Seed 2006 Final by pengxiuhui

VIEWS: 38 PAGES: 109

The Social Experience of Education and

                             Section One: Welcome to SEED
Framework and Leadership Facilitation Tips                                        5
Prepare Ahead of Time                                                             5
Relating readings and activities to corps members                                 6
How to manage your crew                                                           7
Gaining respect as a leader                                                       8
End of the day or activity debriefing                                             8
End of the day or activity wrap up questions                                      8

                           Section Two: Environmental Issues
       The Concept of Exponential Growth                                          9
       Why did it happen and how will it be resolved? (A role-playing exercise)   10
       China‘s Controversial Solution                                             11
       Overpopulation Cartoons                                                    12

World Views/ Environmental Philosophy
       World Views and Their Effect on History…Chief Seattle‘s Message            13
       This Means You! The Realities of a Sustainable Lifestyle                   14
       Bio-regionalism                                                            15
       Livestock Grazing in Riparian Areas                                        16
       ―No Man‘s Land‖ - Dave Forman‘s (Earth First!) Wild Plan                   17
       Poaching and Endangered Species                                            18
       Poem: A Creative Look at Creation                                          19
       Environmental Cartoons                                                     20
       Inspirational & Environmental Quotes                                       22

Minimum Impact Camping/ Living
      The ―Localized Impact‖ School of Thought                                    23
      The ―Leave no Trace‖ School of Thought                                      23
      Does a Crewmember Sh-t in the Woods?                                        24
      Wilderness Travel Ethics- ―Tommy and the Tool‖                              25

Land Management
       Emerald Mountain Activity                                                  26

Miscellaneous Fun Environmental Activities
        Treasure Hunt!                                                            27
        Stalking (A creepy activity)                                              28
        A Little Time to Yourself                                                 28
        The Unnatural Trail                                                       29
        Attack of the Bullion Aliens                                              29
        Enviro-Scruples                                                           30
        Dragonfly Pond                                                            31
        Rattlers                                                                  32

The Lorax        by Dr. Suess                                                     33

                            Section Three: Community Issues
Personal Insight
         What Sort of Person Are You?                                                  37

Vandalism & Violence
        Vandalism                                                                      38
        Racism and Bigotry                                                             39
        Handguns                                                                       40
        Violence                                                                       41

Dating in the New Millennium
         Dating in the New Millennium                                                  43
         Healthy Relationships                                                         43
         Love Is…..                                                                    44

Sex: Some Facts
       Abortion                                                                        45
       AIDS/HIV Reaches Teens                                                          46
       Preventing AIDS and Other STDs                                                  47
       Date Rape and Sexual Harassment                                                 48

Tobacco                                                                                50

Marijuana: Legalization vs. Criminalization                                            51

Health and Nutrition
        The Farm School                                                                52
        Genetic Engineering                                                            54
        The Global Free Trade of Food: Trading Away Family Farms and Consumer Choice   55
        What‘s in a label?                                                             56
        Vitamins and Minerals                                                          57
        The Food Chart                                                                 58

                        Section Four: Leadership/Teamwork
        Leadership and Teamwork                                     59
        Relevant Leadership Quotes                                  60
        Tom Brown‘s Advice on Leadership                            61
        Outdoor Leadership Training: Role Playing Exercise          62

Trust & Teambuilding Activities
        The Trust Lift                                              64
        WEB                                                         65
        Circle of Wind                                              65
        Short, Fun Camp Games                                       65
        The Silent Alphabet                                         66
        Shoe Pile                                                   66

Leadership Definitions
        Defining Leadership                                         67
        Leader Traits & Qualities                                   71
        Style & Techniques                                          75
        Communications                                              78
        Crisis Management                                           85
        Approaches to Conflict                                      86
        Effective Conflict Management for Leisure Service Leaders   88

                       Section Five: Social and Political Issues
Inspirational Quotes                                                89
Speech: I Have a Dream                                              90
Gay Marriage                                                        91
Bioterrorism in the 20th Century                                    92
Social Security                                                     93
No Child Left Behind                                                94
World Bank                                                          97
United Nations                                                      98
Anabolic Steroids                                                   99
Clean Money and Elections (California)                              102
How does the Electoral College work?                                104
North Korea: A Rogue State Outside the NPT Fold                     105

This year RMYC has formatted and condensed its required readings into one book for use with crews this
summer. We hope it will be easier for you and your crew to prepare activities and encourage lively,
thoughtful and educational discussion about various topics and issues.

SEED will assist conservation crews in:
Strengthening questioning and analysis skills
Improving understanding of environmental issues
Increasing knowing of environmental processes and systems
Heightening awareness of personal and civic responsibility regarding environmental issues

Heightening awareness of adolescent issues
Develop important leadership and teambuilding skills
Increase knowledge of social and political issues

Sections adapted from and WoRD

Crews are asked to use the following guidelines to help facilitate a balanced and thoughtful discussion of
the environmental issues presented in the eight topic areas covered in the guide. Good discussion and
lively debate will also help to support reflective activities such as journal writing.

Prepare Ahead of Time

Ask crew to identify articles they would like to discuss
Read articles thoughtfully ahead of time, prepare discussion questions, and prepare journal questions and/or
Set the stage for the discussion by providing some background information, perhaps using a portion of one
of the readings in this SEED Resource or sharing an experience that relates to the topic.

Review Standard Guidelines
    Be at eye level in a circle
    All corps members have guide in hand
    Outline EE session: informal agenda, time frame, expectations for listening and participation
    Establish and be assertive in upholding the ―rules‖ your crew establishes
    Agree to disagree
    One person talks at a time; no interruptions
    No criticizing varying opinions or thoughts
    Respect each other
    No sunglasses
    Facilitator is neutral
    Everyone participates to his/her fullest potential
    Explore the topic fully and encourage crew members to see as many perspectives as possible
    Discuss opportunities for further exploration of the topic; decide if the crew would like to explore
       any of those in the next EE session.
    Explore crew member possibilities for more active involvement with the issue

Make it fun and interesting
    Vary discussion techniques
    Vary the location of activity
    Tie articles and activities into projects and guest speakers
    Use props or talking sticks
    Discuss the topic from a view point that is different from your own
    Hold the discussion in the format of a town meeting or trial
    Design a debate
    Follow up reading/activity, discussion, and writing with other kinds of activities like teambuilding
        experiences, crew projects
    Ask members of the crew to take turns facilitating
    Reading the articles
    Decide the topic and goal of the discussion
    Activate prior knowledge
    Discuss the topic and ask questions, allow at least 10 seconds between the end of your question
        and your next words, ―wait time‖
    Go around the circle taking turns reading
    Define difficult words
    Summarize the article‘s main points
    Conclude the discussion by summarizing what was accomplished, the views stated, and/or ask
        crew to summarize what happened orally or in journals
    Use corps members as ―leaders‖ when appropriate
    Encourage all crew members to participate, but respect the choice of silence
    Debrief discussion by commenting on the quality of discussion, and complimenting crew members
        on the attention they gave each other and their work.

Relating readings and activities to corps members

    What type of problem solving is needed to improve the issues addressed in the article?
    What type of responsibility could you take to help with the issues outlined in the article?
    How do you affect your community, both locally and globally?
    How can you make a difference in your community, both locally and globally?
    How could changes in your habits benefit you, how could these changes benefit society as a
    What impact could switching brands of products that you consume make on the environment?
        Why could this be important?
    What environmental issues are of most concern to you?
    How is recycling and reusing products healthier for the environment?
    What impact do vehicles have on the environment? How could these impacts be decreased today?
        In the future?
    What changes are you willing to make in your daily habits in order to have a more minimal impact
        on the environment?
    How can voting have an impact on the environment and future public policy? Why is this
    If you were to get involved in your community and/or politics, what would you do?

     Encourage journaling in a nearby comfortable spot
     Refer to journal prompts
     Decorate journals to encourage creativity and personalization
     Use positive reinforcement when responding to journal entries
     Do not focus on grammatical mistakes when responding to journal entries

     Do not evaluate during brainstorming
     Allow time to think – at least 1 minute
     Never allow brainstorming or brainwriting to become routine
     Brainwriting: effective in groups when there are people who may think better by writing first
     Vary the topic
     Vary the time of day for brainstorming
     Be creative! Let crew members suggest their own topics!

How to Manage Your Crew

In creating new/revised rules, include corps members in the decision-making process. This creates
ownership and empowerment.
When enforcing rules: follow through, be consistent, communicate choice
Use standard guidelines
Practice and model routines

     Listening is the cornerstone of learning
     Listening requires directing one‘s attention to what is being said and then making sense of it.
     Listening is a skill and requires practice.
     Most people can think at a much faster rate than they can speak, in order to gain and maintain
        corps members‘ attention, they need to be listening first.
     To ensure that all students are listening to the lesson, stop periodically and ask them to summarize
        in their own works; record any questions they have; respond or react to anything they have heard;
        or record, draw or write any other things that capture their thoughts.

Learning Styles
Everyone perceives the world through the five senses. However, different people rely on each of the senses
to varying degrees. Differentiating learning styles of corps members and even yourself will help you to
communicate and better address the needs of your group. A leader who possesses an understanding of
his/her corps members preferred learning styles can present instructions and lessons in a variety of ways.
The following are the primary learning styles:

        Auditory learners
        Descriptions: Think in rhythm, volume, tone and pitch.
        They learn by listening and recall information by hearing it. To review information, it is useful for
        them to talk it out with someone else. They may appear not to listen, when in fact, they are
        focusing their attention on listening.

        Visual learners
        Descriptions: They are people who receive information through visual pictures.
        They learn by graphic representation and symbolic abstractions. They can picture where
        information appears in text and go back to it. Successful learners can visualize concepts in their

        Tactile/kinesthetic learners
        Kinesthetic learners think using feelings, texture, and movement.
        They learn through their five senses. They want to touch, taste, smell, hear and see. They learn by
        moving and experiencing. Their muscles remember as well as their brains. These learners also
        respond well to interpersonal relationships and remember stories and metaphors

Gaining Respect as a Leader
    Be a positive role model
    Establish Trust
    Get to know members
    Communicate genuine caring and interest
    Be consistent and fair
    Never embarrass or belittle members
    Refrain from engaging in a ―battle of wits‖, let it go
    Admit your mistakes
    Catch members being good
    Difficult members: come up with a silent signal such as a pull on your ear to remind a corps
        member to listen carefully
    ―Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.‖
    Refrain from yelling
    Exhibit a positive, proactive manner
    Be enthusiastic
    Do not ridicule or use sarcasm
    Smile!
    Know yourself
    Be aware of your own beliefs and attitudes.
    Be aware of your body language and what it communicates.
    Identify your buttons and limits.
    Understand your needs; leave your ―baggage‖ at the door.

End of the day or activity debriefing
For every 10 minutes of instruction, there should be 2 minutes of debriefing or sharing. Corps members
work individually or in teams to fill in gaps or help each other clarify concepts.
At the end of each lesson or day, corps member are asked to think about 3 things that interested them; 2
things that they‘d like to know more about; and one idea they will share with others or write about.

End of day or activity wrap up questions
    What was one important thing you learned today?
    What helped you to learn this today?
    About what are you still unsure?
    What did you accomplish today?
    How would you assess you performance today?

Ideas for follow-up work
     Follow a reading/journal session with an appropriate activity
     Use journal prompts
     Get a weekly newspaper and select current event articles for discussion
     Use magazines articles
     Use current events from the radio to generate discussions and debates
     Have members brainstorm ideas for follow-up work
     Have members generate questions for project sponsors and/or guest speaker

The SEED Guide is intended to stimulate fun and engaging discussions around environmental topics. Feel
free to add to the activities by expanding the discussions, using local resources, and learning from the
wealth of knowledge the team brings with them to the youth corps.
Enjoy and don‘t hold back!

There is a French riddle that illustrates exponential growth. Here's how it appeared in the 1972 classic, Limits
to Growth:

                    Suppose you own a pond on which a water lily is growing. The lily plant doubles in size
each day. If the lily were allowed to grow unchecked, it would completely cover the pond in thirty days,
choking off the other forms of life in the water. For a long time, the lily plant seems small, so you decide not to
worry about cutting it back until it covers half the pond. On what day will that be?

On the 29th day, of course. You have one day to save the pond.


Distribute coins among the crewmembers. Have each crewmember voice their preference of children, e.g.,
two boys and a girl. They then flip the penny and get what they flip. Heads, a girl. Tails, a boy. It is their
choice to keep flipping until they get what they wanted or accept what chance dealt them. However, each flip
adds to the size of the family.

When everybody has had a chance to flip the coins and ―build a family,‖ add up the number of children that the
crew ends up with. (And you thought you were slim on lunch supplies beforehand!)

Seeds for Thought

Discuss with the crew the moral of the pond story. How is the human race like the pond keeper?
How are we like the lily pads?

About how long do you think the human race has to trim back its population before the Earth becomes
uninhabitable? Do you think the proverbial ―one-day to save the pond" will be enough?

What does the coin activity tell you about the rate of population growth on the earth? Why would couples keep
―flipping the coin‖ in order to get the gender they wished? Why would they prefer one gender over the other?
Why would you?

What solutions would you offer to chronic ―coin flippers‖ worldwide? Whose responsibility do you think it is
to curb the world population?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a
teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                  Yes       No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Differing world views make for very different interpretations of the overpopulation problem. Split the crew
into several factions that represent groups with opposing philosophies. Explain to each group what point they
are trying to bring across. Each group will then explain to everyone what they "believe" and they feel this way,
and try to convince the other groups that their outlook is the only correct one.

DARWINISTS- (a.k.a. Biological Determinists) Darwinists see planet Earth as an ecosystem, and the human
species as just one among millions, interdependent with all, and subject to the laws of nature. The arrival of
population equilibrium is inevitable, these folks say, since eventually the population will become so great that
disease, war, and famine will kill off the greater part of the human race. They realize this is an unpopular view,
but they see no alternative, given man's reluctance to employ birth control is only exceeded by the reluctance to
give up death control.

MARXISTS- Marxists view the problem as one of power- an eternal struggle of the ruling class and their
lackeys (the bourgeoisie) versus the oppressed working class (the proletariat). They conclude that social
oppression of the proletariat and economic imperialism are the essential causes of all great ills. Overpopulation
is probably the result of the Man keeping the lower class ignorant of birth control methods so that they breed
more bodies to power the capitalist machine. Scarcity of resources and a high birth rate are both socially
caused and thus socially curable, Marxists maintain. Talk of birth control and other pro-environment issues is
therefore useless until the current government is overthrown, since the only people who now have the power to
change things aren't going to. Power to the people!

FEMINISTS- This camp is quick to point out that even though women‘s bodies and lives determine, and are
determined by, reproduction, men are much more often than not the ones making policies regarding this
subject. "Overpopulation is just a symptom of a basic human rights problem," writes Hazel Henderson. If
women worldwide were allowed access to education about and freedom to control their own fertility, the birth
rate in most developing countries might level out. Also, feminists continue, if men assumed equal
responsibility for household duties and the nurture of their offspring, smaller families and greater prosperity
might be the result.

CHRISTIAN FUNDAMENTALISTS: These folks believe overpopulation is not a problem. They point to
scripture as a clear guide: "Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the Earth." It's not up to we mere mortals to
question God's will, they maintain. We can't morally employ those disgusting methods of birth control because
all life is sacred, even that of the unborn. Anyway, sex should be for procreation only, and if we absolutely
must control our population, we need merely to abstain from sexual intercourse. Fundamentalists urge teaching
our children strong Christian values to avert sexual temptation. Anyway, Bible foretells already how the world
will end (Armageddon), so the righteous need not worry.

Seeds for Thought

Do you see your point of view represented?

What other worldviews can you think of?

Were you able to convince any of the others to believe you?

China's efforts at limiting growth may be both the most successful and the most debated. The most populous
country in the world- one fifth of all people are Chinese- has been trying desperately to slow growth for
decades. In 1971 the nation's leaders began to encourage late marriages, long intervals between births, and two-
children families. But in 1979, the country's baby-boomers of the 1960s were maturing into childbearing age,
threatening a baby boom all of their own. Between 1949 and 1982, China's population had doubled, passing
one billion, and was still growing. This inspired leaders to propose their "one child" plan, with a goal of
stabilizing population at 1.2 billion. They made it a "duty" for both mothers and fathers to practice family
planning. Substantial pay increases, better housing, longer maternity leaves, and priority access to education
were all offered as incentives to those who had just one child. Heavy fines and social ostracism were left for
those who ―disobeyed."

China's policies have gotten even stricter in recent years. Sterilization is compulsory for one of the parents in a
two-child family. A mix of rewards (free or subsidized medical care for the children of small families) and
fines (up to ten percent of a couple‘s combined wages for the first sixteen years of an unauthorized child's life)
are levied for breaking the rule. While the plan has worked at slowing growth- China managed in just over a
decade to reduce the average number of children per family from six to fewer than three- there have reportedly
been some grisly side effects. In some rural regions, baby girls have been killed at birth. Not wanting to be
penalized for having more than one child, some parents preferred that one be a boy (more likely to be a wage-
earner and carry on the family name), and often drowned unwanted girls before their births were registered.
Chinese officials have condemned such killings, and have even written laws to help preclude them.

Seeds for Thought

An interesting point to ponder is that even though the United States' population is much smaller than China's,
the average American consumes several times more resources than the average Chinese. Thus, one could argue
that for the planet's sake, America should be seriously looking at controlling its population as well.

Pretend that laws similar to China's were placed on the ballot of the next U.S. election. Poll the members of the
crew to see how they would vote on the issue, and why. Do they think that the same side effects would result?
What different ones might occur?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                  Yes       No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Jason Gathorne-Hardy. ―Cartoons.‖ The Population and Development Database. 1998. 15 March 2005.

Seeds for Thought:

Draw your own overpopulation cartoon creating a title and a caption.
Choose a cartoon to analyze. Spend 10 minutes writing down everything that comes to your mind as you
analyze the cartoon.
What is the message of the cartoon? Do you agree or disagree with its message? Why or why not?
How does/doesn‘t the cartoon relate to your personal lifestyle?



The President in Washington sends word that he wishes to buy our land. But how can you buy or sell the sky?
The land? The idea is strange to us. If we do not own the freshness of the air and the sparkle of the water, how
can you buy them?

