him, and presented the              for instance the NSC of CoE, that are not
renewable energy work and responsible tourism,       academic perspective: they addressed the po-             signatories to the Paris Declaration. However
should be maintained in the future.                  tential for more higher-education co-operation           active they are in the field, their work should
                                                     projects among Mediterranean universities,               be considered as complementary to the UfM's
   In the third panel, speakers focused on           based on numerous successful cases of existing           efforts.
practical examples of multilateral and bilateral     co-operation between universities in the             -   Slovenia has started to play a significant role
mechanisms of co-operation in the region and         Southern Mediterranean. The debate after the             in the Euro-Mediterranean region. By
discussed some successes and challenges              speakers' presentations developed into a                 establishing the Euro-Mediterranean University
regarding both. This panel brought together          discussion on the need to lower administrative           EMUNI in 2008 it successfully improved
experts from the field of implementation of dif-     barriers, such as visa requirements, in order to         Mediterranean-wide co-operation in the fields
ferent development-related policies in the Euro-     enable better higher education co-operation and,         of culture and higher education.
Mediterranean area to discuss coherence of           more generally, societal and cultural relation-      -   With the aim of improving the current situation
multilateral and bilateral mechanisms in practice.   building in the Euro-Mediterranean region.               in the region, complementing the potential
Joseph Mifsud, President of the Euro-                                                                         successful implementation of UfM goals and
Mediterranean University (EMUNI), presented          Recommendations                                          ensuring greater coherence, there is a need
a short historical overview of Mediterranean co-                                                              for greater involvement by civil society
operation in the field of higher education in        Finally, the conference came up with some                organisations in all policy areas: planning,
order to put the EMUNI, which was established        concrete conclusions and recommendations:                implementation, monitoring and evaluation
in 2008 and in Portoroz, into perspective. From a    - Although there has been some progress, the             of county-specific development and other
practical point of view he addressed the               Euro-Mediterranean area is still facing numerous       policies.
importance of alumni networking in not only in         challenges and the UfM, established in 2008,
terms of keeping in contact with and track of          has not yet met all expectations. Modest           Report provided by Sloga, Slovenian Platform of
former EMUNI students but also of recruiting           progress in the economic and political fields      Development NGOs
potential future associates.                           calls for greater coherence and complementarity
   Other speakers on the panel were: Gianni            of the partnership-building normative

Gianni Vaggi, Joseph Mifsud, Jean-Luc Maurer
6        EADI Newsletter 1-2010

    New EADI P roject - Chance2sustain

    Urban Chances - City Growth and the
    Sustainability Challenge
    How can cities in the South meet the sustainability     service-based). The policies promoting these             This research will map out complementarities
    challenge? What can be learned from the                 specialised spaces strive for maximum global             and conflict arising from integrating the green
    frontrunners? Development patterns and                  connectivity without necessarily favouring linkages      and the brown agenda across fast-growing cities,
    governance approaches devised in fast growing           with the local economy, thereby creating risks           with a focus on water and related energy issues.
    cities in growing economies in the South                for spatial fragmentation and social exclusion.          In scenario-building exercises with relevant local
    foreshadow what other Southern cities will face         They are analysed in relation to the traditional         stakeholders in the relevant cities the predicted
    in the near future.                                     economic base of the cities, and alternative             consequences of climate change will be taken
        Chance2Sustain compares 10 cities of diffe-         strategies are explored.                                 up.
    rent sizes and with a different economic base in
    four countries (India, South Africa, Brazil and         Policies and politics to address                         Developing participatory ‘spatial’
    Peru), all pioneering certain aspects of sustainable    urban inequality: poor people                            knowledge models in metropolitan
    urban development. All cities are based in              networks, CSO networks and                               governance networks for sustainable
    countries with moderate to high economic                campaigns on sub-standard                                development and an integrated model
    growth-rates in the pre-crisis era, and most cities     settlements in metropolitan areas                        of urban sustainable development
    faced moderate to high urban growth rates over
    the last decade. It is the explicit aim of this         Urban governance studies show that territorial           Utilizing spatially disaggregated community
    project to analyse how progress in one domains          scale, and type of stakeholders involved in local        knowledge to address needs in a more integrated
    of sustainable urban development - such as              governance networks may differ from those                fashion is still rare and contested by governments.
    equity and social inclusion, environmental              involved in political party work. Poor people            This approach is being developed within the
    conservation or economic development - impacts          networks are crucial to understand local                 research program on urban poverty currently
    the other domains.                                      mechanisms in place for reproducing or reducing          undertaken by the GID (AISSR-UvA) with SPA
        Chance2Sustain encourages close                     poverty. The project will map urban inequality           in several Indian cities. This model will be used
    collaboration between researchers and policy-           (poverty and segregation), the urban political-          in the 10 participating cities to analyze the factors
    makers from around the globe and enhances               administrative system, and campaigns for social          contributing to (or preventing) sustainable
    co-operation with reputable urban development           inclusion and environmental upgrading of sub-            development, and integrate the issues included
    research institutes such as GID (AISSR-UvA),            standard settlements. Taking the various country         in this research project: economic analysis, the
    CEIAS-CNRS, NIBR, UKZN, FORO, CEBRAP and                contexts into account, the project will analyse          poverty/inequality analysis, the environmental
    SPA but also UN-Habitat as a dissemination              how the interaction between the various types            risk assessment issues, and the funding patterns
    partner. The project is funded by the European          of social and political actors - poor people networks,   and exigencies analyzed in this project.
    Framework Programme (FP7) under the Socio-              CSO networks, government - can promote social/
                                                            environmental aspects of sustainable
    Economic Sciences and Humanities theme and                                                                       Combining fiscal decentralization,
    coordinated by EADI, the European Association                                                                    participatory budgeting, and
    of Development Research and Training institutes.                                                                 inclusive development: supporting
                                                            Environmental risk assessment and                        sustainable development policies,
    The project is organized around five major topics.      inclusive scenario building for                          monitoring and implementation
                                                            reducing costs: reconciling the
                                                                                                                     The main concern is to find out to what extent
    Large-scale economic and                                green and brown agenda
    infrastructure projects in fast-                                                                                 fiscal decentralization has opened up opportunities
                                                            Urban environmental issues are often portrayed           for including local knowledge and spatial
    growing cities and alternative
                                                            in terms of two distinct agendas. Research on            information in participatory budgeting processes,
    economic strategies
                                                            the ‘unfinished’ or ‘brown’ agenda encompasses           what local political and institutional factors
    The growth of large-scale economic projects in          the conventional environmental health issues.            influence them, what aspects of sustainable
    fast-growing cities in India, Brazil, Peru, and South   Research on the ‘green’ agenda focuses on the            development are incorporated, and what trade-
    Africa is documented, contrasting the processes         other environmental dimensions of urban                  ofs are made.
    among three categories of urban economic bases          sustainable development, nowadays often with
    in the selected cities (industrial, administrative,     a focus on its potential impact on climate change.
                                                                                                                             EADI Newsletter 1-2010             7

                                                  Introducing Chance2sustain1

                                                  Inclusive Adaptation: Linking Participatory
                                                  Learning and Knowledge Management to Urban
                                                  by Isa Baud and Michaela Hordijk

