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PSY 101

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  • pg 1
									PSY 101 – HW # 1
Students may use their textbook and notes to answer the questions. Fill in the answers on a scantron
and write your full name, PSY 101, and HW # 1 on the scantron (65 questions).


     1. Memory is best defined as:
        A) the conscious encoding of information.
        B) stored knowledge that has been semantically encoded.
        C) the persistence of learning through the storage and retrieval of information.
        D) the retrieval of stored information in precisely the same form in which it was encoded.


     2. Seven months after Princess Diana's tragic death, most British people could still vividly recall
        their exact whereabouts on hearing that news. This clear recall best illustrates ________
        memory.
        A) working
        B) flashbulb
        C) implicit
        D) sensory


     3. The process of getting information into memory is called:
        A) retention.
        B) chunking.
        C) encoding.
        D) registering.


     4. As compared to long-term memory, short-term memory is:
        A) less permanent and more limited.
        B) more permanent and less limited.
        C) less permanent and less limited.
        D) more permanent and more limited.


     5. Alan Baddeley's model of ________ memory contains auditory and visual-spatial processors,
        which are managed by a central executive.
        A) sensory
        B) implicit
        C) working
        D) long-term


     6. While reading a novel at a rate of nearly 500 words per minute, Megan effortlessly
        understands almost every word. This ability highlights the importance of:
        A) flashbulb memory.
        B) automatic processing.
        C) the spacing effect.
        D) the “peg-word” system.


                                                 Page 1
 7. When first introduced to someone, Marcel effectively remembers the person's name by
    repeating it to himself several times. Marcel makes use of a strategy called:
    A) automatic processing.
    B) the method of loci.
    C) the next- in- line effect.
    D) rehearsal.


 8. Taped information played during sleep is registered by the ears but is not remembered. This
    illustrates that the retention of information requires:
    A) acoustic encoding.
    B) semantic encoding.
    C) effortful processing.
    D) chunking.


 9. Students often remember more information from a course that spans an entire semester than
    from a course that is completed in an intensive three-week learning period. This best
    illustrates the importance of:
    A) the serial position effect.
    B) automatic processing.
    C) implicit memory.
    D) the spacing effect.


10. On the telephone, Dominic rattles off a list of 10 grocery items for Kyoko to bring home from
    the store. Immediately after hearing the list, Kyoko attempts to write down the items. She is
    most likely to forget the items:
    A) at the beginning of the list.
    B) at the end of the list.
    C) in the middle of the list.
    D) at the beginning and in the middle of the list.


11. Most people misrecall the sentence, “The angry rioter threw the rock at the window” as “The
    angry rioter threw the rock through the window.” This best illustrates the importance of:
    A) long-term memory.
    B) flashbulb memory.
    C) semantic encoding.
    D) acoustic encoding.


12. Memory aids that involve the use of vivid imagery and clever ways of organizing material are
    called:
    A) semantic techniques.
    B) iconic traces.
    C) organizational cues.
    D) mnemonic devices.




                                            Page 2
13. By creating an outline in which specific facts and theories are located within the larger
    framework of major topics and subtopics, Jasmine can remember much more of what she
    reads in her college textbooks. This best illustrates the benefits of:
    A) the method of loci.
    B) the serial position effect.
    C) hierarchical organization.
    D) the spacing effect.


14. Iconic memory refers to:
    A) the encoded meanings of words and events in short-term memory.
    B) photographic, or picture- image, memory that lasts for only about a second.
    C) the effortlessly processed incidental information about the timing and frequency of
        events.
    D) the visually encoded images in long-term memory.


15. The human capacity for storing long-term memories is:
    A) essentially unlimited.
    B) roughly equal to seven units of information.
    C) typically much greater in young children than in adults.
    D) greatly reduced after people reach the age of 65.


16. The accuracy of the flashbulb memories of those who witnessed the first bombings of
    Baghdad during the 2003 war in Iraq best illustrates that memory formation is facilitated by:
    A) the spacing effect.
    B) the serial position effect.
    C) the method of loci.
    D) the body's release of stress hormones.


17. Conscious memory of factual information is called ________ memory.
    A) proactive
    B) procedural
    C) explicit
    D) implicit


18. Damage to the hippocampus would most likely interfere with a person's ability to learn:
    A) to ride a bike.
    B) to read mirror- image writing.
    C) a classically conditioned fear response.
    D) the names of the 50 states in the United States.




                                             Page 3
19. Although Mr. Yanagita has recently learned to play poker quite well, he cannot consciously
    remember ever having played poker. It is likely that he has suffered damage to his:
    A) cerebellum.
    B) hypothalamus.
    C) hippocampus.
    D) motor cortex.


20. The cerebellum plays a critical role in ________ memory.
    A) echoic
    B) implicit
    C) iconic
    D) explicit


21. An eyewitness to a grocery store robbery is asked to identify the suspects in a police lineup.
    Which test of memory is being utilized?
    A) recall
    B) relearning
    C) recognition
    D) reconstruction


22. Words, images, and other bits of information used to access a stored memory are called:
    A) chunks.
    B) retrieval cues.
    C) self-reference effects.
    D) peg-word systems.