Every part of this earth is sacred to my people. Every shining pine needle, every sandy shore, every mist in the
dark woods, every meadow, every humming insect. All are holy in the memory and experience of my people.

We know the sap which courses through the trees as we know the blood that courses through our veins. We are
part of the earth and it is part of us. The perfumed flowers are our sisters. The bear, the deer, the great eagle,
these are our brothers. The rocky crests, the juices in the meadow, the body heat of the pony, and the man, all
belong to the same family.

The shining water that moves in streams and rivers is not just water, but the blood of our ancestors. If wee sell
you our land, you must remember that it is sacred. Each ghostly reflection in the clear waters of the lake tells
of events and memories, the life of my people. The water's murmur is the voice of my father's father.

The rivers are our brothers. They quench our thirst. They carry our canoes and feed our children the spirit of
life. So if we sell you our land, you must keep it apart and sacred, as a place where man can go to taste the
wind that is sweetened by the meadow flowers.

Will you teach your children what we have taught our children? That the earth is our mother? What befalls
the earth befalls all sons of the earth.

This we know; the earth does not belong to man, man belongs to the earth. All things are connected like the
blood that unites us all. Man did not weave the web of life, he is merely a strand in it. Whatever he does to the
web, he does to himself.

One thing we know; our god is also your god. The earth is precious to him and to harm the earth is to heap
contempt on its creator.

Your destiny is a mystery to us. What will happen when the buffalo are all slaughtered? The wild horses
tamed? What will happen when the secret corners of the forest are heavy with the scent of many men and the
view of the ripe hills is blotted by talking wires? Where will the thicket be? Gone! Where will the eagle be?
Gone! And what is it to say goodbye to the swift pony and the hunt? The end of living and the beginning of
When the last Red Man has vanished with his wilderness and his memory is only the shadow of a cloud moving
across the prairie, will these shores and forests still be here? Will there be any of the spirit of my people left?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                  Yes      No        Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

A lot of people talk the talk of conservation, but how many could really walk the walk? In the deluge of
advertising and social conditioning we call American society, we come to regard our consumptive lifestyles as
normal and necessary.

Unfortunately, our planet is finite, and the path we‘re on now will end when we‘ve gobbled up all the resources
that make it go: fossil fuels, precious ores, fresh water, and the like.

If we are to survive as a species, let alone a nation, we will need to endure a process of reduction. Keep in
mind, soon this will not be just a rhetorical exercise. You‘re preparing for the future.

Have every member of the crew, in turn, explain how s/he is going to change an aspect of his/her life and what
effect that change will have. Everyone should also explain why the alteration is necessary for the planet‘s
good. Here are some ideas, but feel free to add others as you choose.

Jacked-up monster truck to…. The new electric Geo Metro!
Any car at all to… bike or the bus
The speed and ease of the dishwasher to…. Elbow grease.
Giant, cheap, produce to… Small, expensive organic vegetables
         Meatza, meatza to…. Soy products o‘ plenty
Burning the midnight oil to… Greatly reduced electricity use)
Powder-o-Plenty to… No more Steamboat ski mountain
45 minute hot showers 3x daily to… a quick one every other day
1000 Flushes to… Composting toilets
Chez Phat to… A small, easily heated, passive solar home
―Triple sealed for your protection‖ to… Bulk foods

Seeds for Thought

This all seems pretty rough, but consider this- on the trail crew, you‘ve been living with much less! Obviously,
it can be done. What are some things you could do when you get back to society help make our transition to
the above lifestyles easier?

Split into a few groups, each one with a piece of paper and something to write with. Have each group design a
home of the future, and make a sketch of it on the paper. Have the whole group get back together again and
get each group to explain to the rest why they built their house the way they did. What materials were best?
Which way did the house face? How was it heated/ cooled? How big was it?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                 Yes       No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

For centuries, our Western European culture has treated our North American home as a colony. We've been
doing it so long, it seems only natural for us to refuse to live within the natural limits of our environment.
Rather, we tend to exist in spite of it.

We construct our homes of materials trucked in from far, far away. We enjoy exotic fruits and vegetables that
would never, ever, grow naturally here. We hungrily devour the flesh of animals that until relatively recently,
had never set foot (or hoof) upon American soil. We zip and zoom hither and thither in little steel boxes made
on some island across a vast ocean, powered by glurp shipped in from across another vast ocean.

When you think about it, although most of us were born here, we're about as native to this fantastic land as
malicious space aliens. Whatever was inconvenient to the European lifestyle our ancestors were comfortable
with was drained, smashed, flattened, shot, or burned, to make just like home. Upon any amount of scrutiny,
most of us never really learned to live here. We (or, if we want to pass the buck, our ancestors) merely learned
how to make North America a lot like Europe.

Enter the "Bioregionalist" school of thought. Bioregionalists contend that if we are interested in saving what
little is left of this abused planet, we need to become much more acutely aware of where we are. We need to
learn about the geology, native habitats, and ecosystems of our area, so that we understand how we might live
more in harmony with it. Learning about the lives of the Native Americans (who existed with much less than
we seem to require) in our region might also give us some clues as how to change our ways.

"Home" is a key word in the Bioregionalist movement. "Find your home and stay there." Only by becoming
intimate with the species and natural conditions that share your patch of ground will you be able to make
decisions that truly benefit your part of the planet. Until you are able to govern with the health of all species in
mind, Bioregionalists contend, the human condition will continue to be one of exploitation, destruction,
oppression, and poverty*.


Have everyone gather around the kitchen area. Open the food box and hand everyone one packaged item.
Have everyone tell the group where that item came from, and one distinctive feature of that place. Does anyone
know anything about the place their food came from?

Pile all the stuff in the food box that came from Colorado in one pile and all the rest in another. How much
would you have to eat if you ate only stuff from this state?

Go around the circle and have everybody tell the group one thing that makes Routt or Moffat County distinctive
historically, ecologically, or geologically. How much do we know about our own home?

How could we change the RMYC to be more at peace with this particular environment (desert, forest, etc.)?
Use the ideas you come up with!

* "Living Where You Are", by Hannah Holmes, Garbage Magazine, Sept/Oct 1993

Bioregionalism is a call to become knowledgeable guardians of the places where we live. Although we are
seldom aware of it, we live in naturally unique physical, ecological, historical and cultural areas whose
boundaries are more often ridge tops than county lines and state borders.

Bioregionalism is a call to get to know our local land and water; our local weather and sky; our local plants
and animals; our local neighbors and communities. It is a call to join our hearts, hands and minds with what
has been, what is, and what could be, in this place.

The following is an excerpt from a BLM pamphlet, ―Managing Change‖. It points out the harmful effects of
overgrazing in riparian areas (wetlands and streams).

Overgrazing riparian vegetation makes stream banks more vulnerable to the destabilizing effects of livestock
trampling and the erosive force of water, exposes soils to drying out by wind and sunlight, reduces water
storage capacity of the riparian area, reduces shade and thereby increases stream water temperature,
encourages the invasion of undesirable plants, speeds up runoff, and reduces filtration of sediment necessary
for building stream banks, wet meadows, and flood plains.

These things typically result in the loss of livestock forage: reduced numbers and diversity of fish and wildlife,
degraded water quality, reduced property value, and frequently cause serious property damage.

Despite the many studies that the BLM, Forest Service, and others have done to support the above information,
many ranching families contend that any anti-cattle industry argument is a hoax. They point to the fact that
their ranches have provided a steady supply of livestock ever since they started. They see no apocalyptic
ecological disaster occurring on their land, instead they see a fertile breadbasket that has never changed in their
lifetimes, for the worse or otherwise. They wonder why people who know nothing about their way of life want
to destroy or impair their livelihood with ecological red tape and increased land use fees. After all, all they
want to do is put meat on the tables of America. They think, ―What could be a more honest profession than

This opinion directly contradicts the information quoted from the BLM pamphlet. The ranchers are not insane:
they‘ve worked with the land all of their lives and know it probably better than anyone. How can these
rancher‘s long-held beliefs be reconciled with the grim ecological realities of the ranching industry?


Have the crew visit a popular watering spot for cattle. Give everyone a little while to examine the area. Look
at the water, the land, the plants, and sniff the air deeply. Circle up again. Have each person show the group
one way this place would be different than a similar spot that cows have not visited. Is what the BLM pamphlet
said true? As a group, come up with a plan by which you would improve this watering site.

Organize a role-playing exercise in which one or two people portray environmentally conscious field biologists
trying to explain to a meeting of hostile ranchers (played by the rest of the crew) the need to preserve riparian
areas in Routt and Moffat Counties.

Afterwards, discuss what happened. What were the major points of conflict? What could you agree on?

Earth First! founder Dave Foreman's wild plan to preserve North America's wilderness

...[Dave] Foreman heads a small but growing band of environmentalists and field biologists who aim to put
the brakes on centuries-old attitudes toward land use and exploitation. With their plan, the North American
Wilderness Recovery Project (a.k.a. the Wildlands Proposal), they would return big, charismatic species
such as buffalo, grizzly bears, elk, wolves, and puma to their pre-Columbian haunts. They would restore a
true spirit of wilderness- the "big outside"- to the American landscape.

Their proposal calls for the restoration of whole landscapes and the creation of a vast system of connected
wilderness reserves that would crisscross the continent. These reserves would dwarf the largest national
parks. Rather that build roads, laborers would remove existing ones, along with dams, power lines, and
other human-made structures. Planners would choose the reserve sites with plants and animals, not people,
in mind, selecting them not for recreational opportunities but for their ecological potential. Up to half the
contiguous United States would be involved in a transformation whereby "islands" of civilization would be
surrounded by wilderness tracts and corridors.

"We live for the day when grizzlies in Chihuahua have an unbroken connection to grizzlies in Alaska,"
reads the Wildlands mission statement, "when gray wolf populations are continuous from New Mexico to
Greenland; when vast, unbroken forests and flowing plains again thrive and support pre-Columbian
populations of plants and animals."

Says Dave Foreman: "Our goal is to create a new political reality based on the needs of other species."

Seeds for Thought

Foreman's "Wildlands mission statement" would affect many other aspects of our society besides its
environmental policy. How could we change our society to fulfill his vision? Our economy? Our politics?
Our geography? Our daily life?

Many would argue that such wild plans are not worth wasting time considering because of their political
impracticality. Do you agree or disagree? Why?

And then without warning it was there: a dark shape against the sun moving on silent wings, not flying but
gliding: embodiment of some arrogance or innocence that surpassed fear and surpassed even the suggestion
of any pride in its own fearlessness. "Oh my God," Smiling Jim whispered, raising the Remington and
starting to sight, and then it banked, flapped its wings wildly, and uttered one shriek that seemed like the
very sound of life itself. "Oh my God," he repeated: that sound seemed to outlast its own echo, it had
entered into his own brain and couldn't be dislodged, it was the sound of his own blood pumping in his
veins: the primary, the only, the single sound that was the bass and tremble of every organic pulsation and
spasm, "Oh my God," he had it in the sight, the head was in profile, only one diamond-hard eye staring
back and recognizing him and his weapon, but that sound still moved in his blood, moved the seminal
vesicles, moved the secretion of every gland. It was the sound of eternal and unending clash between I and
AM and their unity in I AM, he even thought for a flash of the critics of hunting and how little they
understood of this secret, this mystic identity between the killer and the killed, then it uttered that Sound
again and started to rise, but he had it, it was in the sight, he breathed, he aimed, he squeezed, and for the
third time the Sound came to him, death in life and life in death, it was falling, he thought he felt the earth
stir below him and the word "earthquake" almost formed, but the Sound went on and on to the roots of him,
it was the sound of the killer and he had killed the killer, dead now and subject only to the law of gravity
not to the law of its own will, 32 feet per second per second (he remembered the formula of the fall),
plunging downward, the most heartbreaking beautiful sight he had ever seen, every hunting club in the
world would be talking about it, it would last as long as human speech survived, and he had done it, he had
achieved immortality, he had taken its life and now it was part of him. His nose was running and his eyes
were watering. "I did it," he screamed to the mountains, "I did it! I killed the last American eagle!"
The earth below him cracked.

Seeds for Thought
What do you think was the underlying message of the above passage?

Who or what does Smiling Jim symbolize to you?

What does the eagle represent?

The earthquake?

Anonymous from Osorne, F. Our Plundered Planet

In the beginning was the earth.                            the animals for money and shoot them for sport.‖
And it was beautiful.                                      And people did. And the animals became scarce.
And people lived upon the earth. And people                And people said: ―It is good.‖
―Let us build skyscrapers and expressways.‖                On the fifth day,
And people covered the earth with steel and                People felt the cool breeze in their nostrils.
concrete.                                                  And people said: ―Let us burn our refuse
And people said: ―It is good.‖                             and let the wind blow away the smoke and
On the second day,                                         And people did.
people looked upon the clear blue waters of the            And the air became dense with smoke and
earth.                                                     carbon.
And people said: ―Let us dump our sewage                   And people said: ―It is good.‖
And wastes into the waters.‖ And people did.
                                                           On the sixth day,
On the third day,                                          people saw the many kinds of people on the
people gazed at the forests on the earth.                  earth-
They were tall and green. And people said:                 different in race, color, and creed.
―Let us cut the trees to build things for                  And people feared and said: ―Let us make bombs
ourselves.‖                                                and missiles in case misunderstandings arise.‖
And people did. And the forests grew thin.                 And people did. And missile sites and bomb
And people said: ―It is good.‖                             dumps
                                                           checkered the landscape.
On the fourth day,                                         And people said: ―It is good.‖
people saw the animals leaping in the fields
And playing in the sun. And people said: ―Let us           On the seventh day, people rested.
trap                                                       And the earth was quiet and deathly still.
                                                           For people were no more.
                                                           And it was good

Seeds for Thought

What does Anonymous mean by ―And the people said: It is good.‖
Is this poem a good representation of how humans have developed the Earth?
How does this poem make you feel?
What type of responsibility could you take to help prevent society from destroying itself?
Is ―hope‖ important for us to make a change in our destiny?
Create your own poem modeled after Anonymous. Use the theme of ―hope‖ to outline various stages in the
development of technologies and resource use.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes       No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Jason Gathorne-Hardy. ―Cartoons.‖ The Population and Development Database. 1998. 15 March 2005.

Seeds for Thought

Draw your own environmental cartoon creating a title and a caption.
Draw your own environmental cartoon. Write a caption relating to some aspect of your ―corps‖ experience.
Choose a cartoon to analyze. Spend 10 minutes writing down everything that comes to your mind as you
analyze the cartoon.
What is the message of the cartoon? Do you agree or disagree with its message? Why or why not?
How does/doesn‘t the cartoon relate to your personal lifestyle?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes      No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

―Roots creep underground everywhere and make a firm foundation. Shoots seem very weak, but to reach
the light, they can break open brick walls. Imagine that the brick walls are all the problems we have
inflicted on our planet. Hundreds of thousands of roots & shoots hundreds of thousands of young people
around the world, can break through these walls. You can change the world.‖
           -Dr. Jane Goodall
Seeds for Thought:
Analyze Dr. Goodall‘s quote and share your findings with your crew.
In what way are your crew members like ―shoots?‖ Describe ways in which your crew‘s work is making a
difference in the environmental world and breaking the ―brick walls.‖
If you had a magic wand, in what three ways would you change the world? Share these ideas with your

―Whatever you can do, or dream, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it.‖
Seeds for Thought:
If you had one dream to ―begin‖ what would it be? How do you find strength in your dream?
Do you agree with the statement, ―Boldness has genius, power and magic?‖ Why/Why not?
Describe the ―magic‖ in your crew. How does this ―magic‖ help to inspire the crew to accomplish difficult

― . . . the essence of science lies not in discovering facts, but in discovering new ways of thinking about
            -Sir Lawrence Bragg
Seeds for Thought
Do you believe there is truth to this quote? Why?
How has your corps experience helped you to find new ways of looking at and learning about the natural
world and science?
Discuss with your crew the importance of not just memorizing facts, but looking at them with a critical eye.
In what ways did the great scientist and naturalists of the world push their critical thinking to make new

 “What is life? It is the flash of a firefly in the night. It is the breath of a buffalo in the winter time; it is the
little shadow which runs across the grass and loses itself in the sunset.”
          -Last words of Crowfoot
Seeds for Thought:
What is life to you? Can you relate to Crowfoot‘s last words? Explain.
Describe how your corps experience has helped you to appreciate and enjoy the simplicity and awe of
Reflecting on ―what is life?‖ Create your own quote incorporating memories of your crew experience. Use
the format of Crowfoot‘s quote to guide your writing.

“When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to everything else in the universe.”
        -John Muir
Seeds for Thought:
Analyze Muir‘s quote.
Why is this philosophy so critical to our understanding of the universe and more specifically ourselves?
Describe how you are ―hitched‖ to your crew. Brainstorm with your peers the importance of teamwork and
connectedness in accomplishing goals. Use examples from recent experiences.

Additional Seeds for Thought
Choose one quote and analyze its meaning. Spend the next 10 minutes free writing. Share your inspirations
with your crew.
Do you know any of the authors of these famous quotes? Share your knowledge with the crew.
If you had to select one quote to represent your philosophy on life, which one would you choose? Explain.