                                                  In their Third Assessment Report the                   services and institutions required for basic ongoing
                                                  Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change              survival and are characterised by their ability to
                                                  (IPCC) defined resilience as ‘the degree to which      generate new opportunities for their residents.
Project website:                                  a system rebounds, recoups, or recovers from a         They avoid relying on solutions that depend on                             stimulus’ (IPCC 2001:894). In their Fourth             anticipating specific hazards, and instead take a
                                                  Assessment Report it is defined as ‘the ability of     broader, integrated approach’ (Dodman 2010).
Project officer: Steffen Davids                   a social or ecological system to absorb disturbances   Resiliency of cities, according to the Alliance, is
E-mail:                    while retaining the same basic structure and           based on four core principles: redundancy,
                                                  ways of functioning, the capacity for self-            flexibility, the capacity to learn, and the capacity
                                                  organisation, and the capacity to adapt to stress      to reorganise.
Consortium partners:                              and change’ (IPCC 2008;233-234). The ICPP reports         Whereas traditional efforts to increase cities'
                                                  exemplify the evolution of the concept from its        resilience have focused on making the cities'
European Association of Development Research      original, static definition in physics (‘a value       hard infrastructure more resistant to the effects
and Training Institutes (EADI), Bonn, Germany     indicating a material's resistance to shock’ (Van      of climate change, these more recent definitions                                      der Leeuw and Aschan-Leygonie 2000), or in             focus on the ‘soft’ side: the capacities of actors,
                                                  ecology (the time needed to return to a state of       institutions and governance networks to deal
Governance for Inclusive Development (GID)        equilibrium after a shock (Manyena 2006)), into        with stresses and sudden shocks - i.e. the adap-
at the Amsterdam Institute for Social Science     a somewhat more dynamic concept. However,              tive capacity of cities (Godschalk 2003). It is
Research (AISSR-UvA), Amsterdam, The              efforts ‘to retain the same basic structure’ are       evident that characteristics such as flexibility,
Netherlands                                       not necessarily the required response in a world       the capacity to learn and the capacity to                                    marked by a very uneven and inequitable                reorganise require very different capabilities than
                                                  distribution of risks stemming from climate change     the more traditional ‘top-down’ planning models
Centre for South Asian Studies, at the French     and their effects (Dodman, Ayers et al. 2009).         and ‘command and control’ management
National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS),                                                          approaches assume. Several recent trends in
Paris, France                                        In more recent approaches, resilient systems        urban governance - such as decentralisation,                             are understood not only to have the capacity to        the shift from government to governance and
                                                  rebound or adapt, but also the potential for           increased citizen participation - in principle allow
School of Planning and Architecture (SPA), New    sustainable development by
Delhi, India                                      responding to and shaping                                     change in a manner that does
                                                  not lead to loss of future
Cities for Life Forum (FORO), Lima, Peru          options. Intrinsic to this                                 approach is that resilient
                                                  systems also provide capacity
Centro Brasileiro de Análise e Planejamento       for renewal and innovation in
(CEBRAP), São Paulo, Brazil                       the face of rapid                                 transformation and crises
                                                  (Berkes, Colding et al. 2003).
Norwegian Institute for Urban and Regional Re-    In a similar spirit the Asian
search (NIBR), Oslo, Norway                       Climate Change Resilience                                       Network characterises resilient
                                                  cities as ‘cities that create,
University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZN), Durban,       enable, and sustain the
South Africa
8        EADI Newsletter 1-2010

    for greater flexibility, autonomy and creativity       new approach in dealing with the consequences          trends already experienced can produce a localised
    at the local level. Yet in many cities these           of climate change in urban areas, based on the         understanding of risks (Reid, Alam et al. 2009).
    government reforms are implemented in tandem           concept of adaptive capacity.                          Types of knowledge can vary from tacit knowledge
    with reforms inspired by New Public Manage-                                                                   from work experience, to embedded
    ment thinking, predicated on efficiency and            Adaptive Capacity:                                     environmental and economic sector knowledge,
    running government as a business. This type of                                                                social (Adger) knowledge at the neighbourhood
    ‘management’ model calls for the state to
                                                           Summarising the Lessons                                and city-wide level, as well as expert scientific
    become a regulator, utilise outsourcing for            from SES and CBA                                       knowledge (Coaffee and Healey 2003; Van Ewijk
    implementation, increase efficiency and financial      Climate change studies, resilience studies and         and Baud 2009). The essence of participatory
    control, and limits accountability to citizens. The-   reports on CBA have in common that they                knowledge generation is that through the input
    se processes potentially undermine the capacities      emphasise that working towards adaptive capacity       of different stakeholders in a participatory process
    of cities to adequately deal with risks by             should be an integral part of development initi-       different sets of knowledge are integrated. CBA
    relegating redundancy, flexibility and creativeness    atives, and not constitute a separate agenda           uses many of the traditional participatory appraisal
    to marginal and non-economic processes, thereby        (IPCC 2001:879; Folke 2002; Lebel 2006; Reid,          techniques (such as seasonal calendars, which
    reducing their capacity to increase resilience         Alam et al. 2009). Already in 2001 the IPCC            combined with timeliness and trend-analysis
    (Baud and Hordijk 2009).                               identified as the major components of adaptive         provide insight in changes already experienced),
       It should be noted that resilience thinking has     capacity economic resources, technology,               community mapping and transect walks (to identify
    been only recently applied to urban areas              information and skills, infrastructure, institutions   resources and risks), and ranking (vulnerabilities
    (Prasad, Ranghieri et al. 2009), mainly in the         and - interestingly - equity (IPCC 2001:893).          and hazards, and coping and recovery strategies)
    area of disaster studies (Pelling 2003; Vale and                                                              (Reid, Alam et al. 2009). Tools specifically rele-
    Campanella 2005; Manyena 2006). Resilience             Participatory Knowledge                                vant for participatory (Adger, Brown et al.)
    thinking has made headway in the analysis of                                                                  knowledge management work with mental models
    Social-Ecological-Systems (SES) (Adger) and
                                                           Management                                             (to identify drivers of climate change), and
    natural resource management (Adger 2000;               Whereas the IPCC mainly refers to scientific/          participatory mapping techniques (especially those
    Folke 2002; Folke, Hahn et al. 2005; Liu, Dietz        technical knowledge which is to be disseminated,       combining local knowledge with insights from
    et al. 2007). Work on community-based                  both resilience thinking and CBA emphasise the         remote sensing observations such as Google
    adaptation (CBA) (Reid, Alam et al.) has mainly        need for co-learning (Bizikova, Dickinson et al.),     Earth, mapping of information and knowledge
    focused on rural areas and natural resources           which combines and integrates different forms          in GIS) (Gaillard and Maceda 2009; Reid, Alam
    (Reid 2009:12; Swalheim and Dodman 2008).              and types of knowledge. Only the combination           et al. 2009), and participatory scenario-building
    When coupled with climate change studies these         of, for instance, long-term predictions from climate   (Bizikova, Dickinson et al. 2009). An important
    two sets of thinking provide inspiration for a         change models with local knowledge on specific         limitation of CBA is that participatory knowledge