23. The association of sadness with memories of negative life events contributes to:
    A) the self-reference effect.
    B) retroactive interference.
    C) source amnesia.
    D) mood-congruent memory.


24. Austin can't remember Jack Smith's name because he wasn't paying attention when Jack was
    formally introduced. Austin's poor memory is best explained in terms of:
    A) proactive interference.
    B) encoding failure.
    C) retroactive interference.
    D) source amnesia.




                                              Page 4
25. When Jake applied for a driver's license, he was embarrassed by a momentary inability to
    remember his address. Jake's memory difficulty most likely resulted from a(n) ________
    failure.
    A) storage
    B) encoding
    C) retrieval
    D) automatic processing


26. Professor Maslova has so many memories of former students that she has difficulty
    remembering the names of new students. The professor's difficulty best illustrates:
    A) retroactive interference.
    B) mood-congruent memory.
    C) proactive interference.
    D) source amnesia.


27. Retroactive interference refers to the:
    A) decay of physical memory traces.
    B) disruptive effect of previously learned material on the recall of new information.
    C) disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned material.
    D) blocking of painful memories from conscious awareness.


28. Two people learned nonsense syllables and then tried to recall them after up to eight hours had
    elapsed. Jenkins and Dallenbach observed that forgetting occurred least rapidly when the
    individuals spent their time:
    A) physically exercising.
    B) playing a card game.
    C) watching television.
    D) sleeping.


29. Who emphasized that we repress anxiety-arousing memories?
    A) Ebbinghaus
    B) Loftus
    C) Sperling
    D) Freud


30. As we retrieve memories from our memory bank, we often alter them based on our current
    attitudes and assumptions. This best illustrates:
    A) implicit memory.
    B) proactive interference.
    C) the spacing effect.
    D) memory construction.




                                             Page 5
31. When Hailey told her roommate about the chemistry exam she had just completed, she
    knowingly exaggerated its difficulty. Subsequently, her memory of the exam was that it was
    as difficult as she had reported it to be. This best illustrates:
    A) the misinformation effect.
    B) mood-congruent memory.
    C) the self-reference effect.
    D) proactive interference.


32. Researchers asked university students to imagine certain childhood events, including a false
    event such as breaking a window with their hand. They discovered that:
    A) events from the distant past are less vulnerable to memory distortion than more recent
        events.
    B) people can easily distinguish between their own true and false memories.
    C) hypnotic suggestion is an effective technique for accurate memory retrieval.
    D) it is surprisingly easy to lead people to construct false memories.


33. After having seen many pictures of the Lincoln Monument during his lifetime, Mr. Adams
    mistakenly recalled that he had actually visited the site. This best illustrates:
    A) source amnesia.
    B) proactive interference.
    C) implicit memory.
    D) the self-reference effect.


34. Memory experts who express skepticism regarding reports of repressed and recovered
    memories emphasize that:
    A) there is very little people can do to relieve the distress resulting from traumatic memories.
    B) most extremely traumatic life experiences are never encoded into long-term memory.
    C) therapeutic techniques such as guided imagery and dream analysis encourage the
       construction of false memories.
    D) people rarely recall memories of long- forgotten unpleasant events.


35. Stressful life experiences such as being raped are not likely to be:
    A) encoded.
    B) repressed.
    C) stored.
    D) retrieved.


36. In order to evaluate various accounts of human behavior, contemporary psychologists rely
    most heavily on the process of:
    A) introspection.
    B) psychoanalysis.
    C) natural selection.
    D) scientific observation.




                                              Page 6
37. Arguments as to whether psychological differences between men and women result from
    biological or social influences most clearly involve a debate over the issue of:
    A) evolution versus natural selection.
    B) structuralism versus functionalism.
    C) behavior versus mental processes.
    D) nature versus nurture.


38. The evolutionary perspective focuses on the impact of ________ on human traits.
    A) introspection
    B) natural selection
    C) unconscious motives
    D) rational thought


39. Which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process,
    store, and retrieve information?
    A) cognitive
    B) behavioral
    C) behavior genetics
    D) evolutionary


40. Which psychological perspective is most likely to examine how group membership influences
    individual attitudes and behaviors?
    A) neuroscience
    B) psychodynamic
    C) evolutionary
    D) social-cultural


41. Dr. Tiao conducts basic research on the effects of head injuries on people's problem-solving
    and abstract-reasoning skills. Which psychological specialty does her research best represent?
    A) developmental psychology
    B) biological psychology
    C) industrial/organizational psychology
    D) personality psychology


42. Which professional specialty focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of people with
    psychological disorders?
    A) personality psychology
    B) biological psychology
    C) clinical psychology
    D) developmental psychology




                                             Page 7
43. Which specialists are the most likely to prescribe a drug for the treatment of a psychological
    disorder?
    A) developmental psychologists
    B) clinical psychologists
    C) personality psychologists
    D) psychiatrists


44. For effective mastery of course material, the text emphasizes the value of:
    A) spaced practice and overlearning.
    B) speed reading and massed practice.
    C) introspection and psychoanalysis.
    D) all the above.