          The ―leave no trace‖ ideal is the purest form of minimum impact camping. The techniques it
employs are most appropriate for smaller groups staying in an especially fragile area for a short amount of
time. As the name implies, the goal is to leave the place exactly as the campers found it. Ideally, the next
people who come along will have no idea that anyone had camped there before. Here are some general
guidelines to help achieve this goal:
          Seek out a campsite that shows no evidence of previous use and that is secluded enough to escape
being spotted (and thus reoccupied and further damaged). Unvegatated surfaces (rock gravel, uncrusted
sand, or snow) are the most durable places to set up tents and establish the kitchen. Forest duff is
acceptable if it‘s possible to avoid crushing any plants or tree seedlings. Grassy areas and dry meadows
can also make suitable pristine campsites.
          If traveling with a group, pitch your tents well apart and try to avoid establishing highways
between them.
Wear soft-soled shoes around camp, and take a different path each time you go for water or to the latrine.
Camp no more than a single night in any one place, and camouflage the site by covering any scuffed-up
places with duff or other native materials before leaving. If you clear your sleeping spot of surface debris
(small rocks, twigs, pinecones, etc.), ―redebris‖ the area before leaving. At high-impact sites, it‘s entirely
appropriate to dismantle inappropriate user-built structures such as multiple fire rings, bench seats, and
          Fires aren‘t recommended unless necessary for heat or cooking. Fires pollute the air and leave
scars on the ground that are hard to disguise when you leave. Collecting firewood also depletes the
ecosystem of nutrients that are few and far between at high elevations. If you must have a fire, do not build
a fire ring. It does nothing to prevent a fire‘s spreading, but merely scars the rocks you use.
Nothing but wash water should be scattered on the ground, and burning of any trash is not acceptable.
Burial of food scraps and other waste is inadvisable, since animals are sure to dig them up. Disperse large
quantities of waste water widely, or dig a sump hole.
          Litter and food scraps can be minimized by careful pre-trip planning. Food should be removed
from cans, bottles, and foil, measured out to reduce leftovers, and then stored in re-sealable plastic bags.
All food scraps and garbage should be packed out when leaving the campsite.

Seeds for Thought
Assemble the crew and tour the campsite. Have everyone point out to the crew one way your campsite
differs from the above minimum impact suggestions. Discuss why you‘ve done things differently.
Practicality? Laziness?
Take note of the things you can change and do them next time you set up camp. Do you think all the extra
trouble is worth it? Why or why not?

          The previous section gives many helpful suggestions on low impact camping techniques.
However, it's important to note that it represents an ideal that could be referred to as the "leave no trace"
school of thought. Though a perfectly valid philosophy for certain situations, it would be tough to
implement into the car-camping scenario the RMYC typically employs.
          Let's face it. We're a large group that stays in one place for a long time; sometimes for weeks.
Though a strict minimum impact philosophy would have us changing campsites every night, this is not
practical for our purposes. No matter how hard we try not to, we're going to create some impact. However,
we're not into trashing the place!
          Therefore, it seems we need another set of guidelines to suit our particular set of circumstances.
Since some impact is basically a given, we'd like at least to limit the area we leave our mark upon. We
need to develop a different strategy of minimum impact camping, one we might term: the "localized
impact" school of thought.

Seeds for Thought
Look at some of the "leave no trace" minimum impact techniques in the previous section. As a crew,
modify these to suit your specific situation. What have you changed? Why? What have you left the same?

Our society, it may fairly be said, has taught us to be strangely ashamed of the most ordinary of bodily
functions. Urination and defecation are considered, icky, uncouth things to discuss, yet these are activities
we engage in several times a day! Fear begets ignorance, and ignorance about basic organic functions is
plain dangerous.

Human feces is one of the more biologically toxic things around. Our digestive system is filled with all
kinds of nasty little bacteria such as E-coli. While these little critters are helpful in the lower part of the
digestive tract, they can be deadly in the other end. Intestinal bacteria and other diseases, such as cholera,
are most often transferred by poor sanitation. Sloppy sanitation is most common in less developed areas,
such as a trail crew.

Feces is also bad news when released into an ecosystem in an irresponsible manner. All of the bugs that
get humans sick can also affect animals. This is not to mention the displeasing aesthetic effect someone
else‘s load can have on your camping trip!

So, now that the problem has been established, let‘s get to some solutions:

On the Trail

Find a place to go that is at least 100 yards from the nearest water source. If possible, avoid drainages into
a water source as well. Water is the quickest way to spread your potent load of disease. The nutrients
within your waste also promote the growth of alga, which choke out many other form of life in the pond or
 Take a tool with you so you can dig a ―cat hole‖, about six inches deep. Much shallower, and the waste is
vulnerable to water and erosion (which delivers it to a water source). Much deeper, and it decomposes at a
much slower rate.
Try using leaves and such in lieu of toilet paper. These things you can bury with your little present. If you
do use T.P., pack it out in plastic bag. Toilet paper doesn‘t decompose rapidly, and is unethical to bury.
Same with feminine hygiene articles.

At Camp

Dig a communal latrine, as deep as you think you‘ll need for the week. The goal here is to localize the
group‘s impact, so it‘s essential that everyone uses this one latrine. Having everyone go wherever not only
is unethical, but will quickly make your camp very unpleasant. Dig the latrine at least 100 yards away
from the nearest water source, and if possible, out of a drainage area.
Don‘t bury toilet paper. Use leaves and pinecones, or store the T.P. in a plastic bag and then pack it out.
Again, same goes with feminine hygiene articles.

Urine, though a fairly unpleasant substance as well, is relatively harmless, biologically. Its pH makes it
impossible for anything to live in it. Urination, therefore, is more of a courtesy issue than anything else.
Guys should relieve themselves well away from camp or the trail so that everyone is not treated by their
musk. Going into the water is also poor form.

Seeds for Thought

How does your camp conform to these guidelines? What are your limitations? What improvements could
you make? Put your suggestions into practice!


          This activity requires a little audience participation. Have two members of the crew stand before their
peers and role play the following scenarios. One person plays Tommy, and the other, Tommy‘s alter ego, ―The
Tool‖. Tommy is a good person, strong in body and in spirit, incorruptible, and besides a strange yogurt fetish,
perfect to a fault. ―The Tool‖ is a twisted, pathetic wretch of a human being, contemptible in all respects,
except of course his impressive talents in tai-chi. Tommy always does the right thing (except sometimes when
it comes to yogurt), and The Tool takes pleasure in misbehaving, so jaded is he by the cruel world that derides
him daily.
          After the narrator reads out the scene, the two actors display to the rest of the crew how their character
would act in each situation. After they finish, the narrator clarifies what each has done by reading the ―answer‖
below each situation.

The Situations

Tommy and The Tool are leading groups into the Mt. Zirkel Wilderness Area. They are happy groups, and
they laugh, yell, and sing as they hike along the trail. (Answer: the leader should quiet the group down.
Constant noise disturbs wildlife and wrecks other people‘s experiences in the Wilderness.)

T and TT‘s groups are leaving the Wilderness Area. They come upon an old campsite that has two fire rings
and a bunch of garbage. (A: The group should destroy the fire rings and pack out the garbage while their packs
are light.)

Tommy and The Tool are trying to get some photos of animals for a class. They spot the elusive Rocky
Mountain pine monkey, but it is frightened and hides behind a bush. They suspect that‘s where it has built its
wigwam-shaped breeding nest. (A: They should let it go. Chasing and harassing wildlife is harmful to the
animals, especially near where they are breeding or feeding.)

Tommy and The Tool are hiking on a steep mountain path. They notice a freshly made path that is much faster
than the long, sloping switchbacks they had been following. (A: Never cut switchbacks. As trail builders, you
should know that nothing channels water faster or better than a path straight downhill. Water causes erosion,
and blows out big sections of trail. That‘s why the switchbacks are there in the first place.)

Tommy and The Tool are hiking and want to take a break. There seems to be a nice patch of soft moss right
next to the trail. (A: They should go farther off the trail, and look for a more durable place to hang out. Taking
breaks right next to the trail destroys vegetation and makes an inviting spot for others to loiter. By taking a few
extra steps, you‘ll enjoy more natural surroundings and be less likely to be disturbed by other hikers.

Tommy and The Tool are hiking and come upon a party of horse riders. (A: They should step to the same side
of the trail, and wait quietly until the animals have passed.)

Tommy and The Tool each leading a group off-trail high in the Flattops. The groups want to know if there
is anything special they should know about traveling this way in the fragile environment. One guy figures
it would be a good idea to build some rock cairns as they go along to keep from getting lost. (A: They
should spread out to avoid making paths, as opposed to walking in single file. Cairns are a bad idea, since
they mar the landscape and can cause others to get lost. )

Tommy and The Tool are going on a hike to Gilpin Lake with their friend Methusela. Methusela has three
Great Danes she wants bring along. She says they‘re very well behaved. (Dogs are best left at home.
They harass wildlife, disturb the ecosystem, defecate and urinate in water sources, and disturb other
people‘s wilderness experiences. If you must take the pooch along, keep it well restrained, preferably on a

Take a poll of the crew and find out what sports they enjoy on the trail. Mountain biking? Motor sports?
Hiking? Horse Riding?

Say the crew was on an advisory board for the recreational use of Emerald Mountain in Steamboat Springs.
This board must decide what sports would be legal in that area. What might help decide the issue would be a
chart like the one below:

Sport                    Noise Level            Trail Damage              Danger to Others         Limitations to Other
Mountain Biking
Hiking/ Running
ATV‘s / Motorcycles

Vote on which sport has the most negative impacts, and use the results to help your council decide. How would
tourist money effect your decision? How well do you think Emerald Mountain is run now? Is it fair that
motorcycles and ATVs are banned from the trails there?

As it stands now, everyone but hikers and those riding horses are banned from Wilderness areas. Is this fair and
reasonable? How would you change the laws, if you could?

Many people claim that rules prohibiting horses and motorized vehicles are discriminatory against the old and
handicapped. These people, they claim, would not otherwise be able to access remote destinations. Opponents
of this theory claim that the old should have visited these spots when they were young. As for the infirm, they
continue, should the pristine beauty of nature be destroyed for all to suit the needs of a minority? What do you

Mountain biking groups often make the argument that they are given short shrift because mountain biking is a
relatively new sport. They say that horses get more credit and power than they deserve (being more destructive
than bikes) since they‘ve been around longer. Should the history of a sport have a bearing in the favor it
receives from the Forest Service and the BLM?

Seeds for Thought

Do you think this is true? How does biking impact the area and other activities?
There are many multi-use areas in Moffat & Routt Counties. What should you be aware of when using any

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                Yes      No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

We all know how much fun a treasure hunt is. Let‘s try to limit the time on this one to 45 minutes to see
who can come up with the most items. Be sure not to kill or harm any animals or damage their homes.
Items must be collected outside of camp limits.

The List

5 different types of grass
evidence of a mammal
3 pieces of trash
evidence of insects
evidence of birds
evidence that people and wildlife experience some of the same problems
something blue (naturally occurring)
something red (naturally occurring)
a feather
a bone
evidence of a fire
evidence of flooding
a tin can
a shell
something perfectly round
something perfectly square
something with a repetitive pattern
something funny
something sad
something brown
something green

Seeds for Thought

What were the hardest things to find? What were the easiest? What did you find that you didn‘t expect to
find? What methods did you use to search? What do you know now about your ―neighborhood‖ that you
didn‘t realize before?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes      No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Many predators rely on stealth to be effective hunters, or ―stalkers‖. The lessons of this activity are fairly
straightforward, as is the activity itself.

What to do

One person is the prey, let‘s say a deer. Well, a blindfolded deer, to be more accurate. All of the
―predators‖ make a circle around the seated, blindfolded ―prey‖. Start out with a fairly large circle, 30 feet
in diameter. Choose a leader. Everyone must remain quiet because it is usually quiet where deer live,
especially where blindfolded deer live. The leader visually signals to one of the predators, who then begins
to stalk, trying to get close enough to touch the prey. The prey, upon realizing they are being stalked, must
point to the person who is stalking. As each prey is ―caught‖ by the deer, they move back to their place in
the circle to try again, maybe with a new and improved method. The leader keeps choosing new stalkers
until someone finally reaches the prey and makes the touch. Try different variations: smaller circles, two
stalkers, two prey and three stalkers. Make up your own rules, if you‘d like.

Seeds for Thought

How nervous were you when you were the prey? What were the best techniques for stalking? Do wild
animals actually use these or similar methods? What are the advantages which protected the prey, or
concealed the predators?

Sometimes life on the trail crew leaves a little to be desired, privacy-wise. This activity gives everybody the
rare opportunity for quiet reflection. It also can bring into focus things learned that day, or that week, or the
whole session.

What you‘ll need

Something to write with and something to write on. Also, places where each crew member can be alone.

What to do

Everyone leaves the circle for a designated amount of time (30 minutes to an hour should be enough), taking
with them their writing materials. Traveling far enough from everyone to be alone, but not so far as to be out
of shouting distance, each person finds a comfortable, solitary spot. On the paper each person may write and/or
draw anything he/she so chooses. A person may choose to put nothing on the paper, but should think of
something to bring back to the circle.

After the time period is up, everyone returns to the circle. One by one, they explain to the group what they put
on the paper, or what they thought about while sitting there alone.


This activity works well if done once at the very beginning of the session, and again at the end. It‘s interesting
to compare the ―before‖ and ―after‖ papers the crew members take with them.

The time period the crew members are alone can also be modified. An entire solo night can be quite
enlightening after sleeping shoulder-to-shoulder for a few weeks.

(Project Wild)

The unnatural trail challenges the participants‘ observation skills, and emphasizes the impact that mankind has,
inadvertently or otherwise, on our unspoiled lands.

What you’ll need
Eight or ten small, man-made objects. Film canisters, bolts, spoons, gloves, and the like work well. You‘ll also
require a short stretch of trail or road on which to hide them.
What to do
While the crew is otherwise occupied, designate a certain stretch of road or trail that you‘re going to use, about
75 yards or so. Hide your objects (making sure you remember where you put them) along the trail so that one
could see them if staring directly at them, but not anywhere blatantly obvious. Don‘t limit yourself only to the
ground; utilize the trees and shrubs that line the trail as well.
When you‘re done hiding the objects, gather the rest of the crew and explain the activity. They are to walk
along the trail, one by one, moving as slowly as they like but never stopping. They should try to spot as many
objects as they can. After they finish the trail, they should tell those waiting on the other end (honestly) how
many things they spotted.
Once everyone gets to the other side, the whole group walks the trail again, and shows each other where the
objects are.

Seeds for Thought

What objects were easiest to spot? What were the hardest? Why? What pre-established habits might have
kept each person from spotting a particular thing?

It seems we could avoid the whole problem of waste disposal with one simple thought in mind; let's just not
create so much of it!

Think about your daily life in civilization and how much waste you yourself produce in a day, or a week, or
a year! Suppose that space aliens came and threatened to turn us all to bullion cubes if we didn't reduce our
solid waste production by say, 90 percent. Bullets can‘t stop them, rockets can‘t stop them, even nuclear
bombs have no effect! The only way out is compliance!

Assign everyone in the crew one of the following roles (or one you create), and have each person explain to
the rest how he or she would help solve the problem facing Earth.

        CEO of PepsiCo (Subsidiaries include: Taco Bell, Pizza Hut, Pepsi)
        Oliver Stone
        Ice Cube
        The Pope
        Joe or Jane Schmoe
        President of the Sierra Club
        Director of the U.S. Forest Service
        Ted Turner (Owner: TBS, TNT, Atlanta Braves)
        Leonard Crowdog (Medicine Man of Sioux Nation)
        Bill Clinton
        Louis Farrakann (President: Nation of Islam)

Now that you‘ve solved the world‘s problems, see how you can solve your own, right here in the RMYC.
Advertising and other like bizarre concepts "justify" enormous excesses in packaging. Rummage through
the food box and the cooler to get a few props. Show these things to your crew and explain how these food
items could be packaged differently in order to reduce waste. Could any of these items be sold in bulk?
Could all of them? Propose some ideas on how the RMYC could reduce its consumption of solid waste.

―Enviro-scruples‖ is played like the popular game, ―Scruples‖, but with questions specific to environmental
issues. It opens discussion on important issues, while also being fun and a great way to learn more about
your crewmates!

How to Play

Write numbers on scraps of paper and put the numbers in a hat. Have each crewmember, in turn, draw a
number out of the hat and answer the question below that corresponds to his/her number. After s/he
explains the answer to the rest of the crew, the crew votes on whether or not s/he is telling the truth.

       You and your friend are at Fish Creek Falls. Your friend finishes her cigarette, and then just flicks
        the butt. Do you give her a hard time about it?
       You‘re camping with a bunch of friends after the session. They camp like slobs, you notice.
        They throw trash around, build huge fires, dig trenches around their tents, and the like. Do you
        show them the error of their ways?
       You‘re in the desert. You see a tortoise lying on its back, baking in the hot sun. You recognize
        his plight, but do nothing to help him. Why?
       You‘re painting the inside of a house. You‘re using water-soluble paint, so you can wash your
        brushes out in the sink if you want to. Do you?
       You‘re backpacking with a couple friends. It‘s almost dark. You notice two campsite options in
        the encroaching gloom. One is right next to a stream and close to the trail. The other is much
        farther from the stream and trail, but is rocky and uneven. Your friends head directly to the close
        one. What do you tell them?
       You and a friend are mountain biking. You‘re at a trail junction. One way is the way you came,
        another the legal but lame and swampy option, and the other a legendary downhill that‘s just been
        declared a Class I Wilderness area. Nobody hikes around there, and you know you can get away
        with poaching the sweet trail. Do you?
       You‘re at a potluck. On the table are a bunch of paper plates and plastic utensils, which you‘re
        obviously supposed to use. The host is only a vague acquaintance of yours. Do you politely ask
        for a real plate and silverware?
       You work at a deli that does not recycle. Your boss is well known to be conservative often makes
        comments about ―those damn tree huggers‖. The deli sells all its soda in cans and every day you
        take out bags of trash rich with aluminum. Do you suggest to your boss she subscribe to an
        inexpensive recycling program?
       You‘re cruising down your favorite ski run, just ripping it. Out of the corner of your eye you spot
        a discarded Cheetos bag. Do throw off your perfect rhythm to pick it up?
       Your car is in desperate need of exhaust repair. You notice cars behind you weave drunkenly and
        passing motorists gesture rudely to you. You don‘t dare to guess how many degrees you alone
        add each day to global warming. You have no money to fix it and you live two miles out of town.
        You do, however, have a sweet ten-speed. Do you start riding that to town?
       Double Z serves all of its takeout orders in big Styrofoam containers. Cugino‘s wraps its
        sandwiches in a simple sheet of wax paper. You like Cugino‘s, but you really like Double Z.
        Where do you order lunch?
       The nice lady at the Laundromat asks if you‘d like to receive the newsletter she puts out. You
        know you‘re never going to read it, but the beseeching look in her eyes is breaking your heart. Do
        you let her put you on the mailing list and waste all that glossy, non-recyclable paper?
       You want to go cross-country. You‘re by yourself. You can‘t afford airfare at DIA, so your
        options are public transit (train or bus) or your car, which is old and gets lousy mileage. The car is
        a lot more convenient, and cheaper in the short term. You won‘t really need it when you get
        where you‘re going. You feel guilty, though, burning all that gas with just yourself in the car.
        What do you do?