    Source: Adapted from Norris et al (2008): Community Resilience as a Metaphor, Set of Capacities and Strategy for Disaster Readiness
                                                                                                                                               EADI Newsletter 1-2010                            9

generation often remains a one-time effort. Only          other stakeholders. If maintained - for instance       political discussions and decision-making
if such knowledge is continuously updated in an           through regular interaction necessary to update        processes, and the extent to which a participatory
interactive process bringing the different                the knowledge base - these linkages can form a         spatial knowledge infrastructure is utilised to
stakeholders together, and utilised pro-actively,         stock of latent social capital which can rapidly       foster resilience and to promote sustainable
can it become a form of participatory knowledge           be drawn on when swift action is needed. ‘Hubs’        development.
management that can foster community resilience.          or ‘super-connected’ members in these networks            The main objective of Chance2sustain is the
                                                          are crucial, especially when they link different       development of a qualitative explanatory
Fostering Resiliency                                      networks (Longstaff 2005; Norris, Stevens et al.       framework which links the ways in which
                                                          2008).                                                 participatory spatial knowledge management
Through Participatory                                         Yet the role of such ‘key-stones’ or strategic     can direct urban governance to increased
Knowledge Management                                      leadership has hardly been studied. There is           resilience and sustainable development, showing
In a resilient governance system both actors              also a need to build a fuller understanding of the     the influence of differing political and economic
and capacities are linked in multiple ways and            pathways through which social capital and              pre-conditions, and the direction of social and
across scales. Norris et al. (2008) posit that            strategic leadership in participatory knowledge        environmental approaches and practices
resiliency emerges from a set of networked                management can enhance collective                      conducive to more sustainable development and
adaptive capacities, being: economic development,         competences 3. The research programme                  resilience in cities in the ace of current and
information and communication, social capital             Chance2sustain will address that question.             future transformations.
and community competence (Norris, Stevens et
al. 2008:135-144). Related to participatory               The Way Forward:                                       For a full paper and a complete list of references
knowledge management this gives the following                                                                    please see
picture (see Figure 1).
    Economic development and the equitable                For cities to be prepared for climate change,          Isa Baud is professor at the Amsterdam Institute
distribution of its benefits create the essential         they need to develop in a sustainable manner           for Metropolitan and Internatioal Development
resource base for resiliency (Godschalk 2003).            based on resilience and enhancement of their           Studies (AMIDST)
Information and communication are often                   adaptive capacity. Participatory knowledge             E-mail:
highlighted as a building block of resilient systems      management is an essential instrument to pro-          Michaela Hordijk is assistant professor at AMIDST
(IPCC 2001; Habitat 2007; Prasad, Ranghieri et            mote this type of adaptive capacity for resilience.    E-mail:
al. 2009). Both Norris et al. (2008) and Longstaff        Participation needs to go beyond the scale of
and Yang (2008) emphasise the importance of               local communities or local government and become
trusted sources of information (Longstaff and             part of the thinking within urban governance
Yang 2008; Norris, Stevens et al. 2008). Such             networks, in which sectoral organisations, priva-      References
trust is created in processes of participatory            te sector companies, local representatives of
                                                                                                                     The full title of this Research Programme is ‘Urban Chances - City
knowledge generation when different sources               national ministries and knowledge generation
                                                                                                                 growth and the sustainability challenge. Comparing fast growing cities
of information are jointly processed, validated           institutions are incorporated. Sources of knowledge
                                                                                                                 in growing economies’, funded under the 7th EU-framework programme.
and transformed into knowledge. In this process           from the latter institutes, such as socio-economic
                                                                                                                 For more information see:
of bringing different sets of knowledge and               surveys, sectoral tacit knowledge, remote sensing
diverging interpretations of local realities              images and GIS-ed information are still not used       2
                                                                                                                     Bonding capital refers to social ties among people with a shared

together, a shared understanding of this reality          systematically4.                                       identity, i.e. homogeneous groups, bridging capital refers to ties between

can be created, hence a certain ‘overlap in men-               Such types of knowledge are particularly          groups with differing identities (heterogeneous groups) but with

tal models’.                                              relevant in identifying spatial concentrations of      shared objectives, linking social ties refers to vertical links, for instance

    The process of joint knowledge generation             particular (Adger) growth processes, social            between communities, leaders and government institutions.

simultaneously strengthens existing bonds, and            inequalities, and environmental hazards, providing     3
                                                                                                                     Norris 2008 defined ‘community competence’ as ‘the networked

can create new ones. Social capital has been              information on where interventions are most            equivalent of human agency’, hence the capacity for decision making

labelled a public good that can reduce transaction        needed and what combination of issues exists           and meaningful collective action. We label the capacity of governance

costs and facilitate the exchange of information,         at any one location. Such disaggregated                networks of various stakeholders ‘collective competence’.

enhancing innovation and the capacity to learn,           knowledge can provide useful support for political     4
                                                                                                                     The use of remote sensing in urban planning and management was

and has been linked to a collective's capacity to         and community discussions within urban                 discussed in a special issue of Habitat International in 2003. A new article

manage its knowledge (Pelling and High                    governance networks, enabling decisions to be          in press by Baud, Pfeffer, Kuffer and Sliuzas (ITC,Enschede) has developed

2005:316). For the resiliency of communities and          motivated by knowledge of issues, rather than          further modelling in this area to map poverty areas in Indian cities

cities, linking social capital is at least as important   a priori political preferences. Thus, this programme   (International journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation,

as bonding and bridging social capital 2.                 will include a focus on analyzing the demand           2010.

Participatory processes create interfaces and             and supply of knowledge brought by different
foster informal linkages between community                actors into governance networks, the types of
members, leaders, local government officials and          knowledge recognised and incorporated into
10       EADI Newsletter 1-2010

     Involving Stakeholders in Responding to Climate
     Experiences from Low- and Middle-income Countries
     by David Dodman