45. The hindsight bias most directly contributes to the perception that:
    A) psychological theories are simply reflections of researchers' personal values.
    B) psychological experiments are simplified versions of reality.
    C) psychological theories and observations are merely common sense.
    D) psychology is potentially dangerous.


46. When provided with the unscrambled solution to anagrams, people underestimate the
    difficulty of solving the anagrams by themselves. This best illustrates:
    A) the I-knew- it-all-along phenomenon.
    B) critical thinking.
    C) the placebo effect.
    D) overconfidence.


47. Hypotheses are best described as:
    A) assumptions.
    B) replications.
    C) explanations.
    D) predictions.


48. In reporting the effect of alcohol consumption on self-consciousness, psychological
    researchers would specify exactly how they measured self-consciousness. They are thereby
    providing a(n):
    A) experimental hypothesis.
    B) case study.
    C) double-blind procedure.
    D) operational definition.




                                             Page 8
49. Replication involves:
    A) the selection of random groups.
    B) organizing principles into an explanation of behavior.
    C) repeating an earlier research study.
    D) rejecting ideas that cannot be scientifically tested.


50. Ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association and the British
    Psychological Society urge psychological investigators to:
    A) forewarn potential research participants of the exact hypotheses that the research will test.
    B) avoid the use of laboratory experiments when the behaviors of interest can be directly
        observed in natural settings.
    C) ensure that research participants give informed consent to participating in the research.
    D) avoid the use of monetary incentives in recruiting people to participate in research.


51. Those who rely on the case-study method need to be especially alert to the dangers of:
    A) independent variables.
    B) control conditions.
    C) random assignment.
    D) false generalization.


52. The survey is a research method in which:
    A) individuals are carefully observed in their natural environments.
    B) a representative sample of individuals are questioned regarding their attitudes or
        behaviors.
    C) an individual is studied in great depth.
    D) an investigator determines the extent to which two variables influence each other.


53. The false consensus effect refers to the tendency to:
    A) generalize from extreme cases.
    B) reject ideas that can't be scientifically tested.
    C) exaggerate the extent to which others agree with us.
    D) ignore disconfirming evidence.


54. The complete set of cases from which samples may be drawn is called a(n):
    A) control condition.
    B) population.
    C) case study.
    D) independent variable.


55. A random sample of a large group of people is one in which:
    A) the number of people included in the sample is determined by chance.
    B) every person in the large group has an equal chance of be ing included in the sample.
    C) personality differences among those in the sample are practically nonexistent.
    D) all the above are true.

                                             Page 9
56. In order to describe the behavior of animals in their native habitats, researchers are most likely
    to make use of:
    A) survey research.
    B) random assignment.
    C) experimental methods.
    D) naturalistic observation.


57. A correlation between self-esteem and annual income of –0.75 would indicate that:
    A) lower levels of self-esteem are associated with lower levels of annual income.
    B) higher levels of annual income are associated with lower levels of self-esteem.
    C) it is impossible to predict annual income levels from knowledge of self-esteem levels.
    D) self-esteem has no causal influence on annual income.


58. Which of the following correlation coefficients expresses the strongest degree of relationship
    between two variables?
    A) +0.10
    B) –0.67
    C) –0.10
    D) +0.59


59. The perception of a relationship between two variables where none exists is called:
    A) independent variables.
    B) the false consensus effect.
    C) an illusion of control.
    D) illusory correlation.


60. The experiment is a research method in which:
    A) a random sample of individuals are questioned regarding their opinions and behaviors.
    B) individuals are carefully observed in their natural environment.
    C) an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior.
    D) an individual is studied in great depth.


61. In a test of the effects of cigarette smoking on physical health and development, groups of
    monkeys were raised in either a smoke- free or smoke- infested environment. Monkeys in the
    smoke- infested environment were exposed to the _______ condition.
    A) correlational
    B) survey
    C) control
    D) experimental




                                              Page 10
62. Random assignment is most likely to be utilized in ________ research.
    A) survey
    B) case study
    C) correlational
    D) experimental


63. In order to minimize any preexisting differences between participants who are in different
    conditions of an experiment, psychologists make use of:
    A) random assignment.
    B) dependent variables.
    C) random sampling.
    D) correlation.


64. In order to study some effects of alcohol consumption, Dr. Chu tested the physical
    coordination skills of 21-year-old men who were first assigned to drink a beverage with either
    4, 2, or 0 ounces of alcohol. In this study, the independent variable consisted of:
    A) the age of the research participants.
    B) the physical coordination skills of the research participants.
    C) the amount of alcohol consumed.
    D) the effects of alcohol consumption.


65. The dependent variable in an experiment is the factor:
    A) that is directly manipulated by the investigator.
    B) that may be influenced by the experimental treatment.
    C) whose effect is being studied.
    D) that causes the behavior being studied.




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