These, obviously, are only a few possible questions. Write down a few of your own and put their numbers
in the hat, too.

(Project Wild)

Dragonfly pond is a fairly involved and somewhat lengthy activity, but also interesting, enlightening, and fun.
It‘s a simulation of land use issues that concern interests not terribly unlike those of Steamboat Springs.

What you‘ll need
About four sheets of paper (for basic maps of the undeveloped Dragonfly Pond), and colored pencils or markers
(if possible, if not, any old pen will do).

What to do

Create four maps of the undeveloped Dragonfly Pond area. Draw a stream bisecting the area, north to south,
with a pond in its center. Put in a wetlands area, in which many endangered species live, in one of the corners
of the pond. Indicate the prevailing wind direction, which is west to east. Note also the way the current moves
in and out of Dragonfly Pond: north to south.

Split the crew into four groups: pro-ranching, pro-industry, pro-environment, and pro-recreation. Give each
group one of the maps and the markers and pens. Explain to each group the object of this exercise; determining
the future of Dragonfly Pond.

Each group is to decide how to design the new town of Dragonfly. The different groups are to come up with
plans that befit their interests. The industry faction, for example, will be most interested in wringing the
maximum profits out of Dragonfly, and won‘t be so concerned about ecological consequences.

All groups, however, must incorporate certain elements into their design. Where they put these is up to them.
Any plan of Dragonfly must include:

Power plant         * Gas station
Housing for the residents * Grazing land
Grocery store       * Elk refuge
Sewage treatment plant        * Widget factory
Restaurant          * Town hall
Police/ Fire Station          * State park (for biking, etc.)
Drugstore           * City dump
Softball diamonds/ soccer fields        * All-night disco palace
City Streets (Bus Route?) * Highway leading into town

Spend 30-45 minutes planning your respective communities. Have each group draw up a legible map of their
plan for the town of Dragonfly. When everyone is done, reconvene to the ―town council meeting.‖ Each
group then presents its plan to the other groups and explains why it‘s such a great idea. After the presentations,
all the groups try to compromise and come up with a solution acceptable to all. This, of course, might be

Later, discuss what happened. How is the plight of Dragonfly similar to that of Steamboat Springs? What
advice would you have for the City Council? Why were some differences between the groups impossible to

A Sneaky Activity
(New Games)

This game makes crew members utilize other senses besides sight and helps them gain understand aspects
of the natural world first-hand. It‘s also a silly and fun thing to do for a light-hearted Seed.

What You‘ll Need

Two ―rattles‖ (tin cans with pebbles in them work nicely), two blindfolds, a small open area, and your

What to Do

Everyone forms a circle around two players, forming the ―snake pit.‖ They are both blindfolded and given
a rattle. One is going to try to tag the other. The rattlers enter the snake pit, and the game begins.

To get a fix on each other‘s positions, either rattle may shake his rattle at any time, and other must
immediately respond by shaking hers. However, the pursuer is allowed to initiate only five shakes to locate
his quarry, while the pursued can rattle away as much as she dares.

While making sure that neither of the rattlers wanders out of the snake pit, the other players also participate
by helping the pursuer keep count of his shakes and cheering and shouting things charming to snakes. To
make the game even more interesting, and to keep the other players from feeling like spectators, why not
let them move around, thereby changing the size and shape of the snake pit?

Seeds for Thought

What helped the most successful pursuers locate their quarry? What techniques did the most evasive
snakes employ to avoid being bitten? How are these tactics used by animals near where you are?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?               Yes      No        Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

By Dr. Seuss

At the far end of town                              Then he grunts, ―I will call you by Whisper-ma-
where the Grickle-grass grows                       Phone,
and the wind smells slow-and-sour when it           for the secrets I tell you are for your ears alone.‖
and no birds ever sing excepting old crows…         SLUPP!
is the Street of the gifted Lorax.                  Down slupps the Whisper-ma-Phone to your ear
                                                    and the old Once-ler‘s whispers are not very
And deep in the Grickle-grass, some people say,     clear,
if you look deep enough you can still see, today,   since they have to come down
where the Lorax one stood                           through a snergelly hose,
just as long as it could                            and he sounds
before somebody lifted the Lorax away.              as if he had
                                                    smallish bees up his nose.
What WAS the Lorax?
And why was it there?                               ―Now I‘ll tell you,‖ he says, with his teeth
And why was it lifted and taken somewhere           sounding gray,
from the far end of town where the Grickle-grass    ―how the Lorax got lifted and taken away…‖
The old Once-ler lives there.                       It all started way back…
Ask him. He knows.                                  Such a long, long way back…
                                                    Way back in the days when the grass was still
You won‘t see the Once-ler.                         green
Don‘t knock at his door.                            and the pond was still wet
He stays in his Lerkim, cold under the roof,        and the clouds were still clean,
where he makes his own clothes                      and the song of the Swomee-Swans rang out into
out of miff-muffered moof.                          space…
And on special dank midnights in August,            one morning, I came to this glorious place.
he peeks                                            And I first saw the trees!
out of his shutters                                 The Truffula Trees!
and sometimes he speaks                             The bright-colored tufts of the Truffula Trees!
and tells how the Lorax was lifted away.            Mile after mile in the fresh morning breeze.

He‘ll tell you perhaps…                             And, under the trees, I saw Brown Bar-ba-loots,
if you‘re willing to pay.                           frisking about in their Bar-ba-loot suits
                                                    as they played in the shade and ate Truffula
On the end of a rope                                Fruits.
he lets down a tin pail
and you have to toss in fifteen cents and a nail    From the rippulous pond
                                                    came the comfortable sound
and the shell of a great-great-great                of the Humming-Fish humming
grandfather snail.                                  while splashing around.

Then he pulls up the pail                           But those trees! Those trees!
makes a most careful count                          Those Truffula trees!
to see if you‘ve paid him                           All my life I‘d been searching
the proper amount.                                  for trees such as these.
                                                    That touch of their tufts
The he hides what you paid him                      was much softer than silk.
away in his Snuvv,                                  And they had the sweet smell
his secret strange hole                             of fresh butterfly milk.
in his gruvvulous glove.
                                                    I felt a great leaping
                                                    of joy in my heart.

I knew just what I‘d do!                            ―I speak for the trees!‖
I unloaded my cart.
                                                    ―I‘m busy,‖ I told him.
In no time at all, I had built a small shop.        ―Shut up, if you please.‖
Then I chopped down a Truffula tree with one
chop.                                               I rushed ‗cross the room, and in no time at all,
And with great skillful skill and with great        built a radio-phone. I put in a quick call.
speedy speed,                                       I called all my brothers and uncles and aunts
I took the soft tuft. And I knitted a Thneed!       And I said, ―Listen here! Here‘s a wonderful
The instant I‘d finished, I heard ga-Zump!          chance
I looked.                                           for the whole Once-ler Family to get mighty
I saw something pop out of a stump                  rich!
of the tree I‘d chopped down. It was sort of a      Get over here fast! Take the road to North Nitch.
man. Describe him?… That‘s hard. I don‘t            Turn left at Weehawken. Sharp right at South
know if I can.                                      Stitch.―
He was shortish. And oldish.
And brownish. And mossy.                            And in no time at all,
And he spoke with a voice                           in the factory I built,
that was sharpish and bossy.                        the whole Once-ler Family
                                                    was working full tilt.
―Mister!‖ he said with a sawdusty sneeze,
―I am the Lorax. I speak for the trees.             We were all knitting Thneeds
I speak for the trees, for the trees have no        just as busy as bees
tongues.                                            to the sound of the chopping of Truffula Trees.
And I‘m asking you, sir, at the top of my lungs‖-
he was very upset as he shouted and puffed-         Then…
“What’s that THING you’ve made out of my            Oh! Baby! Oh!
Tuffula tuft?”                                      How my business did grow!
                                                    Now, chopping one tree at a time
―Look, Lorax, ― I said. There‘s no cause for        was too slow.
I chopped down just one tree. I am doing no         So I quickly invented my Super-Axe-Hacker
harm.                                               which whacked off four Truffula Trees at one
I‘m being quite useful. This thing is a Thneed.     smacker.
A Thneed‘s a Fine-Something-That-All-People-        We were making Thneeds
Need! It‘s a shirt. It‘s a glove. It‘s a hat.       four times as fast as before!
But it has other uses. Yes, far beyond that.        And the LORAX?
You can use it for carpets. For pillows!            He didn‘t show up anymore.
For sheets! Or curtains! Or covers for bicycle
seats!                                              But the next week
                                                    he knocked on my new office door.
The Lorax said,
―Sir! You are crazy with greed.                     He snapped, ―I‘m the Lorax who speaks for the
There is no one on earth                            trees
would buy that fool Thneed!‖                        which you seem to chopping as fast as you
But the very next moment I proved he was            But I‘m also in charge of the Brown bar-ba-loots
wrong                                               who played in the shade in their Bar-ba-loot suits
For, just at that minute, a chap came along,        and happily lived, eating Truffula Fruits.
and he thought that the Thneed I had knitted was
great.                                              ―NOW… thanks to your hacking my trees to the
He happily bought it for three-ninety-eight.        ground,
                                                    there‘s not enoug Truffula Fruit to go ‗round.
I laughed at the Lorax, ―you poor stupid guy!       And my poor Bar-ba-loots are all getting the
You never can tell what some people will buy.‖      crummies
                                                    because they have gas, and no food, in their
―I repeat, ― cried the Lorax,                       tummies!

They loved living here. But I can‘t let them stay.   You‘re glumping the pond where the Humming-
They‘ll have to find food. And I hope that they      fish hummed! No more can they hum, for their
may.                                                 gills are all gummed. So I‘m sending them off.
Good luck, boys,‖ he cried. And he sent them         Oh, their future is dreary. They‘ll walk on their
away.                                                fins and get woefully weary in search of some
                                                     water that isn‘t so smeary.
I, the Once-ler, felt sad                            I hear things are just as bad up in Lake Erie.‖
as I watched them all go.                            And then I got mad.
BUT…                                                 I got terribly mad.
business is business!                                I yelled at the Lorax, ―Now listen here, Dad! All
And business must grow                               you do is yap-yap and say, ‗Bad! Bad! Bad!
regardless of crummies in tummies, you know.         Bad!
                                                     Well, I have my rights, sir, and I‘m telling you I
I meant no harm. I most truly did not.               intend to go on doing just what I do! And for
But I had to grow bigger, so bigger I got.           your information, you Lorax, I‘m figgering on
I biggered my factory. I biggered my roads.          biggering and biggering and biggering and
I biggered my factory. I biggered the loads          biggering, turning more Truffula Trees into
of the Thneeds I shipped out. I was shipping         Thneeds which everyone, everyone, everyone
them forth                                           needs!
to the South, To the East! To the West! To the
North!                                               And at that very moment, we heard a loud
I went on biggering… selling more Thneeds.           whack!
And I biggered my money, which everyone              From out side in the fields came a sickening
needs.                                               smack
Then again he came back! I was fixing some           of an axe on a tree. Then we heard the tree fall.
pipes                                                The very last Truffula Tree of them all!
when that old-nuisance Lorax came back with
more gripes.                                         No more trees. No more Thneeds. No more
                                                     work to be done. So, in no time, my uncles and
―I am the Lorax,‖ he coughed and he whiffed.         aunts, every one, all waved me good-bye. They
He sneezed and he snuffed. He snarggled. He          jumped in to my cars drove away under the
sniffed.                                             smoke-smuggered stars.
―Once-ler!‖ He cried with a cruffulous croak.
―Once-ler! You‘re making such a smogulous            Now all that‘s left ‗neath the bad-smelling sky
smoke! My poor Swomme-Swans… why, they               was my big empty factory…
can‘t sing a note!                                   the Lorax…
No one can sing who has smog in his throat.          and I.

―And so,‖ said the Lorax,                            The Lorax said nothing. Just gave me a
―—please pardon my cough—                            glance…
they cannot live here.                                just gave me a sad, sad backward glance…
So I‘m sending them off.                             And I‘ll never forget the grim look on his face
                                                     when he heisted himself and took leave of this
―Where will they go?…                                place, through a hole in the smog, without
I don‘t hopefully know.                              leaving a trace.

They may have to fly for a month… or a year…         And all that the Lorax left here in this mess was
To escape from the smog you‘ve smogged up            a small pile of rocks, with one word…
around here.                                         ―UNLESS.‖ Whatever that meant, well, I just
―What‘s more,‖ snapped the Lorax. (His dander        couldn‘t guess.
was up.) ―Let me say a few words about
Glippity-Glupp. Your machinery chugs on, day         That was long, long ago.
and night without stop making Glippity-Glupp.        But each day since that day I‘ve sat here and
Also Schloppity-Schopp. And what do you do           worried and worried away. Through the years,
with this leftover goo?… I‘ll show you. You          while my buildings have fallen apart, I‘ve
dirty old Once-ler man, you!                         worried about it with all of my heart.

                                                             ―It‘s a Truffula Seed.
―But now,‖ says the Once-ler                                 It‘s the last one of all!
―Now that you‘re here, the word of the Lorax                 You‘re in charge of the last of the Truffula
seems perfectly clear.                                       Seeds.
UNLESS some one like you cares a whole awful                 And Truffula Trees are what everyone needs.
lot, nothing is going to get better.                         Plant a new Truffula. Treat it with care.
It‘s not.                                                    Give it clean water. And feed it fresh air.
                                                             Grow a forest. Protect it from axes that hack.
―SO…                                                         Then the Lorax and all of his friends may come
Catch!‖ calls the Once-ler.                                  back.
He lets something fall.

Seeds for Thought

Obviously, this poem is more than just a kid‘s story. Who do you think the Once-ler represents in real life?
The Lorax? Do you feel the story accurately reflects how we treat our environment today?

Most big-business interests in this country admit that the environment is important, but its importance must
be put in perspective with the importance of the growth of the economy. Where in the poem is this attitude
reflected? Where does this ―biggered and biggered and bigered and biggered‖ approach eventually lead?

The public agencies that are in charge of most of our remaining wilderness (the USFS and the BLM)
generally refer to wild lands as ―resource areas,‖ and trees specifically as ―timber resources.‖ How would
you define the word, ―resource?‖ What implications does the word have and how do you feel that is
reflected in Forest Service policy regarding logging, mining, grazing and other industrial uses of public

Things like pristine mountains, lakes, and forests have intrinsic value for many of us. This means they
have value being just the way they are naturally, outside of an arbitrary dollar value (not processed,
packaged, marketed, and sold in the ―global marketplace‖). Is there any place you know about you
wouldn‘t sell at any price?


Divide the crew into three or four groups. Each group represents a generation (children, teens, parents,
grandparents). Put a bowl full of gorp in the center of the discussion circle. Tell the crew that this gorp
represents all of the earth‘s resources. Designate also what ―resources‖ are renewable and non-renewable.
Starting with the oldest generation, each group takes what they feel their generation needs and takes it from the
bowl, keeping in mind that some of these resources are renewable and others are non-renewable. Chances are
the crew will empty the bowl.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                 Yes      No        Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

What Type Of Person Are You?

There are several different things that make up the person that we are. Different things like what are family
structures is like, what type of positive and negative people are in are life, what we like to do on our free
time and the list can go on and on. What it all comes down to is what type of person we want to be and
how we present ourselves to others.

Figuring out what type of person you are is evolving process. Why do you think this is? One of the main
reasons we are always changing is every day we encounter different experiences then the day before.
These experiences don‘t have to be anything big to change the way of think or look at things. Just one
person coming up to you and giving you a friendly smile when you are having a bad day can give you hope
for that moment. It is important in life to reflect on your different day-to-day experiences and see what you
can take away from them.

All of these different factors help mold the way we think. Take a moment and think of what values are
important to you. Now think of what people or experiences helped form that value.


Take out a piece of paper and draw a house that represents the person that you are. Just like every house
this house should include a foundation, windows, door, supporting frame and an attic. Once you draw your
house, label the following:

           Foundation =     Write down your morals and beliefs that you live by.

           Door = Write down what you first tell new acquaintances about yourself.

           Windows =        Write down what are you proud of that you want everyone to

           Supporting Frame =         Write down the names of friends and family who
                                      really support you.

           Attic = Write down facts about yourself you keep hidden from those you
                    are just getting to know and sometimes even good friends. If you
                    are uncomfortable writing this down, just think of it inside your

Once everyone has labeled all the key components of their house, go around the circle one house
component at a time and share the answers. The only part of the house that it should not be mandatory to
share is the attic.

Seeds for Thought

Some good questions to ask are:
How do you feel that core belief was installed in you?
Did you work hard to achieve that goal?
What do you feel you are the most proud of?
When you first meet someone, why don‘t you share all of your personal info.?

A Community Issue

Vandalism is the willful destruction or defacement of public or private property. This includes smashing
mailboxes, trashing someone's property, drawing graffiti on public places, breaking windows, and
destroying abandoned buildings. Vandalism costs schools, homeowners, businesses, youth, and others more
than $15 billion a year.
This activity is somewhat of a trick you can play on the rest of the crew. As such, do not let them know what
the seed is about quite yet.
 It seems, for some strange reason, that many teens feel an irresistible urge to destroy or deface various
structures in their community. They spray paint, steal, smash, throw eggs at, and cover with toilet paper all
sorts of things around town, seemingly with little or no motive. Perhaps it‘s an effort to be noticed. Maybe
these youths don‘t feel connected with society and need to lash out in some way. Probably, there‘s not even
that much thought involved. (Along the lines of, ―huh, huh, cool!‖)

Of course, all of these wacky antics would just be written off as harmless teenage fun if the stuff that gets
trashed didn‘t belong to someone. Sure it sounds preachy, but it‘s still the truth that business and home
owners try hard to keep their property clean and presentable, and that by defacing them, you cause an
actual person grief and extra work. Even worse, vandals create a lot of bad feelings around town, and
cause the victimized merchants to distrust all young people, regardless of if they had anything to do with
vandalism or not.

As you know, your crew is a small model of a community, in that the actions of one can easily affect the well-
being of the many. Say, if someone forgets the lunch pack, for example. What if your crew were beset by
vandals? You have a hard enough time keeping stuff working as it is, right?