     Urban centres in low- and middle-income countries     particularly those representing low-income            solutions to extreme weather events. Residents
     face a range of challenges, and a wide range of       neighbourhoods, are frequently neglected. Yet         of Tandale in Dar es Salaam have built additio-
     policy initiatives have been produced to address      urban residents are very aware of the risks that      nal walls around doorways and windows to
     these. Climate change is already presenting new       they face from climate variability and change,        prevent floodwater entering their homes, but
     threats related to changes in temperature,            and of the ways in which these can be reduced.        also store valuable items in the rafters when
     precipitation and sea-level - many of which           Because of this, they can respond to climate          floods are anticipated and send vulnerable young
     exacerbate existing vulnerability. At the same        change in several ways: through identifying           children to stay with friends and relatives
     time, many responses to climate change rely           existing risks and vulnerability; through             elsewhere. Perhaps the most sustainable solution
     heavily on top-down or technical solutions, without   developing projects to respond to climate             to reduce risk to low-income urban residents
     involving the individuals, households, communities    variability and change; and through engaging in       involves acquiring land in locations that are less
     or local organisations who are most severely          broader lobbying and political processes at the       exposed to hazards. Members of the Homeless
     affected. Involving stakeholders in responding        local, national and international level.              People's Federation of the Philippines have come
     to climate change helps to meet participatory                                                               together to do this in the typhoon- and mudslide-
     goals, ensuring that citizens can shape their own        The potential for low-income urban residents       prone region of Bikol, and have successfully
     futures, can reduce the costs of implementing         to map patterns of vulnerability is increasingly      acquired safe land on which 343 families will be
     specific projects, and can contribute to the long-    well documented. In a recent study in Puerto          able to construct their own houses3.
     term effectiveness of policy interventions.           Rico, Tania López-Marrero and Petra Tschakert
                                                           have demonstrated how local residents can                A third way of involving stakeholders in
        Responses to climate change at the local level     identify flood exposure zones and water flow          responding to climate change is through engaging
     take two main forms: mitigation and adaptation.       within their communities1. Participatory methods      in dialogue and lobbying to shape the policies of
     Mitigation refers to any activities that reduce       and techniques - including conceptual mapping,        local and national governments, and to influence
     the concentration of greenhouse gases in the          participatory mapping, listing and ranking -          global responses to climate change. At the local
     atmosphere, helping to prevent the worst              showed that enhancing resilience requires             level, the action in Bikol required ongoing
     consequences of climate change. But in many           support for social learning by building on existing   negotiations with a range of government bodies
     low- and middle-income countries, per capita          knowledge, stressing the importance of a diver-       over issues including access to land, the price of
     emissions of these gases are already very low,        se set of options for managing flood risk, and        land and planning regulations. At a global level,
     and the primary responsibility for addressing         developing effective linkages between citizens        the Capacity Strengthening in the Least
     this issue - as recognised by the United Nations      and the state. Similarly, detailed enumerations       Developed Countries for Adaptation to Climate
     Framework Convention on Climate Change                of informal settlements in Kisumu, Kenya,             Change (CLACC) programme works in some of
     (UNFCCC) - rests with wealthier countries. In         documented by Irene Karanja 2, involved               the most vulnerable countries in Africa and Asia
     contrast, adaptation refers to the set of responses   households in preparing detailed maps that show       to support civil society engagement on climate
     that can be taken to reduce the consequences          a range of information on household and               change issues within countries4. At the same
     of climate change. These responses can involve        community characteristics, and which then             time, the programme supports the engagement
     both building adaptive capacity (strengthening        provide the basis for identifying future priorities   of civil society actors from the global south in
     the ability of individuals and groups to act) and     and implementing upgrading projects. Various          observing and shaping the international decision-
     more concrete delivery of adaptation actions to       other groups in Africa and Asia are employing         making processes around the UNFCCC.
     reduce risks or limit consequences.                   similar methods with an explicit focus on climate
                                                           risk and resilience.                                    But these kinds of stakeholder involvement
        Who are the stakeholders who should be                                                                   can only be successful if local and national
     involved in responding to climate change? Stake-        Secondly, stakeholders can be involved in           governments are willing to involve individuals,
     holder mapping exercises have tended to identify      implementing specific projects. People living in      households and civil society in formulating ur-
     a mixture of local government, civil society and      many low-income urban communities already             ban and national responses. A first step in this is
     the private sector - but community organisations,     adopt a wide range of contextually appropriate        detailed engagement with citizens and
                                                                                                                                      EADI Newsletter 1-2010           11

community organisations: involving urban               appropriate building standards that support low-       References
residents at an early stage in climate change          cost building methods and incremental
                                                                                                              1. López-Marrero T, Tschakert P (2011). ‘From
planning not only provides useful insights, but        improvements while at the same time ensuring
                                                                                                                 theory to practice: building more resilient
also ensures that eventual interventions are more      houses are resistant to extreme weather events.
                                                                                                                 communities in flood-prone areas’ Environ-
broadly supported. A second area for action is in          Responding to climate change - particularly
                                                                                                                 ment and Urbanization 23 (1): in press.
the provision of urban infrastructure that meets       in the highly vulnerable cities of low- and middle-
the needs of low-income groups: in many cities         income countries - requires a broad set of inno-       2. Karanja I (2010). ‘An enumeration and mapping
in the global south, low-income residents are          vative solutions. But this need for rapid and             of informal settlements in Kisumu, Kenya,
poorly served by existing infrastructure               innovative action must not stand in the way of            implemented by their inhabitants’ Environment
(particularly for the provision of water, sanitation   broad stakeholder participation, particularly the         and Urbanization 22(1): 217-239.
and drainage). Perhaps most importantly,               participation of the most vulnerable individuals       3. Dodman D, Mitlin D, Rayos Co J (2010). ‘Victims
however, local and national governments have           and groups - who, after all, bear very little             to Victors, Disasters to Opportunities:
a key role in creating an enabling environment         responsibility for the emissions that have caused         community-driven responses to climate change
in which a range of stakeholders can develop           the problem.                                              in the Philippines' International Development
their own responses. This enabling environment                                                                   Planning Review 32(1): 1-26.
can include reconsidered zoning and planning           David Dodman, International Institute for Envi-        4. For more information on this project, see
regulations to ensure that low-income groups           ronment and Development                         
have access to land for constructing houses that       E-mail:
reduces their exposure to the risks of flooding,
slope failure and other disasters; or developing

Climate Change, Participation and Civil Society:
Towards an Action Research Approach
by Liliana Miranda Sara
This article summarises a few ideas taken from         paradigm of sustainable development.                   demands and the devastating effects on territory,
a forthcoming research project in the Peruvian             In order to attempt to change the relations-       human health and ecosystems that climate
cities of Lima and Arequipa. The project relates       hip between poverty, ecology and cities, it is         change is about to create?
to the impacts of climate change as part of the        necessary to analyse the roots of economic and
chance2sustain EU Research Programme. Peru             political power in order to gain a greater             To w a r d s a P a r t i c i p a t o r y A c t i o n
is one of those countries to be most seriously         understanding of the rules applied in the decision-    Research Approach
affected by climate change. Glaciers in the Andean     making process that fuels current (and future)
region have melted by 25% over the last eight          critical territory and city conflicts and challenges   Civil society is changing, becoming recognised
years alone, or, in absolute numbers, by 12 billion    worldwide.                                             as the third sector that demands social and
cubic metres. And this is in the context of Peru           The model of exclusion, poverty and                political recognition and the right to participate
accounting for 5% of the world's fresh water           environmental injustice is illustrated by the          in national and international decision-making; it
resources, most of which are stored in its glaciers.   marginalisation of large numbers of the urban          pushes governments and large corporations to
This research draws on the experience and              poor who are condemned to live in unhealthy            change their policies and investment choices. As
accumulated knowledge of the Cities for Life           and dangerous conditions with few economic             a result there is a clear worldwide trend towards
Fora1, which combines a strategy of political          opportunities, as can be found in both the cities      building multi-stakeholder networks that are non-
                                                                                                              political but thematically oriented. There are several
advocacy, capacity-building and participatory action   of the North as well as of the South.
                                                                                                              new and strong networks across the world that
research.                                                  It is clear that while the world has discussed
                                                       the need for sustainable development, it has           are building relationships between key local,
                                                                                                              city, regional and national actors (institutions
Exclusion, Poverty and Environmental                   not yet understood that sustainability will require
                                                                                                              and/or individuals). These organisations
Injustice                                              a different paradigm for growth and development
                                                       worldwide. In this sense, how should we plan           disseminate information and knowledge, and
The predominant development model to emerge            for, adapt to and manage the rapid and extensi-        teach coordination and team work by permanently
from industrialised countries has been widely          ve population growth facing Lima and Arequipa?         practising it, working with people and institutions
demonstrated to be incompatible with the               How can we prepare for and respond to the              that have clearly demonstrated their willingness
12        EADI Newsletter 1-2010

