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2010-2011 Classroom Based Assessment Dig Deep Perspective Who Caused the Whitman Massacre? By: Joshua Schwartz 4th Grade Lind Elementary There are many perspectives on events in history . There are two main perspectives about who caused the Whitman Massacre. One view point is from the white man and the other is from the Cayuse Indians . Both perspectives leading up and beyond the Whitman Massacre are important .I will begin with the white man’s perspective and follow up with the Indians perspective. In 1831 when the trappers were hunting and used wool blankets and shiny knives the Indians thought they were presents from the white man’s gods .They wanted to learn about the white man’s gods. So they sent four Indian men to converse with William Clark in St. Louis. Then he thought about what to do. Then he found out what he should do according to “Washington, Our Home”. So he sent missionaries to try and convert the Indians to their religion during five years. Finally he sent Marcus and Narcissa Whitman with the Spaldings in 1836. He wanted them to start missions in Oregon Country. They made the Whitman Mission so they could convert the Indians to their religion. It was a home to the Whitmans according to “ The Whitman Massacre” and “ The Cayuse War”. Pioneers started to travel on the Oregon Trail in 1842. The Whitman Mission was a rest stop for them. Some people were sick and gave sicknesses to the Indians. Then Dr. Whitman gave them medicine and they died. Many Indians died and half of the tribe vanished because of it! It made them angry according to “Cayuse Attack Mission”. Then one night in November, 1847 the Indians attacked the Whitman Mission. They killed people who got in their way. They also took people. By the end they took fifty-three captives and killed fourteen people. Other people ran away. Many protestant missions closed. Then the Cayuse War came because of the massacre. So after the massacre they traded 62 shirts, 12 guns, 600 loads of ammunition, 37 pounds of tobacco to get the captives back. In 1854-1856 the Cayuse war was over. Governor Stevens forced the Indians to sign ten treaties. He also made promises he didn’t keep. Even Indians that were on reservations got kicked off of them. They were kicked off because gold was found on the reservations. It changed the Indians life style big time. But the Cayuse Indians had a different point of view. In 1831 when trappers used guns and knives and other stuff the Indians thought the trappers had presents from the white man’s gods. So they sent four men [ 3 Nez Perce and 1 Flathead ] from their tribes to learn a little about the white man’s gods. Then missionaries came to Oregon Country. The Indians didn’t like the strict rules of the schools and churches. They also didn’t like what the white man were teaching according to” Washington, Our Home”. In 1836 the Whitmans and Spaldings started missions in Oregon Country. Then they tried to convert the Indians to the white man’s religion. The Indians didn’t like it. They didn’t want to become part of the white man’s religion. They just wanted to learn a little about the white man’s religion. But instead they got missionaries who started a mission and tried to convert them into the white man’s religion according to “ Washington, Our Home “. Then in 1842 pioneers started traveling on the Oregon Trail and used the mission as a rest stop. Some people carried measles or small pox. Then Dr. Whitman gave them poison and they died. This kept going on and on. Eventually more than 200 people died. Then one Indian man wanted to test the doctor. So he did this because his wife and child died from the doctor’s poison. So he got himself sick. Then he went to the doctor and took the poison.[ They decided this in a council.] He died according to “The Whitman Massacre”. Finally, the Cayuse had enough of their people dying because of the doctor’s poison. So one day an Indian struck the doctor on the head with a tomahawk. Thirteen other people died from being killed. The Indians killed people only if they got in Indians way. The white man gave the Indians 62 shirts, 37 pounds of tobacco,600 loads of ammunition, and 12 guns to get their captives back according to “The Cayuse War”. In 1854-1856 the white man wanted the Indians fertile land. Then they took the Indians and put them on unfertile reservation lands. When the Indians signed ten treaties with Governor Stevens they know about what they wrote or said. Governor Stevens made promises he didn’t even keep. Some Indians got bigger land. Some Indians got more privileges. Some Indians tried to sneak away to Canada. Some Indians bless the lands that they gave to the white man with the spirits of other good Indians according to “Washington, Our Home”. My conclusion about who started the Whitman Massacre it was the white man’s fault because they sent the trappers and the things they used confused the Indians. That lead the Indians to send four the of their men to St. Louis for a talk with William Clark. And that was both sides of the story for the Whitman Massacre. I thought the white man started it. But who knows, I might be wrong. And that was my “Dig Deep” CBA. Bibliography 1. Washington Our Home; Gibbs Smith Education, Text Book, 2010. 2. The Cayuse War; www.legendsofamerica.com, Kathy Weiser, Article, 2003-2011. 3. Cayuse Attack Mission; http://www.historylink.org, David Wilma, Essay 5192, Feb. 14, 2003. 4. Experience State History; http://www.expriencestatehistory.com, Gibbs Smith Education, Student Text Book Web Site,2010.
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