Pretend that you are running a pioneering (knots, camp gadgets, etc.) Seed. Split the crew into two groups.
Have one group, with the help of a knowledgeable leader, go build a nice camp gadget (dish station, latrine, or
whatever). Tell the whole group that the other half will come improve the structure as soon as they work on
some more knots. Take this other group aside.

As you pretend to work on knots, let this group know what‘s really going on. They will be the vandals, and
their job will be to destroy what the first group makes. So, when the first group finishes their creation, have the
second group vandalize their creation and taunt the other crewmembers. When disorder and conflict result,
have the police (you) arrive.

As the law, you sit everyone down, and find out what happened. Ask the vandals why they did what they
did, and the victims how they felt about having their structure trashed by a bunch of teenage punks. What
should the vandals do to repay their debt to society?

Seeds for Thought

How does this relate to life in town? Have you ever had your property vandalized? How did that make you

Have you ever vandalized anything? Who do you think cleans up the mess you make? Is that the person
you wanted to piss off? Why, in retrospect, did you do it? Was it worth it?

Problem Solving Via Participatory Theater

Most people know that the terms ―racism,‖ ―sexism,‖ and ―bigotry‖ represent unacceptable attitudes in our
multicultural society, but do we really know what they mean? If we did, it would seem that discrimination
would disappear overnight. Unfortunately, it‘s very much still around, probably even on your crew!
Below are some sample scenarios that represent realistic discriminatory situations. (Feel free to replace
them with real ones from your crew.)

Take a few crewmembers aside, brief them on these or other scenarios, and have them act them out for the rest
of the crew. Though they‘re not acting, the spectators must remain sharp, because it‘s their job to jump in the
moment they see racist or sexist activity going on, by booing, hissing, and carrying on. After each skit, have
the crew explain what went on, how each character must have felt, and how such conflict could have been
avoided. The actors then replay the scenario, taking into account the wise advice of their peers, in way where
the conflict is avoided or resolved.

One. Your crew has become a great team and everyone participates equally in all your projects. One day the
crew is constructing a trail and a tree is blocking the direction the trail should lead. Jimmy Ray and Sally get to
the tree first. When Sally tries to move the tree, Jimmy Ray laughs at her and tells her to wait for the guys.
Sally says she can do it, and continues struggling with the tree. Dave just keeps laughing and tells her girls are
too weak to do that sort of work.

Two. Your crew is taking a break and telling each other jokes. Everyone is laughing and having a good time.
Rhonda starts telling a ―nigger, spic, and kike‖ joke that Fred realizes is very racist. Fred mentions this to
Rhonda, but she only continues to tell the joke, further spiting Fred. Fred repeats his displeasure, and Rhonda
tells him that jokes like the one she‘s telling are funny because they‘re true.

Three. Bob has a habit of referring to people by nicknames (Hey Joe! Joearino!, The Joemeister!) One day on
the trail he starts calling Nancy ―honey‖. This bothers her, but she doesn‘t say anything. A little later, Bob is
talking to some of the female members of the crew, but referring to them as ―chic‖, ―toots‖ and ―babe‖. He also
never seems to get tired of a stupid joke regarding his hazel hoe.

Four. Lisa and Jeff are working next to each other and she accidentally bumps into him. When she apologizes,
Jeff leers at her and says in a suggestive tone, ―You can bump into me anytime.‖ Later, she notices Jeff
working closer and closer to her on the trail. When she asks him to ―get out of her dime‖ he only looks at her
and smiles goofily.

Five. Cindy and George are working on the trail. Cindy gets to a big rock. Before trying to move it, she calls
George over to help her. He comes over, gets a good bite with his pick, and starts heaving away at the rock.
When he looks up, Cindy is just standing there. He asks her if she is going to help, but she replies that he ought
to be able to move it himself, since he is a man.

Six. The crew is hanging around camp after all duties are done. Quincy notices that Ted is wearing some
really out-of-style skater shoes. He starts teasing him about them in front of the crew. When Quincy notices
he‘s getting a few laughs, he continues and broadens his attack, making fun of Ted‘s cheap clothes and that he‘s
from a poor family. Ted tries to ignore him, but it doesn‘t help.

 Seven. Vince is a new crewmember who has a high voice and is slight of build. Jen knows Vince from town
and also knows that Vince‘s brother is gay. She tells anyone this who will listen, and starts calling Vince a
―fairy‖ and a ―pansy-assed faggot‖. Jen tells Vince that the crew doesn‘t need ―his kind‖ in their crew and he
should be doing hairstyling, not trail work.

   A Controversial Topic

A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear
arms shall not be infringed.
                                               -Amendment 2, U.S. Constitution

Guns don’t kill people, people kill people.
                                                -Slogan, National Rifle Association

Here are some current statistics on handguns:

During 1997, about 69,000 out of an estimated 2,671,000 applications for the purchase of handgun were
rejected due to presale background checks of potential purchasers; domestic violence misdemeanor
convictions accounted for over 9 percent of the rejections, and domestic violence restraining orders, 2
percent. (Bureau of JusticeStatistics. (1998, June). "Presale Handgun Statistics, 1997." Bulletin.
Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.)
Americans own between 60-65 million handguns -- 1 of every 3 privately owned guns. (Firearm
production, import and export data from BATF; criminologist Gary Kleck, Targeting Guns [1997] and the
American Firearms Industry; and survey data from James D. Wright, et al., Under the Gun [1986])
Handguns are used for protection against criminals nearly two million times per year, up to five times more
often than to commit crimes. ("The Frequency of Defensive Gun Use," in Don B. Kates and Gary Kleck,
The Great American Gun Debate [1997])
One of every four households has one or more handguns. (Analysis of surveys,Gary Kleck, Targeting Guns
Washington, D.C.'s homicide rate more than tripled after the city banned handguns. D.C. consistently has
the highest homicide rate among major U.S. cities. (FBI)

Seeds for Thought

The constitutional right to keep and bear arms is, as most parts of the constitution are, open to a great deal
of interpretation. The framers of the constitution placed Amendment 2 in the Bill of Rights in order to
prevent tyranny by allowing for an armed populace (the idea being that the people could then overthrow the
government when it got out of line) How do you think this applies to today‘s society?

Common Pro-Gun Arguments                                                                     Check If You Agree
Handguns protect us from government tyranny
Handguns help us make our homes safer from criminals
Handguns make our streets safer
Gun control would have no effect on homicide rates
―Guns don‘t kill people, people kill people‖

Common Anti-Gun Arguments                                                                    Check If You Agree
More times than guns make homes safer, they make them more dangerous
With guns readily available, they are easy to use in acts of rage
Guns increase the likelihood of lethal accidents
Guns teach children violence is OK

American society is undoubtedly a mishmash of conflicting messages. Even though Hollywood tells us
through action movies that violent conflict is one of the only ways to solve problems decisively, we learn
through experience that fighting generally only results in increased bad blood and trouble with the authorities.
As we change from minors to adults, the consequences become more severe. A scrap in the parking lot
changes suddenly from a matter between two idiots to fines, jail time, and decreased employment opportunities.

Worse, the unparalleled availability of handguns in the U.S. adds a more serious aspect to our already violent
society. Hundreds of kids are killed each year over petty arguments that formerly only resulted in ―oh yeah?
Well my dad could beat the hell out of your dad!‖

Fighting is a failure to communicate, because once people start fighting, neither listens to the other. It fails to
resolve conflict because it instills only bitterness and vengeance in the loser and a belief in violence in the
victor. It fails as a human action, since we are the only animals capable of solving conflict with our intellects.
We are capable of so much more than brute force.
Violent crimes included are homicide, rape, robbery, and both simple and aggravated assault.
Violent crime rate per 1,000 persons in age group
          Age of victim
Year      12-15       16-19      20-24       25-34 35-49       50-64       65
1990      101.1       99.1       86.1        55.2     34.4     9.9         3.7
1991      94.5        122.6      103.6       54.3     37.2     12.5        4.0
1992      111.0       103.7      95.2        56.8     38.1     13.2        5.2
1993      115.5       114.2      91.6        56.9     42.5     15.2        5.9
1994      118.6       123.9      100.4       59.1     41.3     17.6        4.6
1995      113.1       106.6      85.8        58.5     35.7     12.9        6.4
1996      95.0        102.8      74.5        51.2     32.9     15.7        4.9
1997      87.9        96.3       68.0        47.0     32.3     14.6        4.4
1998      82.5        91.3       67.5        41.6     29.9     15.4        2.8
1999      74.4        77.5       68.7        36.4     25.3     14.4        3.8
2000      60.1        64.4       49.5        34.9     21.9     13.7        3.7
2001      55.1        55.9       44.9        29.4     23.0     9.5         3.2
2002      44.4        58.3       47.6        26.4     18.2     10.7        3.4
2003      51.6        53.1       43.5        26.5     18.6     10.3        2.0
Sources: Rape, robbery, and assault data are from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS). The
homicide data are collected by the FBI's Uniform Crime Reports (CUR) (Supplementary Homicide
Reports) from reports from law enforcement agencies. Homicide estimates for 2003 are based on 2003
Preliminary Annual Release data.
Some facts to ponder:
In 2001, 5,486 young people ages 10 to 24 were murdered an average of 15 each day (CDC 2004).
In a nationwide survey, 17% of students reported carrying a weapon (e.g., gun, knife, or club) on one or
more days in the 30 days preceding the survey (Grunbaum et al. 2004).
Among students nationwide, 33% reported being in a physical fight one or more times in the 12 months
preceding the survey (Grunbaum et al. 2004).
Of the 5,486 homicides reported in the 10 to 24 age group in 2001, 85% (4,659) were males and 15% (827)
were females (CDC 2004).

Seeds For Thought
Ask if anyone on the crew has a story to share in which violence was chosen to solve a conflict. Was the
problem solved? How did the resolution affect the relationships involved? If you were the ―winner‖, how did
you feel? If you were the ―loser‖, how did you feel? What are some alternatives you could have used to make
all parties satisfied?

―Dating‖ has changed much in recent years, so much so that the term ―date‖ is more or less obsolete. We grope
for the right terms: going out? Seeing each other? Hanging out? An ―item‖? A ―thing‖? With the changing
traditions, many of us feel a little lost on how to behave when we feel attracted to a certain man or woman. We
have no role models: what our parents tell us and what we see on TV is often different. It‘s embarrassing to ask
a friend; they‘ll think we‘re inexperienced.

How do you ask somebody out for the first time? Ask him or her out with a bunch of friends? Corner them at
a party? Ask them to go snowboarding with you? Just go for it, and do the time-honored dinner and a movie?

Once on the date, how do you maintain your cool? How do you not make an ass of yourself? What do you do
to make yourself look cool and attractive? What do you wear? What do you do on the date?

Towards the end of a date or date-like experience, how do you make your intentions known? How do you
break out of the ―just friends‖ category? How do you get him or her to go out with you again?

When does sex enter the picture, if at all? Is it sudden, or do you talk about it first? How do you know the
other person is into it. What if you don‘t have protection?

Seeds for Thought

Get some volunteers (voluntary or no) to role play various scenes in the ―dating process‖. Everybody
(including crew leaders) has to do at least one scenario. These can be recreations of actual events! Also, feel
free to design your own situation.

Walking up to somebody you‘ve admired from afar and starting a conversation.
Nonchalantly asking a special someone out. You think of the occasion.
You‘re talking to the apple of your eye at a party when some klutz spills his non-alcoholic daiquiri down the
front of your shirt. Play it cool…
The check comes at Riggio‘s. Who pays? Why?
You want to make your romantic intentions known. Bust a move!
You‘re in the driveway, dropping him or her off. You want to go out again.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                Yes       No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Relationships can be wonderful things, but they are tricky and take a lot of work.
Here are some guidelines of healthy and unhealthy relationships.

      Is your relationship healthy?

HEALTHY RELATIONSHIP- This is a good dating relationship for now.
     Both are feeling good about self, feel good individually whether in a relationship or not, shared
        interests, shared power and decision making, shared values
     Normal ups & downs, lots more ups than downs
     Can disagree and solve problems without verbal or physical abuse
     Relationship is one part of a well-rounded life of friends, family, school, sports, hobbies, spiritual
     Both enjoy the company of other people and support individual interests and friendships of their
UNHEALTHY RELATIONSHIP- This may have been a good thing once, but is no longer a well-balanced
and enjoyable dating relationship- it is time to cut the ties to this relationship and move on...
     One or both are not enjoying the relationship much - lots of drama or boredom, not much fun
     Not many shared interests or values, or differ on important interests and values
     Can disagree and solve problems fairly, but there are a lot of disagreements and problems
     One partner sees relationship as much more important than the other one does- one is getting "too
        serious" or too dependent
     One partner has violated trust or hurt the other in a way that is hard to repair
     Have just grown apart- not very interested in each other any more- its more of a habit than
        anything else
     Feel sadness, hurt, anger, and failure about breaking up, but open to the possibility of new
     ABUSIVE RELATIONSHIP- Alarm bells going off. Someone is getting hurt and will probably
        need help with safety planning and support in order to safely break up.
     One has decreasing self-esteem since entering this relationship.
     The interests, values, desires of one person dominate the relationship.
     One is using name-calling, threats, intimidation, insults, manipulation, physical or sexual abuse to
        force the other one to do things.
     One or both are becoming more secretive and isolated from family, friends, and social activities,
     One feels entitled to be in control, decide how things will be, get his or her own way all the time,
        wants the other to agree and comply.
     Abuser often says, "I am sorry, it will never happen again" but then is abusive again.
     One person feels more afraid, is hurt physically or emotionally, adjusts behavior to accommodate
        the other, is "walking on eggshells" not to upset the other. The other may be monitoring or
        stalking to know every move.
     One is afraid to break-up, the other "won't let" partner leave.

Seeds For Thought

Think of some of your past relationships, which categories did they fall under? If you know someone who
is in a unhealthy or abusive relationship, what are some of the warning signs that you have seen? How do
you think you could help a friend or family member who is an unhealthy or abusive relationship? What are
some things you could do to keep a relationship healthy?

It is better to have loved and lost than to have never loved at all. ~ Alfred Lord Tennyson
Everybody had different thoughts on what love really is. Go around the circle and have each person, crew
and crew leaders, give one example of what true love is. Make sure to brief the crew on being respectful of
each other‘s opinions and feelings. After every one has gone. Go around the circle and have each person
give one quality that they feel they would find in an ―ideal‖ significant other.

Seeds for Thought

1. Do I know this person will always be there for me?
2. Does this person treat me with love, respect, and admiration?
3. Is this someone I could see myself marrying?
4. Am I having sex for the "right" reasons?
5. Have I decided with my partner about how we are going to protect against unintended pregnancy and
6. Are we both going to share responsibility and support if I do get pregnant?
7. If we break up, will I feel guilty for having sex?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes      No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Few issues involve teenagers more directly than abortion. With the high rate of pregnancy among young
people, the abortion debate has a big impact on young people‘s day-to-day lives and their future.

As a result, many teens are determined to make their voices heard. Some believe that abortion is morally
wrong or just plain murder. Others believe the decision of whether or not to have an abortion should be up to
the woman. Still others maintain that a woman‘s right to an abortion should depend on the circumstances of
conception: for example, if she was raped, or her health endangered by the pregnancy.

No matter which side of the debate you are on, understanding the consequences of a pregnancy beforehand
should prepare you for whatever choice you might need to make. The decision of whether or not to have an
abortion is not to be taken lightly, just as a choice to be a teen mother is no easy matter. Both are decisions
that require much thought, commitment, time, money, and emotional stress.

Seeds for Thought

Where to you stand on the abortion issue and why? When do you think an abortion is inappropriate or

Opponents of abortion, such as the radical group ―Operation Rescue‖ use tactics like blockading clinics with
their bodies, harassing women going in or out of Planned Parenthood, and marching with signs depicting
aborted fetuses. Some extremists have even murdered doctors who perform abortions. Do you think these
methods are effective? If you were fanatically against abortion, what methods would you use?

Discuss the following bumper sticker slogans. What do they mean? What key issues in the abortion debate do
they represent?

*It‘s a child, not a choice.                  *Keep your laws off my body!
*Abortion is murder!                                  *If you can‘t trust me with a choice,
*Abortion stops a beating heart.              * How can you trust me with a child?
*Pro-child, Pro-family, Pro-choice!

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?               Yes       No        Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

―The new face of AIDS worldwide is the face of teenaged girls‖, the director of Adolescent AIDS Program in
the Bronx, New York, says… the number of 13- to 21- year olds in the United States who have become
infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has risen by 77% in the last 2 years. In this age
group, half of the transmission of the virus occurs through heterosexual intercourse.

―If you don‘t think AIDS has come to the young people in your community,‖ the director continues, ―let‘s look
at sexually transmitted diseases. Teenagers have the highest rate of STD‘s in any age group. It‘s true for
gonorrhea, syphilis, and chlamydia. Why is it that people don‘t see it will soon be true for HIV?‖

Today‘s teenagers could be described as ― the first AID‘s generation‖, since they were born when the
disease was first detected in the United States 16 years ago. Though they were born in this time of great
danger, they are as sexually active as any generation before them, yet not really any more educated about
the dangers they face. Add to this the deluge of conflicting messages they receive from the TV- where sex
is used to sell things as non-erotic instant coffee- and it‘s not hard to understand why many teens make
unsafe decisions.

Although American teenagers are open and matter-of-fact about sexual matters, their parents and teachers have
problems teaching them anything about sexual behavior. ―If HIV were transmitted by a handshake, every
parent in America would sit their kids down and teach them to put on a latex glove. But latex condoms on
genitals? That‘s different…‖
-excerpted from: Journal of the American Medical Association. July 7, 1993. pp.16-19

Seeds for Thought

What do you think about being labeled ―the first AIDS generation‖? Do you feel there is any chance you might
contract AIDS?

Go around the circle and have everyone say one thing they know for sure about AIDS. How much did you
discover your group really knows about the subject? How much misinformation did you bring to light?