     to work in partnership. A strategy for joint action     being made with these networks' contributions.                  ritorial and city visions, and creating different
     that has proven successful is working together          Capacity-building and “concertation”, or                        plausible city governance scenarios.
     on those issues that most of the participants can       negotiated democracy, and participatory and
     agree on, and postponing activities where               direct democracy strategies that empower the                In short, knowledge tends to remain where
     agreement cannot yet be reached. These networks,        poor, have proven to be effective strategies in          (and with whom) it has been generated and
     particularly those that are independent and from        allowing the voice of the poor to be heard and in        only well-informed and committed actors will
     the poorer countries, are transforming into             establishing the political will to implement the         have the capacity to implement the actions that
     movements and actors in their own right,                economic, cultural and socio-technical innovations       need to be taken. Participatory action research
     developing awareness-raising campaigns and              required to face the sustainability and climate          methodologies will be applied in the framework
     exchange programmes, promoting internships              change challenge.                                        of a chance2sustain research project, leading to
     and field visits (for training by doing), and hosting      When applied to climate change in the city of         stronger social processes with the capacity to
     internet discussions, seminars and forums. In           Lima in Peru, a process for the social construction      overcome the barriers to sustainability. In this
     short, they have developed permanent ways of            of knowledge will be based on the following:             way it will be possible to generate new
     exchanging information and generating                   a) The interactions between the water, city and          knowledge and theories, as well as (at the same
     participatory knowledge, a social construction of          territory agenda on multiple territorial scales       time) social change and political incidence
     knowledge as a way to lead them into collective            - the interconnections between key water              through the active participation of both citizens
     action. In this way they are contributing to the           environmental issues affecting Lima and               and stakeholders at multiple levels.
     process of making people and institutions                  Arequipa (territory and cities), such as water
     accountable for what is going on in their                  shortages, landslides, flooding at different scales   Mg. Arch Liliana Miranda Sara is Executive Director
     communities, their cities, and/or the wider world,         on account of the climate impact.                     of Cities for Life Fora , Peru and
     with a particular focus on the vulnerable.              b) Climate justice -identifying, through participatory   PhD Candidate UvA, The Netherlands
        The social construction of knowledge has                scenario-building, the people most at risk of         E-mail:
     proven to be a key factor in the success of such           water-related climate change threats in Lima
     networks. A strategy combining training and                and Arequipa.                                         1
                                                                                                                          An inter-institutional network of 57 mixed institutions (municipalities,

     education, technical assistance and action              c) City governance at multiple levels - regional         universities, NGOs and private organisations) from 20 Peruvian cities:

     research with coaching local development                   and city-level governments, social networks,

     processes as part of the development of Cities             institutions and leaders agree on a shared,
     Agenda 21s has led to concrete outcomes,                   positive sustainability and resilience agenda,
     improvements in governance and investments                 developing participatory and innovative ter-

     EDC2020 Policy Brief

     Climate Finance and Europe: Lost
     Momentum and Challenges Ahead
     by Merylyn Hedger

     One of the most depressing aspects of the lost          however the new Climate Commissioner Connie              a deepening leadership crisis stemming from an
     momentum on the post 2012 deal has been the             Hedegaard has been trying to reinvigorate the            anti-Brussels backlash in member states. Greater
     lack of effective leadership from the EU. Despite       negotiations showing that the 30 % cut would             political European integration and coherence
     the strong cards it held for Copenhagen with            now not be so costly for the EU to adopt. But            overall has been under threat. In the midst of all
     well-placed Scandinavian Ministers, supported           there is a long way to go if Cancun is to deliver        this, the issue of climate finance seems not to
     by the personal commitment of the heads of              anything credible. Focusing on the critical finance      be at the top of the in-tray for resolution. It is
     France, UK and Germany, it emerged as isolated          dimension, the situation has become more                 vital that the EU and its Member States get
     and weak. The ambiguous status of the                   intractable since Copenhagen because larger              back on track: they are still the key progressive
     Copenhagen (CPH) Accord within the UNFCCC               EU finance issues have emerged. With the                 players amidst the industrialised countries for
     system added to uncertainties. The EU then              credibility of the Euro undermined and the financial     forging a climate deal. With its new paper on
     played its key card, which is its adherence to its      crisis putting pressure on leadership in the UK,         fast track financing the EU is creating some
     unilateral 20 % cut by 2020, and not the 30 %           France and Germany, an EU drive has been                 policy space, and it is vital to maximise opportunities.
     cut which was contingent on a global deal. Recently     lacking. Worse still the Greek crisis has revealed       There is a need to ensure the gaps left by the
                                                                                                                                                  EADI Newsletter 1-2010                         13

CPH Accord are filled and what was promised is            across departments- difficult enough to achieve             Creating momentum will need support and the
delivered1. There are three critical linked issues        within Member States but much more difficult in             current EU Presidency triumvirate, Spain, Belgium
for attention.                                            a fragmented Commission. The latest paper for               and Hungary should draw on EU countries which
                                                          the June UNFCCC meeting in Bonn still lacks                 have been championing climate change
Acceptance of the Old                                     detail on Member States' individual commitments.            interventions for longer. Credibility of the entire
                                                          Furthermore, there is little sign that the preferred        UN climate process is at stake now: the EU has
Whilst Embracing the New                                  model mechanism for disbursement of the                     to step up to the mark.
Place in the World Order                                  developing countries, the Adaptation Fund, is
How can European governments maintain support             likely to be used with consequent further erosion           Merylyn Hedger is an environmental policy
for delivering on their international commitments         of trust. The role of ODA in “fast track” is not            specialist who has worked within international,
to their voters whose own jobs and incomes are            clear, though some analyses have shown that                 national and local levels of governance. She has
under threat? There are some difficult messages           EU countries are rebadging previous commitments             specialised on climate change for 15 years, first
to sell. On the very day that it was announced            and not providing the new funds promised, which             as WWF's International Policy Coordinator, and
that Spain - with its weak economy, was donating          undermines the credibility of pledges of support            later established the UK Climate Impacts Pro-
to the Adaptation Fund- India announced it was            and weakens the developing countries' trust in              gramme (UKCIP). As a Research Fellow at IDS
establishing a new South Asia Climate Endowment           the climate process56.                                      she has been focusing on climate finance and
Fund. Historic responsibilities enshrined in the                                                                      planning and institutional aspects of climate change.
1992 UNFCCC cannot however be factored out                Ensuring a Sustainable                                      E-mail:
and Europe must take this on board and re-build
trust. Ongoing bilateral mechanisms that the
                                                          Package                                                     1. See also Ryder 2010

EU has already established with China, India,             Developing countries have frequently emphasised                 interviews/2010/3/25/hannah-ryder-decc/

the African Union, Latin America and ACP                  that the new and additional climate finance should          2. Connie Hedegaard. Barbara Ward lecture at IIED London 11-05- 10-

countries, should be used to improve relationships.       be from developed country public finances.                      see

Importantly, European voters need to see the              Developed countries think that it will be innova-           3. Remarks of J Ramesh, Minister of State Environment and Forests

bigger picture that the low carbon economy is a           tive funding, linked to the private sector, which               GOI at 6th MEF Meeting, Washington DC 18-04-10

way of driving technical innovation and job creation,     can deliver long term. The EU and its Emissions             4. Joint Statement of the Third Meeting of BASIC Ministers, Cape

and a policy strategy of gain not pain. Unless            Trading Scheme (ETS) is indirectly providing the                Town 25-04-10.

this happens Europe will continue to toil as a            major source of carbon finance for developing               5. WRI 2010 Summary of climate finance pledges. 18-02-10, updated

global power in a new world where China and               countries and it is envisaged that introducing an               04-03-10 pledges_20 10-03-04.pdf

other emerging economies are surging forward              auction system of permits in the next phase will            6. WBDU Climate Policy Post Copenhagen: a Three Level Strategy for

and gaining the benefits: China is investing more         generate new and additional international climate               Success policy paper 6 26-04-2010

in green investment schemes than the US and               funding. Moreover, the inclusion of airline emissions       .
                                                                                                                      7 Connie Hedegaard. Barbara Ward lecture at IIED London 11-05- 10

Europe combined2.                                         in the ETS, an innovative leadership action, will               see

                                                          help. However, carbon emissions have fallen                 8. IMF Staff Position Note. Financing the response to climate change.

Delivery on Climate F inance                              with the recession, so EUA prices are falling,                  25-03-10 SPN10/06

                                                          jeopardising these approaches. By moving to
Pledges                                                   the 30 % target, the EU could however boost
Progress before Cancun on delivery of what                prices and kick start investment in clean
was promised at Copenhagen, is vital for its              technologies7. In recent years the G8 process
success. This point was specifically stated by the        has pushed climate policy along and raised the                   About EDC2020
Environment Minister for India to the recent              stakes. This year however, there was no pressure
MEF meeting3. The important BASIC group of                from Europe at recent G8 conference in Canada                  This policy brief is an outcome of ongoing
countries emphasised at its recent meeting that           where the focus was almost exclusively on the                  research in the framework of the project on
both the short term ($30 billion “fast track”             international financial crisis. Currently it is difficult      European Development Co-operation to 2020
2010-2012) and medium term finance ($100 billion          to see that sufficient political will exists to deli-          [EDC2020]. This project carries out research
annually (by 2020) must be operationalised and            ver on any new ideas emerging including those                  on three major emerging issues: new actors
provided by developed countries4. The Bali Ac-            from the IMF- a new entrant on climate finance.                ininternational development, the linkage
tion Plan states that funds must be “new and              A staff paper suggests the provision of the initial            between energy security, democracy and
additional”. Until the May Council paper, there           capital injection in the form of reserve assets,               development and the impact of climate change
was little in evidence from the EU apart from             including Special Drawing Rights, to lever resources           on development.
the vague call to get its commitment of the $2.4          from private and government-related investors
billion mobilised, from a variety of sources, including   through the issuance of “green bonds” in global
alternative and innovative funding. Effective             capital markets8. There is an urgent and substantial
leadership on climate finance needs coordination          agenda to tackle in the second half of 2010.
14        EADI Newsletter 1-2010

     EADI-DSA 2011 Conference 19 - 22 September 2011, York

     Rethinking Development in an Age of Scarcity and
     Uncertainty - New Values, Voices and Alliances
     for Increased Resilience
     A ‘New Normal’?                                             differentiated demographic transitions,          organisations and development agencies.
                                                                 evolving age structures and changing labour         The EADI-DSA 2011 joint conference aims to
     Looking forward, ‘development’ faces a very                 markets;                                         generate ideas on new narratives and new
     different world and the end of a relatively benign      -   in the environment - climate change leading      universals for a changing world. The conference
     period in terms of growth, aid, stability and public        to greater volatility in the weather and         is a chance to take a (semi-)sober look at the
     spending at least. In this ‘new normal’ there is a          agriculture production; water scarcity;          pros and cons of the various development
     search for a new development narrative, new                 resource conflicts;                              models. It is also a chance to ask questions
     ‘universals’ for human development and human            -   in technology - the spread of existing           about ‘progress’ and what constitutes a ‘good
     wellbeing, and new ways of doing ‘development’              technologies such as biotechnology and the       society’. Debates might include redefining growth
     that are equitable and pro-poor and responsive              development of new(er) technologies, such        or rethinking redistribution. Discussion might
     to a changing and uncertain context. This is not            industrial biofuel, ICTs and nanotechnology;     focus on how to put the environment at the
     just a question of the global economic crisis and                                                            centre of development in a low carbon future.
     its aftermath. There are big ‘game changers’ in
                                                                The economic crisis itself has also led to more      The conference might also ask whether
     terms of climate change, demography shifts and
                                                             significant and fundamental questions being          development beyond ‘developing countries’
     technology. At the same time opportunities are
                                                             asked. For example,                                  shouldn't be about ‘global development’ or ‘one-
     already emerging for major rethinking: of global
                                                             - in global governance: The G8 to G20 shift          world’? How is this consistent with a focus on
     governance; of social policy to protect/insure
                                                                 means more representation and power for          the poorest and ‘the bottom billion’? Or how can
     the poor; of a low-carbon future; and of new
                                                                 large developing nations, but changes in the     we work with uncertainty as the norm rather
     economic policy. Further, there is considerable
                                                                 IMF and World Bank will be crucial for wider     than stability in a complex world of global
     ferment on the understandings of ‘development’,
                                                                 changes in governance;                           connectivity, common interests and inter-related
     ‘progress’, ‘poverty’ and ‘wellbeing,’ as illustrated
                                                             - in building a green(er) economy: There is          crises? Should thinking go beyond the material
     by various initiatives, such as the OECD Measuring
                                                                 an opportunity to shift to lower carbon          to be more about relationships, behaviour and
     the Progress of Societies Project and the Sarkozy
                                                                 development, but political pressure may          the non-material? Further, how do we break the
                                                                 mitigate this;                                   development ‘bubble’ and get the ‘development’
        The EADI-DSA 2011 joint conference seeks             - in new economic policies: There is likely to       actors talking to other actors, beyond simple
     to be one convening space among many others                 be a greater tendency for developing             disciplinary or professional silos.
     for these global debates and to fundamentally               countries to explore new development                The EADI-DSA 2011 conference seeks to
     revisit and rethink the development paradigm(s)             models; approaches from non-Western              address these kinds of questions and thus
     in all its dimensions in an era of plurality,               sources are more likely to be taken up than      maximise the opportunity of working together
     uncertainty and change.                                     Western prescriptions.                           and the moment in history post-crisis to revisit
                                                                In sum, although the Washington consensus         and rethink ‘development’, to generate new
     An Opportunity for Rethinking                           has been declared dead (again), it is, as yet,       ideas, new narratives and new thinking whenever
     International Development?                              unclear, what the real change is. If it opens up     possible globally co-constructed with partners in
                                                             discussion of a wider range of policy instruments    global-South and to look back to past
     Looking ahead, there are some major ‘game               for development, then this has potentially huge      development concepts and experiences that have
     changers’ beyond the immediate crisis. For              implications.                                        led to another impasse. The conference seeks
     example,                                                                                                     to break such an impasse with inter-cultural,
     -   in governance and politics - the decline of         In Search of a New Development                       inter-generational and inter-disciplinary forces
         US and Western global influence; the rise of        Narrative?                                           in order to go forward by rethinking what are
         China and the BRICs, new donors and policy                                                               new universals in terms of ideas, and narratives
         actors, such as foundations;                        Not surprisingly, there have been numerous calls     that will allow humanity to reach some kind of
     -   in demographics - population growth,                for a new development narrative/paradigm from        adaptive and sustainable pathway or pathways.
                                                             developing countries, international civil society
                                                                                                                                   EADI Newsletter 1-2010                 15

   It is at the level of plenary, parallel and working
group sessions that we will deal with the diffe-                Call for Panels / Call for Papers
rent economic, social, political, cultural and
ecological aspects covered by this large, all-                 The call for papers and call for panels will be open from mid-august. We will be keeping
encompassing theme.                                         you informed on the conference website at The website will provide
                                                            you with regularly updated information on preparations for the conference, on the call for
Andrew Sumner for the DSA/EADI conference                   panels and call for papers, on the topics, the various sessions, the speakers, the papers,
committee.                                                  registration and logistics.