Ronald Reagan, when AIDS was first detected, was rumored to have dubbed it ―the gay plague‖. How has
AIDS‘ connection with homosexuality affected how the public has dealt with it? How politicians deal with
it? Do you, or people you know, still think of AIDS in this way?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes      No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Just about everyone knows that the surest way to avoid getting a sexually transmitted disease is to not have sex.
We‘ve all heard it a million times from adults, and chuckled as we see in their faces how extremely
uncomfortable talking about sex at all is making them. Unfortunately, sweeping the problem under the rug
hasn‘t proved to be a very effective solution. Telling teens not to have sex and expecting them to meekly obey,
as our society has for time immemorial, generally has the opposite effect; it spurs curiosity and offers the appeal
of the forbidden fruit.

Thus, over the clamor of conservatives nationwide, it seems a wise idea in these times of rapidly spreading
STDs to increase our knowledge of other ways to lower the risk of sexually transmitted diseases.
Most people know that birth control helps limit the risk of STDs, such as AIDS. What many might not know is
that only one form- latex condoms- are reasonably effective in doing so (though not 100%). This is because
condoms are the only form of birth control that completely eliminates contact between blood, semen, and
vaginal fluids- all of which can carry bacteria and viruses.

The total number of people diagnosed with AIDS in the USA is fast approaching one million. This total
increases by more than 40,000 each year. The Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC) estimates
that there are 800,000 to 900,000 people currently living with HIV/AIDS in the United States. The number
of people specifically living with AIDS in the United States has been increasing in recent years: from
approximately 290,400 in 1998 to approximately 406,000 in 2003. Around half of all people diagnosed
with AIDS were probably infected with HIV through male-to-male sexual contact, while people exposed
through heterosexual contact comprise around 16% of the total. However, since the beginning of the
epidemic, the number of heterosexual infections has increased dramatically. According to CDC estimates,
heterosexual contact led to about one third of new AIDS diagnoses and one third of new HIV diagnoses in
2003. More than 18% of all adults and adolescents diagnosed with AIDS have been female. Among new
AIDS diagnoses in 2003, and among new HIV diagnoses, this proportion was 27%. Of the estimated 9,419
children under 13 years of age who have been diagnosed with AIDS, 8,749 (93%) were infected with HIV
through mother-to-child transmission.

Seeds for Thought

Some could argue that all of the above is common knowledge and it boring to talk about. If this is the case,
why is the HIV virus and other STDs spreading so rapidly? Why do you think people refuse to wear

In Sweden, sex ed begins in preschool, as opposed to the United States, where only 15% of schools have a
comprehensive health education program, and only a few of those provide AID‘s education. Why do you
think, in this supposedly ―sexually liberated‖ society, that people still have a hard time talking about sex? Why
do you think so many people want to stop the discussion at ―abstinence is the only answer‖? Do you feel sex
education has helped you make better choices about sex? What role does religion play in this debate?

Have the crew come up with a radical new plan to wipe out AIDs and STDs in Routt County. Would it involve
more freely available condoms? More education? Earlier education? What would be some obstacles in your
implementing your plan? Who would oppose you and how would you get around them?

Having a sexual experience with another person is a very powerful act of love. As such, it is an experience
that can take place only if both people involved have each other‘s consent. This mutual agreement cannot
be taken lightly. There is nothing cool or sexy about having sex with someone without his or her approval.
No matter how intimate a relationship you may have with someone, sexual contact is not appropriate or
enjoyable without a mutual understanding.

If you do make sexual contact or inappropriate advances towards another person without their consent, not
only do you emotionally scar another person, but run the risk of spending time in jail. Worse, you earn the
reputation of a rapist, and lose the trust of many you might like to get to know. Jobs would be very hard to
find, and in some states, you‘d be required to inform all of your neighbors about your sordid past.

Sex and love are not the same, so be sure you know the difference. Just because you and someone else are
in love, does not mean that you are forever committed to sex at any time.

Before you and your partner have sex, be sure to talk about it, and that both of you are ready. Even if you and
your partner have had sexual contact with each other in the past (even if you are man and wife, for that matter),
the mutual agreement must be understood before the next sexual contact is made. Remember: no always means

A big part of having a mature relationship is communication. If you communicate with your loved one, you
can avoid many problems and misunderstandings. You definitely do not want to misunderstand your partner
when it comes to sex. Take the time to talk it over. You owe it to the both of you. Search our database by
Health Topic or enter you
What are date rape drugs?
These are drugs that are sometimes used to assist a sexual assault. Sexual assault is any type of sexual
activity that a person does not agree to. It can include inappropriate touching, vaginal penetration, sexual
intercourse, rape, and attempted rape. Because of the effects of these drugs, victims may be physically
helpless, unable to refuse sex, and can't remember what happened. The drugs often have no color, smell, or
taste and are easily added to flavored drinks without the victim's knowledge. There are at least three date
rape drugs:

*        GHB (gamma hydroxybutyric acid)
*        Rohypnol (flunitrazepam)
*        Ketamine (ketamine hydrochloride)

Although we use the term "date rape," most experts prefer the term "drug-facilitated sexual assault." These
drugs have been used to help people commit other crimes, like robbery and physical assault, and have been
used on both men and women.

What do the drugs look like?

*GHB has a few forms: a liquid with no odor or color, white powder, and pill.
*Rohypnol is a pill and dissolves in liquids. New pills turn blue when added to liquids. However, the old
pills, with no color, are still available.
*Ketamine is a white powder.

What effects do these drugs have on the body?
The drugs can affect you quickly. The length of time that the effects last varies. It depends on how much of
the drug is taken and if the drug is mixed with other substances, like alcohol. Alcohol can worsen the drug's
effects and can cause more health problems. Also, one drug — GHB — can be made by people in their
homes, so you don't know what's in it.

GHB can cause these problems:                                *         drunk feeling
                                                             *         nausea
*         relaxation                                         *         problems talking
*         drowsiness                                         *         difficulty with motor movements
*         dizziness                                          *         loss of consciousness
*         nausea                                             *         confusion
*         problems seeing                                    *         problems seeing
*         unconsciousness (black out)                        *         dizziness
*         seizures                                           *         confusion
*         can't remember what happened while                 *         stomach problems
*         problems breathing                                 Ketamine can cause these problems:
*         tremors
*         sweating                                           *         hallucinations
*         vomiting                                           *         lost sense of time and identity
*         slow heart rate                                    *         distorted perceptions of sight and sound
*         dream-like feeling                                 *         feeling out of control
*         coma                                               *         impaired motor function
*         death                                              *         problems breathing
                                                             *         convulsions
Rohypnol can cause these problems:                           *         vomiting
                                                             *         out of body experiences
*         can't remember what happened while                 *         memory problems
drugged                                                      *         dream-like feeling
*         lower blood pressure                               *         numbness
*         sleepiness                                         *         loss of coordination
*         muscle relaxation or loss of muscle                *         aggressive or violent behavior

Is alcohol a date rape drug?
While GHB, rohypnol, and ketamine are considered "date rape drugs," there are other drugs that affect
judgment and behavior, and can put a person at risk for unwanted or risky sexual activity. Alcohol is one of
those drugs. When a person is drinking alcohol:

*         It's harder to think clearly and evaluate a potentially dangerous situation.
*         It's harder to resist sexual or physical assault.
*         Drinking too much alcohol can also cause black-outs and memory loss.

But remember: even if a victim of sexual assault drank alcohol, he or she is NOT at fault for being

Seeds for Thought

What do you think about date rape? What actions invite it? What are ways to avoid such a sexually
compromising situation?

Do you feel that sex is the only way to express your love, feelings, or commitment to another person? What are
some other ways?

Have you been in a situation where you felt you had to have sex, even though you didn‘t want to? What did
you do about it?

Have you known anyone who has been a victim of date rape? Were drugs a factor? How did the victim react?
How should you or people you care about react in a similar situation?

Certainly, there is virtually nobody left in our country that is unaware of the health risks of smoking. The
warnings are everywhere: on TV, in school, on billboards, even on the packs of cigarettes themselves. It‘s
common knowledge; smoking causes lung cancer, stunts growth, severely limits cardio-vascular ability, and is
harmful to the unborn. We don‘t need science to tell us this, either. We need merely observe a heavy smoker
we know (maybe somebody on the crew?) to confirm tobacco‘s debilitating effects.

With the negatives so obvious, the immediate question we have is; why, then would anyone ever want to do it?
Tobacco contains the drug nicotine, which delivers a pleasant stimulant effect- this could be a reason. The
same drug is also highly addictive (more so than heroin) which certainly explains why people have a hard time
stopping once they start. But what‘s the real hook to get people interested in the first place? There‘s a lot of
different fancy sociological terms to explain it, but in simple English, it‘s that smoking is cool.

Being cool is an inevitable motivation of being human. Nobody really wants to be singled out for ridicule: we
all have a strong drive to fit in. We all want to feel sophisticated, cultured, and just a little superior to our
fellow humans. Research shows that people whose parents smoke have a much greater chance of picking up
the habit themselves. And, in a society where the home life is being increasingly replaced by time spent with
peers, people are very likely to smoke if their friends smoke.

Seeds for Thought

Smokers, is the above analysis at all on target? How did you start? Tell us a story about the first cigarette you
ever smoked. Why do you continue? Do you feel that smoking is actually bad for you, or are the warnings just
blowing everything out of proportion?

Surely, most of you have heard the tired old ―peer pressure‖ argument, but as poorly portrayed as the theory has
been in ABC After School Specials, there might be a kernel of truth within it. Smokers, would you think to dry
out the leaves of a weird stinky plant, crush them, roll them in thin paper, light them on fire, and breathe the
resulting smoke all by yourself? Probably not. Somebody had to teach you how to do it. Would you do it if
had a more serious social stigma to it, like picking your nose?

On the other hand, what if picking your nose was all the rage? Have a little play where some of the crew,
playing the ―in‖ crowd, are all standing around picking their noses. Another group of kids walks up and asks
what they‘re doing and if somebody has a spare designer nose picker they could borrow. A ―nerd‖ starts
pointing out the health risks of heavy picking, and the ―in‖ crowd has to defend their habit, saying how geeks
like him just don‘t understand.

Non-smokers, what are some unhealthy habits you have? Have the smokers turn it around on you and ask you
how you started, why you don‘t quit, and so on? Does this help you understand people who smoke a little

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                 Yes       No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?


Marijuana has been a thorn in the side of drug enforcement officials ever since its criminalization in 1939. The
problem lies in the fact that although the drug is illegal, it is immensely popular and therefore almost impossible
to stop. We are a nation endlessly fascinated with quick ways to make a buck; with such a large market
available, there is no way that somebody is not going to capitalize on it. Further complicating the situation is
the hypocrisy surrounding the effects of the drug. Daily, millions of dollars of cigarettes are peddled legally, at
a far greater health risk to the general public. Marijuana, on the other hand, has few known health risks and is
subject to active prohibition by the government. The authorities no doubt lose a certain amount of respect from
the people for such seemingly arbitrary decision-making. Could not the government stop wasting so much
money on the futile ―war on drugs‖, and instead profit from taxing marijuana sales?

However, one must consider the price of the alternative: legalization. Though marijuana has few negative
physical side effects, the psychological effects of a pot abuser are worth considering. Long-time pot users are
often unmotivated, slow-witted, and more than a little interested in staying high as much as possible.
Politically, it seems a little scary, too. Do we really want an American people more stoned and apathetic than
we already are? The way it is now makes pot harder to come by: is it wise to facilitate abusive behavior by
making marijuana freely available? Would this just make it easier for kids to get high?

Seeds for Thought

Why do you think certain drugs, like nicotine and alcohol, are legal, while marijuana is illegal? How might
tobacco companies and liquor distributors influence lawmakers? How does money come into the picture?

What effects does pot have on your friends who use it a lot? Do you feel it is totally harmless, as legalization
advocates argue?

Say pot was to become legal. Split the group into a few different groups. One represents a new marijuana
distributing company who needs to advertise their product. Have them design an ad on a piece of paper
and explain how they would try to reach their customers. Another group represents the government. They
need to devise laws concerning where pot could be sold, a ―smoking age‖, how much to tax it, and the like.
Another group could be a social service group. They need to predict the problems of a dopey society and
decide what they will do to help those it might hurt. Have the groups meet separately for twenty minutes or
so, then come back and share what they‘ve come up with to the group? Does it look like legalization will
A variation on the above would be the re-institution of Prohibition (of alcohol). Another could be the banning
of tobacco. Go with the same groups to work out these different plans.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                 Yes       No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Thursday, May 19, 2005
Fueling Young Students' Appreciation of Hard Work and Citizenship
                              Founded in 1989, the Farm School is 16 years old this year and has been a
                              Farm Aid grant recipient since 1999. In a recent letter from the school,
                              associate director Meg Coward told us: “There truly is never a dull moment
                              around here, and Farm Aid’s constant support makes all of this good work
                              The rooster crows early for school children fortunate enough to attend classes at
                              the Farm School in the picturesque Pioneer Valley in north central
                              Awake at 6:15 in the morning, the kids are doing bunkhouse and farm chores by
6:30 and have been working a full hour by the time breakfast is served.
It‘s hard work, all right, but on this sunny day in mid-May, the kids embrace it.
―Nobody underestimates us. They let us work as hard as we want,‖ says Liza McFinney, a 5th grader at the
Driscoll School in suburban Boston. At mid-morning, Liza and her classmate, Anastasia Mashtaler are busy
working with one of the Farmer/Instructors planting seedlings in the Farm School‘s organic vegetable

The day before, Anastasia explains, the youngsters peeled bark from logs to make cedar fencing for the
pigs and worked with horses, chickens, pigs, and goats. They also had a chance to cut firewood and learn a
little bit about nature writing.

―Technically, we‘re in school,‖ Anastasia says, ―but the Farm School is—you
can‘t really name it—it‘s everything.‖

This kind of observation would no doubt bring a smile to Farm School founder
Ben Holmes‘ face. Holmes, a bearded, flannel shirt-clad dairy farmer says he
created the Farm School to give young people a taste of the experience he had
as a city boy visiting his uncle‘s Ohio dairy farm.

―I love cows; I love farming; I love working with kids; so I asked myself, ‗What
are kids today not getting that I did get?‘, and I realized they probably didn‘t
have the advantages that I had with my uncles spending summers on the farm.‖
So Holmes created the Farm School and began inviting school systems
                                                                                 Farm School instructor
throughout the region to send their students to the school for three-day visits
                                                                                 Sarah teaches kids from
that enable the kids to experience a full range of farm work and leisure
                                                                                 the Driscoll School how to
                                                                                 plant seeds.
―The farm is so deeply engaging for the young. There‘s no room for prima donnas, but lots of room for kids
to be fully engaged in the texture of the farm,‖ says Holmes.

―Historically, farms have given kids a purpose in the world, they help enable them to be useful. With the
disappearance of the family farm from our culture, youngsters have become little more than targets for
mass marketing. After spending time on the farm, kids take home a sense of being of use. This work at the
Farm School gives them a point of reference for their future life as citizens.‖
Every year roughly 1,600 students from 32 public and private schools from all over New England
participate in the Farm School experience.

For Driscoll School students Liane Wong and Shawn Wiggins that experience on this particular morning
involves washing a tub full of parsnips, scrubbing soil from the white skin of the root vegetable and
trimming the tops much they way you‘d trim the greens from a carrot.

―We work pretty hard, but we do get breaks. They don‘t really work us too
hard,‖ says Liane and Shawn adds: ―It‘s fun. Kids at home don‘t have gardens.
Here we can play with the pigs and calves, but we do have to do chores.‖
Terry Lui, a teacher‘s aid at the Driscoll School, has accompanied her 5th
graders on the trip. She sees learning taking place in a number of important

―For the kids, they‘ve adapted well to working on the farm and working with
each other. It‘s something different for them. They could read about farm life,
but this hands-on experience is just great. It‘s not only educational, it‘s social as
well. You can feel a real sense of community building among the students.‖
And as it turns out, it is not just the young people who are learning new things.
Farmer/Instructor Bradley Teeter says he learns a great deal from his work with
                                                                                      Brandon, who lives in
the students.
                                                                                      Boston, plants onions at
                                                                                      the Farm School.
―I‘ve learned to be more patient, have more fun in the garden, understand it is
not so much what they learn from it; it is mostly for the kids to see, and lets them get their hands dirty in
the soil.‖

When the Driscoll School students get ready to leave at mid-day Wednesday, other classmates from the
school will replace them at the farm, and when all have returned to the school,
they‘ll have time to talk
about their experiences.

They‘ll write essays and other reflections about their experiences at the school,
and they‘ll stay in touch with the farm through the school‘s web site at

Seeds for Thought
Organic vs Non-organic; what are the benefits of eating organic foods
What should you look for in a product label?
Should food be genetically modified, what are the advantages/disadvantages?
What is the future of small farms and why should they be supported, or not supported. Should the Federal
Government lend financial support to small farmers?
What do you think about The Farm School and how would have an experience like that effected your life at
a younger age. Do you support this type of experiential education? Why or Why not?
What life skills can be learned in this type of environment that may not be taught in classrooms?

         Why is corn pollen suspected of killing Monarch butterflies? What was the Taco Bell scandal a
few years back? Why are Mexican corn farmers afraid of the wind? Why do many countries refuse to buy
American crops? Since the introduction of genetically engineered foods (GE) to the market in 1995, genetic
engineering has sparked a global controversy. Environmental hazards, food and crop contamination,
declining market prices, and political battles are all side effects of the genetic tampering with your food.

Genetic Engineering: Science in the Wild
         Genetic engineering is the manipulation of specific genes that are moved from one species to
another to create a trait that didn‘t previously exist. For example, fish genes have been transferred to
tomatoes and insect genes can be found in potatoes.
         Common crops, such as corn, have been engineered to contain pesticides in every cell of the plant.
As a result, these crops are not registered as food - they are actually considered pesticides.
The prevalent usage of GE crops is increasingly threatening the biodiversity in our seed supply and making
our crops more vulnerable to disease outbreaks and pest infestations.

Genetic Engineering: Threatening Farmers Worldwide
         Farmers buy GE crops based on promises of lower costs and higher yields, but they often find
additional costs in veterinary bills, medications, unstable markets and extra pesticides. In short farmers
often encounter higher costs and lower yields with GE crops.
         Farmers that buy GE seeds, enter into a contract that dictates how and when the crop can be grown
and forbids the farmer to save seed - contrary to traditional practices.
Many farmers have been sued for allegedly saving seeds, while neighboring farmers whose crops have
been contaminated by GE pollen drift have been sued for unknowingly "possessing" GE seeds.