                                                           Submission of panel proposals:
                                                           15 October 2010

                                                           Submission of abstracts:
                                                           15 January 2011

                                                           Submission of papers:
                                                           30 April 2011

                                                           19 - 22 September 2011, York, UK

News from Working Groups
On 16 April, the EADI working group convenors            For more information and to register got to:
met on the occasion of the EADI Executive      
                                                                                                            Crises, Conflicts and
Committee meeting in Ljubljana. The aim was              index.php                                          Tr a n s f o r m a t i o n s -
to exchange information on their activities and                                                             Conference Announcement
to define future needs. This article presents the        Workshop on “The World
activities planned for the second half of 2010                                                              The Center of Historical and Political Studies on
and the first half of 2011. Detailed programmes
                                                         S y s t e m a n d ‘ L e f t Tu r n ’ i n           Africa and the Middle East based at the Department
of all events will be posted on the EADI website         Latin America”                                     of Politics, Institutions, History, University of Bologna,,
and announced via the e-newsletter.                      The Transformations in the World System -          will be hosting an international conference in co-
                                                         Comparative Studies of Development and Europe      operation with the EADI Transitions in (Southern)
Annual Meeting of the                                    and Latin America working groups would like to     Africa Working Group on “Sub-Saharan Africa in
                                                         announce that their joint workshop “The World      the 1970s. Crises, Conflicts and Transformati-
Information Management                                   System and ‘Left Turn’ in Latin America” will be   ons” in Bologna, Italy, on 21/22 January 2011.
Working Group                                            held on 6/7 October 2010 and will be hosted by     During the 1970s sub-Saharan Africa experienced
The EADI IMWG meeting 2010 and NorDoc 2010               the University of Complutense. For more            deep political, economic and social transformations.
will take place from 22 to 24 September 2010 at          information go to:    The crises of the post-colonial nation-building
the Bergen Resource Centre for International             groups/wg-transformation-in-the-world-             processes were compounded by growing
Development, Bergen, Norway. The annual                  system.html                                        authoritarian practices and faltering economic
meeting will focus on “Mergers and acquisitions:                                                            growth under the notion of a “developmental
Integration of development institutions into bigger                                                         state” which failed to achieve such development
entities; what is the implication for research                                                              for the majority of people. State institutions were
libraries, IT, and communication and information                                                            further weakened by armed conflicts deeply
departments?”                                                                                               embroiled in Cold War rivalries. This process
16       EADI Newsletter 1-2010