Genetic Engineering: A Public Health Hazard
         While the Food and Drug Administration claims GE products on the market are totally safe, there
has been no thorough analysis of their long-term implications. Despite overwhelming consumer demand,
none of these products are labeled.
         Due to the extremely unpredictable nature of genetic experimentation, new food toxins, allergens
or diseases can and have resulted from GE foods.
         Weak regulations and corporate oversight have allowed experimental crops to contaminate the
general food supply. In a recent case corn, that had been genetically engineered to use as a vaccine for
diarrhea in pigs, contaminated 500 bushels of soy beans that were intended for the general food supply.
The biotech industry has undue influence over government regulatory institutions. For example, a
Monsanto executive drafted a proposed legislation for the legalization of rBGH, a genetically modified
growth hormone used to boost milk production in dairy herds. She was then hired by the FDA to inform
public policy on the very same topic.
         The government may have already cast its vote for genetic engineering in agriculture, but it
remains a controversy in the minds of consumers and many family farmers. In 2001, Farm Aid helped
create the Farm to Farmer Campaign on Genetic Engineering in Agriculture, to help inform family farmers,
consumers and people who care about the environment about the legal, financial and health implications of
genetic engineering in agriculture. Cast your vote, buy family farmed and buy organic to get GE-free food.

Seeds for Thought

As a consumer, do you feel that your voice is heard and respected in regards to Genetically Engineered

Take a look at your food boxes, on your crew, what products that you are consuming have the greatest
chance of being genetically engineered?

Should GE foods be labeled for consumption Why or why not?

The global trading of food has emerged as one of the most serious threats facing family farmers in the U.S.
and around the world, and one of the most difficult to overcome. Agricultural "free trade" agreements, like
the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), promote the trade of agricultural products with little
regard to the negative impacts on local communities and family farmers. Countries, including the U.S.,
have been flooded with cheap food imports. The low-cost appeal of these imports to consumers has caused
farmers to lose their local markets. Consequently, family farmers worldwide have been forced off their
land, weakening local food production, and consumers are becoming more dependent on food imports. Free
trade agreements pose a threat to domestic food security - a problem that affects people worldwide.

Free Trade: Forcing Farmers Off the Land, Spreading Rural Poverty and Hunger
Since the 1994 signing of NAFTA which linked the economies of the United States, Canada and Mexico,
family farmers in all three countries have felt the negative impacts of a free trade agreement designed to
benefit agribusiness corporations.

In the U.S., 100,000 family farmers were forced out of farming between 1996 and 2001. During that same
time period, Canada lost 11 percent of its family farms. NAFTA has dramatically increased rural poverty
and hunger in Mexico. Between 1992 and 2002, the percentage of rural Mexicans living in extreme poverty
grew from 36 percent to 52.4 percent.

Free Trade: Unfair Profits for Multinational Agribusiness Corporations
Free trade agreements have fueled the expansion of corporate concentration and control of food production
from the national to the international level,unfairly boosting the profits of many US-based corporations.
Under NAFTA, Archer Daniels Midland's profits went from $383 million in 2001 to $451 million in 2003,
while Cargill's net earnings from the same time period jumped from $333 million to $1,290 million (iii)
while thousands of family farmers have been forced off their lands due to low prices.

Free Trade: Taking Away Consumer Access to Family Farm Food Systems
Decisions about how our food is grown and by whom are made behind closed doors. Trade and
agricultural ministers have allowed multinational corporations to gain unprecedented power and control
over our food system. As a result, America‘s reliance on imported foods is increasing.
After consumers and farmers fought successfully to have mandatory country of origin labeling (COOL)
included in the 2002 Farm Bill, the current administration delayed the mandatory labeling until 2006
because of heavy lobbying by agribusiness. This is a blatant example of corporations working against the
interests of family farmers and consumers and the U.S. Department of Agriculture dragging its feet on
implementation of policies that would benefit family farmers and consumers alike.

Fair Trade, Not Free Trade!
Each country must retain the right to determine how to meet its domestic food needs while protecting its
family farmers. Consumers, largely left in the dark about the negative impacts of cheap imports within the
domestic food system, should have the right to choose who grows their food, how it is grown and where it
comes from. Free trade policy is typically unfair trade policy.

Seeds for Thought

Why is free trade typically unfair trade?

How can you and your crew better support family and local farmers?

How do free trade and Genetically Engineered products work together to promote corporate agriculture?

There are many different food labels that contain information about how food was grown or processed.
However, some labels can be misleading. Here are examples of labels to look for, ask questions about, and

Look for:
     Organic: The National Organic Standards, regulated by the USDA, assure that food products
         must contain at least 95% organic ingredients and that no synthetic growth hormones, antibiotics,
         pesticides, biotechnology, synthetic ingredients, or irradiation were used in production or
         processing. Organic labels can be found on produce, dairy, meat, processed foods, condiments
         and beverages.
     Fair Trade: Fair trade standards are enforced by the Fairtrade Labeling Organization International
         (FLO). Fair trade products must be produced in accordance with the following guidelines:
         Workers must receive decent wages, housing, health and safety guidelines, the right to join trade
         unions and child or forced labor is completely prohibited. Crops must also be grown, produced
         and processed in an environmentally friendly way. Fair trade standards have been established for
         coffee, tea, cocoa, honey, bananas, orange juice and sugar.
     Free Farmed: The Free Farmed Certification Program was created by the American Humane
         Association in 2000 to ensure that animals raised for dairy, poultry and beef products are raised in
         a humane manner. These guidelines ensure that livestock have access to clean and sufficient food
         and water as well as a safe, healthy living environment.
The following labels depend on farmer and processor information to support the claim that the food
products were raised in compliance with each set of standards. However, they are not certified or tested by
any third party regulatory agency.
Feel Good Buying (not certified):
     Hormone Free, rBGH Free: Some meat and dairy products are now being marketed as hormone
         free. In dairy products, this means that the farmer has chosen not to inject his cows with the
         artificial growth hormone called rBGH. Similarly, on beef products this label indicates that the
         animal was raised without growth hormones or steroids.
     Raised Without Antibiotics: This meat and dairy label indicates that the animal was raised
         entirely without the use of low-level and/or therapeutic doses of antibiotics.
     GE Free, Non-GMO: Food products that use GE Free or Non-GMO labels are regulated by
         individual companies, distributors or processors. Often, the companies require certification or
         affidavits from farmers that the materials were not genetically modified in any way.

Ask Questions About:

        All Natural: While many products have ―all natural‖ labeling or packaging, there is no universal
         standard or definition for this claim.
        Free Range: The Free Range claims that each meat or poultry product (including eggs) comes
         from an animal that was raised in the open air or was allowed to roam. However, the regulations
         do not specify how much of each day animals must have access to fresh air. For example, in
         poultry, the USDA considers 5 minutes adequate exposure to be considered free range. In beef the
         use of the label is completely unregulated or standardized.
        Avoid:
        Irradiated: Irradiation, or cold pasteurization, exposes food to high doses of ionizing radiation,
         equivalent to millions of chest x-rays, in order to kill bacteria. This process destroys essential
         nutrients, creates toxins and carcinogens that remain in the food, and perpetuates dangerously
         unsanitary conditions in meat processing plants.

          Vitamins and minerals perform the same essential functions for athletes and non-athletes alike.
The key to obtaining the vitamins and minerals that athletes need is to eat a wide variety of nutrient-dense
foods in amounts that will maintain energy balance. Using the Food Guide Pyramid, this goal can be
achieved by consuming 1,200-1,500 kcal/day. Meeting vitamin and mineral requirements when energy
intake is 3,000 kcal/day or higher, e.g. male and female ice hockey and cross country skiers, is quite easy.
Even female figure skaters whose energy intakes may be about 2,000 kcal/day can meet their vitamin and
mineral needs from food alone.
          Fruits and vegetables are particularly high in vitamins. Many are sources of antioxidants as well.
Focus on high color (yellow-orange, red, deep green, and blue) choices. Yes, blueberries have high
antioxidant value! An athlete's meal plan has ample room to fit the five to nine fruit and vegetable servings
recommended each day. Meat and dairy foods are especially high in minerals. Foods in the grain group
contain both vitamins and minerals.
          Is more better? Because B-vitamins participate in energy metabolism (releasing energy from
nutrients), athletes with high energy expenditures have increased requirements for B vitamins. However,
eating more food (energy intake that achieves energy expenditure) provides the extra B-vitamins that are
needed. Beyond meeting RDA requirements, do athletes benefit from supplementation with vitamins and
minerals in amounts greater than the RDA? Despite high vitamin/mineral supplement use among athletes,
the answer appears to be no. While vitamin/mineral deficiencies impair physical performance, research
indicates that supplementation of a nutritionally adequate sports diet does not improve physical work
capacity, endurance, oxygen consumption, cardiovascular function, muscle strength, or resistance to
          Although more research is needed, Vitamin E may be one exception. Vitamin E, found mostly in
vegetable fat, is an antioxidant that protects cells against oxidative damage associated with intense exercise.
So, does supplemental Vitamin E benefit active people? The answer is unclear. Aerobic exercise training
actually increases antioxidant enzyme production. Thus, increased need for antioxidant protection may be
met by adaptations to exercise training. More research is needed before recommendations can be made.

Where are vitamins in foods?
         What if an athlete's diet is less than the best? Vitamin supplements are commonly used by athletes
to make up for less than optimal diets. To provide a dose of "health insurance," choosing a multivitamin
supplement with no more than 100% of the Daily Value (DV) provides a safe and adequate balance of
vitamins. But keep your eye on the ball -- the real goal is to eat a variety of foods. Food contains fiber and a
host of phytochemicals that provide health benefits. Add more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains to the
foods already being consumed. Supplements are not replacements for food.

Where are minerals in foods?
          Calcium, iron, and zinc perform especially important functions for athletes. The latest calcium
recommendations are based on levels of intake to promote calcium retention, maximize bone mineral
density, and inhibit bone loss. Increased risk of stress fracture among athletes is associated with lower
calcium intake and lower bone density compared to control athletes. Dairy products, fish with bones,
broccoli, and fortified cereals and juices are good calcium sources.
          Iron affects oxygen transport and aerobic metabolism as a component of hemoglobin, myoglobin,
and oxidative enzymes. Immune function is dependent on iron-containing enzymes. Consuming adequate
amounts of iron is essential for optimal aerobic endurance performance. Iron depletion is the first stage of
iron deficiency and the most common type of iron deficiency among athletes. Lean red meats, dark poultry,
fortified cereals, whole grains, and legumes are good iron sources.
          Zinc is essential for protein synthesis, it aids in healing and immune function, and is present in
antioxidant enzymes and enzymes involved in energy metabolism. Zinc is found in meat, poultry, seafood,
and whole grains.
          When is more too much? While 15 mg of zinc (100% DV) is commonly added to
multivitamin/mineral supplements, larger amounts of zinc (50-100 mg/day) consumed over extended
periods have negative effects on copper and iron status. In fact, consuming an excess of any mineral can
interfere with digestion and absorption of other minerals and lead to mineral imbalances. In large enough
doses, all minerals can be toxic.



A flock of geese literally and figuratively embody the term ―teamwork‖. Geese, as we all know, fly in a V-
formation. Scientists studying the flight patterns and behavior of geese have learned that as each goose
flaps its wings, it creates an uplift for the bird following behind it and just a little to one side. Scientists
estimate that by flying in this formation, Geese add some 70% greater flying range than if each goose flew
on its own.

Truth: People who share a common direction and sense of community can get where they are going more
quickly and more easily since they are traveling on the thrust of one another.

If a goose falls out of formation, it immediately feels the drag and gets quickly back into formation to take
advantage of being part of the ―team‖. When the lead goose is tired, it rotates back and another goose flies
point. When a sick goose falls out of formation and goes down to the ground, two geese pull away and
join the one in trouble, staying until it is dead or well enough to fly. Then, the three take off together, using
the same ―team‖ mentality until they catch up to their flock.

Seeds for Thought

What types of lessons about teamwork can we learn from the goose‘s example? What group experiences
has your crew participated in? How was ―teamwork‖ established in your group? How has teamwork made
your daily life on the crew easier? Harder??

How was the leadership role established? Was leadership necessary? What types of skills make for a
positive leader? Which is more important: being a good leader, or being a good follower? Both? How can
these skills benefit you in future job opportunities? Try to take away the positive and negative lessons
you‘ve learned as a framework to build upon in your life beyond RMYC.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                Yes       No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

A leader who has never been lost on
a prairie or in a great forest has not
yet fully trained for his work.

             -Earl Amos Brooks

It is one of the most beautiful
compensations of this life that no man
can seriously help another without helping himself

               –Ralph Waldo Emerson

A loser thinks there are rules for winning
and losing; A winner knows that every
rule in the book can be broken, except one-
 be who you are, and become all you were
meant to be, which is the only winning game
in the world.
                  -Sydney J. Harris

If the people lead, the leaders will follow.

                   -seen on a fence in Boulder, CO

What is Leadership?
Leadership is not a science to be picked up in one book or course, but an art to be learned over time. Good
leaders sometimes tell people what to do, but leadership is not just giving directions—it is liberating people
to do what is needed in the best possible way.

Seeds for Thought

Choose your favorite quote and share it with your crew. Why did you choose this quote? Explain.
Do you believe that these quotes offer good advice? Are they inspiring?
How do these quotes relate to your crew experience?
Create your own quote about leadership.
Do you believe that you are a leader? Explain.
What qualities make a good leader? Why do you respect these qualities?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes      No        Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

The following passage, from Tom Brown’s Survival Guide, illustrates some key concepts to remember in an
emergency situation.

One of the most effective keys to survival is living each moment as it comes… If you are in a particularly
bad situation and can do nothing about it, your only alternative is to endure it… Sometimes an amazing
thing happens when you live in such a way. You can become attuned to ―now living that each moment
seems like a gift. And the sense of gratitude over each gift can lead to such a joy that your spirits are
uplifted and you find a reserve of strength you didn‘t know you had…

The most important rule for anyone who is suddenly faced with a survival situation is to keep from
panicking. When calamity strikes, sit down and think things through before taking action. Talk to yourself
out loud, if necessary, as you might to a frightened friend. Try to relax and take stock of the situation…
You’ll go a long way to increasing your mental comfort by realizing that you cannot immediately have
everything you want, but that you can have everything you need. Many people today see wilderness
survival as a desperate struggle- a situation in which a person is pitted against “that angry killer nature”-
fighting tooth and nail against insurmountable odds. It is only in our recent history that we have adopted
this attitude. It is only the attitude of separateness, and it is based on misunderstanding. If you flow with
nature instead of resisting, you’ll find that she will take care of you and provide everything you need.

Seeds for Thought

If you were to become near the project site today, what types of survival tools could your make with what
you have with you? What would you use to keep warm? What could provide you shelter? What would
you eat? How would you avoid hypothermia? Heat exhaustion/ stroke? Is food or water more important
in such a situation?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes      No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Probably the most effective way of finding out how someone will react in a difficult leadership situation is
actually putting them in that situation. The following exercises simulate realistic backcountry situations and
provide an opportunity for several methods of solving the problem.

In each exercise, the person running the activity gives each crew member a role to play that they do not
divulge to the other members, especially not the ―leaders.‖ The entire crew is given the general scenario
(but not the specifics), and proceeds to act it out.

Afterwards, discuss the results. What did the leaders do that was effective? What else could they have
done? What were the most important things they did?

Scenario #1

Leaders: You‘re leading the group up to Gilpin Lake, in the Mt. Zirkel Wilderness Area. You‘re bringing
up the rear, and letting members of the group move at their own pace ahead of you.

Jimmy: You‘re really out of shape. (Stuff some blankets in your clothes to emphasize the point) You
wanted to go on this hike because your friend Bill talked you into it, but now you‘re having second
thoughts. You‘re getting really tired and falling behind. You want to go home and eat pork rinds. You‘re
embarrassed about the real reason you want to turn around, so you make lots of other excuses why the
whole group should end the hike (storm‘s moving in, the chance of bear attacks, etc.) You notice another
girl, Teena, is also bummed about things, so you try to get her to help you demoralize everybody.

Bill: You‘re Jimmy‘s friend. You love to go hiking. You talked him into this hike in hopes that he might
begin to like outdoor activities, and lose some weight. You‘ll tend to defend him when others give him a
hard time, but since you like hiking so much, it‘s hard for you to relate when he acts like a wimp.

Teena: You just broke up with your boyfriend and went on the hike to help you forget about it. It does
help a little, but you‘re still pretty bummed about life in general and it‘s hard to get excited about anything.

Lisa: You‘re captain of the girl‘s soccer team and in fantastic shape. You find fat people disgusting and
have no patience with them. You‘re frustrated you don‘t know this trail better or you‘d just hike it
yourself, rather than wait up for all these lame slobs.

Rest of the Crew: You‘re hiking up to Gilpin Lake in the Mt. Zirkel Wilderness Area. It‘s a great day and
you‘re in high spirits.

Scenario #2

Leaders: You‘re leading the group on a day hike in the San Juan Mountains. It‘s a gorgeous day and your
group is excited and in high spirits. One guy, Larry, told you two that he heard there were bears up here
and he sure hopes he doesn‘t see any. Another girl, Shelly, tells you she is really scared of leeches.

Mama Black Bear: (for clarification purposes, you may want to wear a sign) You‘re with your cub foraging
in the brush. You‘ve just found a nice berry patch and you dig in. Your cub wanders a little way off. All
of a sudden, there‘s a bunch of weird ape-like creatures between you and your offspring! You‘ve heard
these things are very dangerous, but you‘re surprised and angry. Instinct tells you to attack what seems
weak. If something looks dead, then it‘s probably good eatin‘. If something runs, you tend to chase it. If
something looks threatening, you tend to back off. However, you must get to your cub, whatever the price.

Baby Black Bear: (you may want to wear a sign as well) You‘re out foraging with Mom when you decide
to wander off a bit to get out something that smells interesting. Suddenly, there‘s a bunch of weird yard

apes between you and mama! You‘re scared, and begin to bleat horribly.