     was particularly pronounced in the Horn of Africa,   - Responses within the DAC community and              However, it is clear that despite country- and
     where the Ethiopia-Somalia war paved the way           multilateral development institutions to the        sector-specific success stories the development
     for further superpowers' involvement in regio-         NDDs;                                               of the region as a whole has not advanced as
     nal politics and in Southern Africa. The late        - How civil society organisations are responding      expected. Key institutions are weak, poverty
     decolonisation of Angola and Mozambique was            to this changing development landscape;             and unemployment remain widespread,
     followed by deeply internationalised civil wars      - Domestic responses within the NDDs to their         authoritarianism is still the predominant political
     in both countries. While Namibia's independence        foreign aid policies;     Impacts of changing       feature, and as political stability cannot be
     was denied by South Africa's military occupation,      economic and political circumstances on the         guaranteed the regional situation remains highly
     a new wave of popular protest within the latter        roles and modalities of the NDDs.                   relevant for research and debate.
     was met by violent repression. Finally, it was
     not until December 1979 that the Lancaster           Contact:                                              The working group will focus on the following
     House Agreement put an end to the armed              Ms. Maja Bucar                                        policy challenges for development in the Euro-
     conflict in Rhodesia.                                Centre of International Relations Faculty of Social   Mediterranean context:
     The conference will address the following issues:    Sciences, University of Ljubljana
     - The political, economic and social factors that    E-mail:                     - Reconciling core preferences - are regional
        undermined the nation-building processes in                                                               stability and development complementary?
        sub-Saharan Africa during the 1970s;              Launch of a working group                             - Promoting development through good
     - The exhaustion of the state-led economic                                                                   governance, transparency and strong
        development model and the origins of the
                                                          on Euro-Mediterranean                                   institutions,
        debt crisis;                                      Development Co-operation                              - Analysis/assessment of the effectiveness of
     - The armed conflicts and the military and           This working group brings together experts from         EU policy instruments with respect to the
        diplomatic role of regional and international     several Euro-Mediterranean partner countries            implementation of the EMP's/UfM's objectives
        actors;                                           to investigate key issues in EU-Mediterranean           and the Millennium Development Goals,
     - The independence struggles in Southern Africa.     relations from a development perspective. The         - Incorporating South Mediterranean expertise
                                                          Barcelona Process, launched in 1995, has since          in the EU policy-making process,
     For more information go to:     represented the central framework of relations        - Linking key policy sectors: trade, finance,
     working-groups/wg-europe-and-transitions-in-         between the EU and the countries to the South           industry, education, migration ,
     southern-africa.html                                 and East of the Mediterranean Sea. Its ambitious      - Broadening the base - fostering development
                                                          objective is to achieve an area of peace, stability     beyond South Mediterranean elites.
     Launch of a working group                            and prosperity in the Mediterranean Basin, marked
                                                          by (partial) economic integration, political and      Contact:
     on Development Aid of the                            security co-operation and a multi-faceted cultural    Mr Mark Furness
     Non-DAC Donors                                       dialogue.                                             German Development Institute
     This new group aims to examine the phenomenon            Co-operation among partners is based on a         E-mail:
     of the non-DAC donors (NDDs) as a major              series of bilateral and multilateral agreements
     issue for development studies. Their increasing      and institutional frameworks. In July 2008 the        Mr Tobias Schumacher
     influence on parts of the developing world clearly   Barcelona Process' multilateral track was             Centre for Research and Sociology, Lisbon
     challenges the roles of the established DAC          relaunched as the Union for the Mediterranean         University Institute
     donors, and the growth of these NDDs is of           (UfM), an expanded body that includes the EU,         E-mail:
     great interest to academics and policy-makers.       all 27 EU Member States, all Mediterranean
     The aim of this working group is to seek to          neighbours except Libya, and the Arab League.         Call for new EADI working
     advance our theoretical frameworks and/or            UfM projects are mostly focussed on boosting
     empirically-derived understanding of the NDDs        economic development through large-scale
     and to provide a forum for discussions as to the     infrastructure, tertiary education, business co-      The EADI Executive Committee welcomes
     roles they play. The working group aims to focus     operation and renewable energy projects.              proposals for new EADI working groups at any
     on the following policy challenges as regards            The Barcelona Process' bilateral track is         time. If you are interested in organising an EADI
     NDDs:                                                funded by the EU's development budget under           working group and contributing to the next EADI
     - The approaches of NDDs to the themes of            the European Neighbourhood and Partnership            General Conference, please consult the call for
         the Paris Declaration and other major DAC        Instrument (ENPI). Development - broadly              EADI working groups at:
         initiatives;                                     defined - is both a central objective of the EU's     index.php?id=264.
     - Impacts of non-DAC development assistance          Mediterranean policy and a means for pursuing
         on economic growth, poverty reduction, debt,     regional peace and stability. The economic and        The 13th General Conference will take place in
         environmental standards, policy environments     financial partnership is by far the most advanced     York, UK from 19 to 22 September 2011 (see
         and political regimes;                           area of Euro-Mediterranean co-operation.              page 14).
EADI – Executive Committee / Comité Exécutif 2008 – 2011
PRESIDENT                              MEMBERS/MEMBRES                          Mr. Imre LEVAI                           Mr. Jean-Marie WAUTELET
                                                                                Institute of Political Sciences          Institut d'Etudes du Développement
                                                                                Hungarian Academy of Sciences            Université Catholique de Louvain
Mr. Jean-Luc MAURER                    Ms. Lenka ADAMCOVA
                                                                                Országház u. 30                          Place des Doyens, 1
IHEID - Graduate Institute of Inter-   Department of International Trade
                                                                                1014 BUDAPEST - Hungary                  1348 LOUVAIN-LA-NEUVE - Belgium
national and Development Studies,      Metropolitan University Prague
                                                                                Phone: (36) 1 - 224 6732/6733            Phone: (32) 10 - 474171
Switzerland                            E-mail:
                                                                                Fax: (36) 1 - 224 6765                   Fax: (32) 10 - 472805
P.O. Box 136
                                                                                E-mail:               E-mail:
1211 GENEVE 21 - Switzerland           Mr. Gilles CARBONNIER
Phone: (41) 22 - 908 43 00             Institut de Hautes Etudes
                                                                                Mr. Henning MELBER                       Mr. Marco ZUPI
Fax: (41) 22 - 908 62 62               Internationales et du Développement
                                                                                Dag Hammarskjoeld Foundation             Centro Studi di Politica Internazionale
E-mail:             P.O. Box 136
                                                                                Övre Slottsgatan 2                       Via d'Aracoeli, 11
                                       1211 GENEVE 21- Switzerland
                                                                                753 10 UPPSALA - Sweden                  00186 ROMA - Italy
VICE-PRESIDENTS                        Phone: (41) 22 - 908 57 00
                                                                                Phone: (46) 18 - 127272                  Phone: (39) 66 - 990630
                                       Fax: (41) 22 - 908 57 10
                                                                                Fax: (46)18 - 562290                     Fax: (39) 66- 784104
Ms. Maja BUCAR                         E-mail:
                                                                                E-mail:         E-mail:
Centre of International Relations
Faculty of Social Sciences,                                                     Mr. Michael OBROVSKY
University of Ljubljana                Mr David DURKEE                                                                   EDITORS EJDR/REDACTEURS EJDR
                                                                                Austrian Foundation for
Kardeljeva ploscad 5                   International Development Programme
                                                                                Development Research                     Mr. Rajneesh NARULA
1000 LJUBLJANA - Slovenia              University of East London, UK
                                                                                Berggasse 7                              University of Reading Business School
E-mail:      Phone: (44)208-223-7422
                                                                                1090 VIENNA - Austria                    Phone: (44) 118 - 3785247
Phone: (386) 1 - 58 05-100             Fax: (44)208-223-3296
                                                                                Phone: (43) 13 - 174010                  Fax: (44) 118 - 9750236
Fax: (386) 1 - 58 05-109               E-mail:
                                                                                Fax: (43) 13 - 174015                    E-mail:
Ms. Louka KATSELI                      Mr. Martin HVIDT
Athens Development and                 University of Southern Denmark                                                    Mr. Jean-Louis ARCAND
                                                                                Mr. Nadarajah SHANMUGARATNAM             IHEID - Graduate Institute of Internatio-
Governance Institute                   Campusvej 55
                                                                                Department of International Environ-     nal and Development Studies,
Sina 23                                5230 ODENSE M. - Denmark
                                                                                ment and Development Studies             Switzerland
10680 ATHENS - Greece                  Phone: (45) 65 - 50 2183
                                                                                Norwegian University of Life Sciences,   P.O. Box 136
Phone: (30) 210 - 36 26 187            Fax: (45) 65 - 50 2161
                                                                                UMBP                                     1211 GENEVE 21 - Switzerland
Fax: (30) 210 - 36 03 558              E-mail:
                                                                                P.O.Box 5003                             Phone: (41) 22 - 908 43 00
E-mail:                                                 1432 AAS - Norway
                                       Ms. Cecile JACKSON                                                                Fax: (41) 22 - 908 62 62
                                                                                Phone: (47) 64 - 94 98 04      
Mr. Jürgen WIEMANN                     School of Development Studies
                                                                                Fax: (47) 64 - 94 07 60
Deutsche Gesellschaft für Techni-      University of East Anglia
                                                                                E-mail:          Ms. Claire MAINGUY
sche Zusammenarbeit - Bonn             Norwich NR4 7TJ
office                                 Phone: (44)121 - 4145037                                                          GEMDEV
                                                                                Mr. Lauri SIITONEN                       Phone: (33) 3 - 88676380
53113 BONN - Germany                   Fax: (44)121 - 4144989
                                                                                Development and International            Fax: (33) 3 - 88676393
Phone: (49) 228 - 24934 - 168          E-mail:
                                                                                Cooperation                              E-mail: Claire.Mainguy@urs.u-
Fax: (49) 228 - 24934 - 215                                                     Department of Social Sciences and
E-mail:    Mr. Edvard JAKOPIN                                                           
                                  Republic Development Bureau
                                                                                University of Jyväskylä                  Mr. Andrew MOLD
TREASURER/TRESOIRIERE 4, Makedonska Street                                      P.O. Box 35                              OECD Development Centre
                                  11000 BELGRADE - Serbia
                                                                                40351 JYVASKYLA - Finland                Phone: (33) 1 - 45248289
                                  Phone: (381) 11-3345233
Ms. Katarzyna ZUKROWSKA                                                         Phone: (358)14 - 260 4328                Fax: (33) 1 - 44306149
                                  Fax: (381) 11-3345531
International Security Department                                               Fax: (358)14 - 260 3101                  E-mail:
Warsaw School of Economics                                                      E-mail:
Rakowiecka 24                                                                                                            Mr. Dennis RODGERS
                                  Mr. Peter KNORRINGA
00-521 Warsaw - Poland                                                          Mr. Jean-Fabien STECK                    Brooks World Poverty Institute
                                  Institute of Social Studies
Phone: (48) 22 - 849 51 92                                                      Groupement d'Intérêt Scientifique        University of Manchester
                                  P.O. Box 29776
Fax: (48) 22 - 849 51 92                                                        pour l'Étude de la Mondialisation        Phone: (41) 22 - 731 4226
                                  2502 LT THE HAGUE - Netherlands
E-mail:                                                                         et du Développement                      E-mail:
                                  Phone: (31)70 - 426 05 84                                                       Centre Malher                  
                                  Fax: (31)70 - 426 07 99
                                                                                9 rue Malher
EXECUTIVE SECRETARY/                                                            75181 PARIS CEDEX 04 - France
                                                                                Phone: (33) 144 - 78 33 15
SECRETAIRE EXECUTIF                    Mr. Eamon LENIHAN
                                                                                Fax: (33) 144 - 78 33 88
                                       Centre for Sustainable Livelihoods
Mr. Thomas LAWO                        University College Cork
Kaiser-Friedrich-Strasse 11            CORK - Ireland
                                                                                Mr. Andrew SUMNER
53113 BONN - Germany                   Phone: (353) 21 - 490 2114
                                                                                Institute of Development Studies
Phone: (49) 228 - 26 18 101            Fax: (353) 21 - 490 3358
                                                                                University of Sussex
Fax: (49) 228 - 2618 103               E-mail:
                                                                                BRIGHTON BN1 9RE - United Kingdom
E-mail:                                                           Phone: (44) 12- 73 606261
                                                                                Fax: (44) 12 - 73 621202

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