Larry: You hate bears. They scare the crap out of you. You love to go outside and hike and bike and stuff,
but you always do it with a certain dread of bears in the back of your mind. If you ever saw a bear, you‘d
run for your life.

Shelly: You hate leeches, but that‘s irrelevant. You‘ve heard that the best thing to do when you see a bear
is to play dead.

Fabio: You love going outside, since the wind so wonderfully tousles your long flowing blond hair. You
do not fear nature‘s creatures, and if you saw something like a bear, you would stand up to it and try to
scare it away.

Scenario #3

Leader Susan: You‘re leading the crew on a fun mountain biking trip. You‘re having a good time because
you love mountain biking. You don‘t understand people who don‘t. The trail is a little rugged for some of
the less experienced riders, but you think they can handle it. They seem to be having a great time, anyway.
All except for your co-leader, Chuckie.

Leader Chuckie: You hate mountain biking. It‘s dangerous, tiring, and destroys the trail. You hate the fact
that you were roped into doing this stupid trip. You chaff at the sight of Susan, your co-leader, having such
a great time. To make matters worse, you are getting dusted. You decide to fake a cramp in the middle of
the scenario, and try using your power as co-leader to end the trip.

Sarah, Jimmy, Enrico, and Sparky: You haven‘t gone biking much before, but this trip is a blast! You love
catching air and speeding along the single track at breakneck velocity. You‘ve noticed that although one
leader is having a great time and really knows what she‘s doing, the other is complaining a lot for little
apparent reason. You start making fun of him because he‘s kind of pathetic and a whiner.

Rest of the Crew: You‘ve biked before, but this trail is rugged! Your Leader, Sarah, peps you up, but
you‘re kind of tired. You could go on to complete the loop, but you wouldn‘t mind turning around, either.

Scenario #4

Leaders: You‘re leading your group up the last pitch on Mt. Princeton (14,000+ ft.). It was a beautiful day,
but all of a sudden, a nasty black cloud pounces on you from the other side of the peak. It rumbles
ferociously and your hair begins to stand on end.

Big Nasty Storm Cloud (2 people): You‘re angry today. You‘re cruising across the Rockies, when all of a
sudden, a gigantic mountain gets in your way. You lash at it with lightning bolts, looking for a nice pointy
protrusion to really nail. All of a sudden, you see one named Jon. Blamo! You zap the hell out him!
Satisfied, you rumble away.

Jon: It‘s not your lucky day. You‘re one this trip to climb Mt. Princeton, having a great time, about to bag
the peak, when… Wham! You‘re hit by lightning! You‘re knocked out but not dead. You twitch and
writhe through much of the scenario.

Maggie and Fred: You‘re terrified by lightning. Always have been. You like going outside, but rarely
venture above treeline, for fear of being hit. If you got in a sketchy lightning situation, you two would take
complete leave of your senses.

Dirk: You‘re a fanatical peak-bagger. Princeton is your 39th fourteener. You‘ve tried to climb it twice
before, but were chased down by lightning. You‘re so close… you must go on, come hell or high water.

Rest of Group: You‘re climbing Mt. Princeton and are almost to the top. It‘s been a tiring climb, but you
still feel pretty good. You‘re getting a little concerned about this weather moving in, however.

Trust games are an excellent way to establish trust and teamwork within your crew. These games help
individuals overcome fears and then the individuals associate their newfound courage with this group of peers,
their teammates. They also can be done just about anywhere at any time, since all you really need is a group of
people the size of your crew and some open space. Make sure, however, to read these instructions carefully
and perform these exercises correctly. They are potentially dangerous and need to be done with concentration
and seriousness. Try to make sure every crewmember tries each activity.

The Trust Lift
This activity is a little mellower than the trust fall, but still a lot of fun and strangely soothing. Have one
crewmember lie on his back, with the rest of the crew kneeling around him. After the ―liftee‖ is calm and
relaxed, have the crew place their hands underneath him, making sure every part will be adequately supported.
At the count of three, the crew lifts the liftee up and over their heads and supports him there for a few seconds.
It‘s a weird feeling! Then, again at the count of three, the crew lowers him back down to the ground. Try this
with your eyes closed (some have said it feels like you‘re being lowered into the ground).

A Team Building Activity

Although this takes a little while to set up, plus all the twine you have in camp, it‘s a classic team-building
exercise. Web is a good one to do very near the beginning of a session to get the crew used to collectively
figuring out a complex problem.

What You‘ll Need

A bunch of rope, string, twine or even yarn. You‘ll also need two trees or vertical posts five to ten feet apart
and with little or no underbrush between them. Run the two stoutest pieces of rope tightly between the two
trees horizontally, one at about seven or so feet, and the other just above the ground. Then, create a web
between the ropes and trees using the rest of the string. Make the openings in the web of various sizes, the
smallest of which would still allow a person to be passed through it. Try to make the number of openings
roughly equal (but certainly not less than) the number of the participants.

What to Do

Have the crew assemble on one side of the web. The object of the activity is to try to pass every member of the
crew through the web, one by one, while not touching the strings of the web at any point (that would alert a
giant spider in the tree who would then descend into camp and eat all the cookies and gorp). If someone does
touch the web, the whole crew needs to start over again.

Once through the web, a player may only assist the group from the other side. To make things more interesting,
the group can only use each gap in the web once. This activity takes a lot of forethought and planning, since
the first and the last person will have no help on one side getting through the web.


If you master this one quickly, make it more interesting by blindfolding half of the crew, or having no one be
able to talk. Or maybe just the most quiet person in the crew be able to talk. Or combine: the blind ones can
talk, but the ones with sight cannot! You‘ll probably have to make giggling legal, however. Have fun!

A Team and Trust-Building Activity
(Seed- NYC)

This can be a highly effective and fun team-building exercise. Like other trust-fall type activities, there exists a
certain amount of danger. Although this activity has a silly name, crewmembers must be somewhat serious and
pay close attention to the instructions so that no one gets hurt.

What You‘ll Need

This is a fun one to try on the weekends, since it works best with a group the size of 1 ½ to 2 crews. For a
version that requires fewer participants, see ―Variations‖ below. The good news is that people are all that
you‘ll need.

What to Do

Everyone removes their shoes and sits on the ground in a circle with arms outstretched, palms facing the center,
and with feet touching, but leaving a small opening in the center of all the feet. Try to get as many people as
possible in this circle, so there are no gaps. In the opening of the feet, one person stands.

With knees locked and body straight (but not stiff) the person in the center falls in any direction. It is up to
everyone in the circle, working as a team, to keep the faller ―aloft in the wind‖ by gently pushing him/her onto
the next person, or across the circle. Usually it is best to start out by ―rolling‖ the center person around the
circle first, to let him/her get used to the new experience.

Encourage everyone to participate as a faller. Often heavier people shy away from such ―trust games,‖ but if
people are gentle and work together even those heavier folks should be able to safely participate.

Team-Building Activities for the Entire Crew Family!
(Seed- NYC, New Games)

Blind Polygon
The group is blindfolded. They must form a perfect square, triangle, or pentagon using a rope. They all must
have at least one hand on the rope at all times.

Find a big stump, rock, or make a circle on the ground only two feet in diameter, and dub this the ―island.‖
The entire crew must figure out a way to stay on the island for two minutes.

Order out of Chaos
Everyone is blindfolded. Each person gets a number. They must line up in order without talking.

Mass Stand Up
Have the crew sit in a circle, backs to the middle. Now, have everyone link elbows with the person sitting next
to him or her. Then, try to stand up as a group. A lot tougher than it sounds!

Human Knot
Have the crew stand in a tight circle, shoulder-to-shoulder, facing in, and place their hands in the center. Now,
have them grab a couple of hands, but make sure no one grabs a pair of hands belonging to the same person or
grabs either of the hands of the person standing directly next to them. Then, unravel the knot you‘ve just
formed without, of course, having anyone break his or her grip. Don‘t be afraid to bend your knees and do
some dance moves to maneuver. Good luck!

A Team-Building Activity
(Seed- NYC)

This short but fun activity relies on the crewmember‘s abilities to work together and communicate by
means other than talking.

What You‘ll Need

You will need a fairly stable horizontal log big enough for the whole crew to stand on, and a trail crew.

What To Do

Have the crew line up on the log, shoulder to shoulder. Once each person has found a place and is not teetering
back and forth, you can begin the activity. Once you‘ve started, no one may talk or else the crew must start
over. The object is to line up in alphabetical order by last names. Besides keeping silent, they also must stay
on the log. Each time someone falls (or talks) the crew must begin all over again from their original position.
Depending on their level of cooperation and awareness this activity may take 3 minutes or half an hour.


Obviously, you can line up on the log according to any number of different criteria: birth date, middle names,
height, or whatever. It may be a good idea to run the activity a few times, so that not only do the crew members
get better at the activity, but they learn more about each other.

***Other silent activities are fun to do to sharpen teamwork skills. Try having some crew members set up a
tent, build a better wash station, or some other normally mundane activity while remaining silent. It puts a new
spin on a chore and gets you a little bit of peace and quiet next time that camp chore gets done.

A Team- Building Activity
(Seed- NYC)

You should play this game in a grassy area where you will not get your socks too muddy or dirty. It‘s also a
great game to play on the beach. It requires concentration and non-verbal communications. The objective of
the game is to arrange a cluttered pile of shoes into a line of neatly arranged shoes. Sounds easy, doesn‘t it?
Read on.

What You‘ll Need

A crew with everyone wearing shoes, a grassy or beach area.

What to Do

Everyone takes off their shoes and puts them into one jumbled pile in the middle of the group. Without talking,
the group must first pick out two un-matching shoes (that aren‘t their own) and put them on their feet. Now
they must search the group (by walking around in their new un-matching shoes) and find the matching shoe.
Don‘t exchange shoes, however. The problem is solved when all pairs are neatly lined up next to each other
with the original wearer of the shoes in the game still wearing the respective shoes.


You can make the exercise easier by allowing the group to talk, or throw an interesting twist in by only
allowing one person to talk.

You can also run the activity a few times, timing it, and see if they can improve with practice. What helped the
activity go faster? Was it actually easier when they could talk?

Leadership in Leisure Services pgs. 8-9

It is critical to gain an appreciation for how the term leadership is used throughout this text so that everyone
operates from a common basis of understanding. Remember, defining leadership is no easy task and
definitions have changed and evolved over many years of study. It makes sense to define leadership as a
combination of many elements. Throughout the text, leadership is viewed as:

a dynamic process of interactions between two or more
   members of a group which involves recognition and
                 acceptance of leader-follower roles by group members
                 within a certain situation.

         In the following chapter you will be exposed to various theories of leadership which will help to
explain what is meant by this definition. In the meantime, examining each component of the definition
would be helpful.

Leadership is a dynamic process…
Dynamic process refers to the fact that leadership changes constantly: it is never stagnant. In any group,
leadership fluctuates based on internal and external factors affecting the group. In addition, as a process,
leadership consists of a series of actions which evolve over time. In other words, a single act or behavior
that might relate to leadership does necessarily define a leader.

…of interactions between two or more members of a group…

The term interaction refers to reciprocal actions which occur between people. For instance, a reciprocal
action would occur when one person says hello and another person nods her or his head in response. It is an
action response-process. Typically, leadership interactions include verbal and nonverbal communication,
sharing of tasks, and the establishment of relationships. The term group refers to two or more people, who
together, form a complete unit and share common goals. More will be said about groups later in the text.

…which involves recognition and acceptance of
leader-follower roles by group members…

In order to be a leader, one must first be recognized as a leader. If others do not see and accept that person
as the leader, leadership does not exist (Geis, Boston & Hoffman, 1985). Leader-follower roles are
differentiated from one another by intent (i.e., what one has her or his mind set to do), interpersonal skills
(commonly called people skills), task orientation (i.e., good leaders must be able to get others involved in a
task or job), and an understanding of how to work toward goal achievement (i.e., leaders take an active
initiating approach, followers work cooperatively with the leader to make things happen). In the definition
of leadership used for this text, leaders and followers fulfill different roles within a group, all necessary for
effective group functioning.

…within a certain situation.

This will be discussed in later chapters, but be aware that leadership tends to be situational. That is to say
that in one situation one person may be a leader, yet in another situation she or he may not be the leader.
Some of this id based on the skills and experience of the leader, some is based on the skills and experience
of the group members: yet other influences are elements such as time, weather, and safety issues. Whatever
the reason, leadership roles change with the situation.

Leaders are ordinary people who use their time and energy to mobilize people and resources toward some
goal. Leadership is difficult because there is no ―correct‖ way to do it. Each individual must combine their
personal strengths, common sense and management skills in a way that achieves the goal and is rewarding
to the crew.

Role Model
The Crew Leader is a role model. The members of the crew will watch every move the Crew Leader makes
and model their own behavior after it. What the Crew Leader does is actually more important than what
they say. While the crew will listen to instructions, they will continuously watch the Crew Leader to assure
themselves that they are doing things correctly. If the Crew Leader does things right, the crew will do the
same. If, on the other hand, the Crew Leader makes a mistake, the crew will follow suit. This is why it is
important for Crew Leaders to demonstrate proper behavior at all times. This is not confined to work
habits. The crew will watch to see if their Crew Leader stops for water breaks, what kinds of safety
precautions they take, how they treat the environment, how enthusiastic they are, and so on. It is difficult to
be a model all day long but if the Crew Leader wants the crew to do things the right way, the Crew Leader
will have to set the example.

Lightly on the Land pg. 20-24

Crew Leadership
PEOPLE BECOME INVOLVED in backcountry projects for many reasons. Some are looking for real,
physical work with results that are readily evident. They want to get dirt under their fingernails and sweat
on their brows. Others are drawn to conservation efforts as an active form of earth stewardship. They want
personal responsibility for a section of trail, a campsite, or an alpine meadow. There are those who join a
trail crews as a way to get outdoors and enjoy the sun and wind, even the rain and cold. They revel in the
freedom of the backcountry, in being close to nature, and in having a reason to stay out in the hills. Some
like traditional tools and the technical aspects of rustic construction. Others are attracted to backcountry
labor by the promise of fun, because their friends are doing it, or because they are eager to meet new
people. For many, trail work is a part of their professional responsibilities.

Those who work in the backcountry come from all walks of life. Some have built and repaired trails for
years. Others are new to the woods, making up with enthusiasm for their lack of knowledge. Professionals
and volunteers, old and young, men and women, members of youth groups, conservation corps, mountain
clubs, or of no group at all, they represent a body of tremendous diversity and potential.

Equally rich is the variety of those who manage America‘s backcountry, including wilderness rangers,
private landowners camp directors, land management agency administrators, and improvement committees
of outdoor recreation organizations. They range in experience and savvy from those who are very seasoned
to those who are just beginning to learn the essentials of their jobs.

Crew leaders must meld together the energies of trail workers and the needs of land managers. They must
serve as problem solvers, arbitrators, motivators, negotiators, and even visionaries. Add the vagaries of
weather, terrain, wildlife, and the other elements of the backcountry, and the challenges facing trail crew
leaders become remarkably demanding, varied, and ultimately rewarding.

There is no single way to be a good leader, and some people will find that leadership comes easier to them
than to others. But everyone can improve their leadership skills by being aware of how they are interacting
with others, and by being willing to learn from positive and negative experiences.

Establishing Leadership Authority
Crew leaders must be exactly that—the leaders of their crew. Even when everyone in a group is about the
same age, has about the same level of skill, and enjoys friendships that extend beyond time in the woods,
those who are a group‘s leaders should conduct themselves as leaders. They are the ones who must make
ultimate decisions concerning safety. They are the ones to whom the crew will turn for guidance in an
emergency. The most effective form of leadership is that which is earned by proving through the leaders‘

actions that they have in mind the best interests of the group, and that their decisions, even when unpopular,
are based on the needs and safety of everyone in the crew.
          Backcountry leaders should not let their desire to be crew members rather than crew leaders allow
them to lose control of the group or to be persuaded to make unwise decisions. On the other hand, they
should give crew members as much responsibly as each is able to handle. For example, leaders who have
directed a youth group‘s work effort all day may be able to withdraw from overseeing camp activities,
especially after everyone has learned the routines of food preparation and cleanup. Hunger will prod a crew
into action far more effectively than nagging, and even if supper isn‘t ready until dusk, leaving to them the
decisions of when to eat (and perhaps also the choice of menu and how it will be prepared) gives a crew a
greater sense of confidence in its abilities.

Effective Leadership
While their styles may vary, effective leaders share the following qualities:
They insure a safe working environment for their crews and themselves.
They establish ground rules ahead of time and insist that they are followed.
They clearly communicate their expectations.
They retain for themselves the right and responsibility of ultimate decision-making authority.

Leadership as Innovation
In the backcountry, crew leaders must cope with conditions that cannot be controlled, and with equipment
that may or may not be exactly suited to the job at hand. Part of the satisfaction of leadership is devising
solutions to the problems that present themselves, be it figuring out how to move heavy materials, how to
shape a trail, or how to feed a crew when no one remembered to bring fuel for the camp stove. Innovation
also extends to crew management—motivating people, teaching them skills they need, and helping them
realize their potential for working efficiently and living well in the outdoors.
          While those in charge of a crew must, in some way, establish and maintain a sense of leadership,
they need not be expert in every aspect of trail work and backcountry living. Rather than pretending to
know everything, leaders can indicate that they are willing to learn along with the crew members whenever
opportunities for learning arise. That can begin by sharing with one another the wisdom that each person
posses, and by using books to learn together skills such as knot tying, map and compass use, camp cooking,
or the identification of plants, wildlife, and constellations.

Leadership as Motivation
If you want people to do good work, give them good work to do. Careful planning and visits to the work
site before a project begins will help crew leaders clarify for themselves the nature of the effort, how best to
complete the work, and how to provide the crew members with a satisfying experience. Having land
management personnel visit the crew during a project can reinforce the importance of the task the crew has
undertaken and the value of their work to the environment and to the agency.
          Variety can also be a great motivator, especially early in a project where participants may not yet
have the skill or conditioning to perform a sustained task for long periods of time. Shift people from one
kind of work to another, and allow for rest and refreshment. Physically easy jobs such as sharpening and
repairing tools can be interspersed with more demanding labor. Some crew leaders have had success using
a Polaroid camera to take daily photographs of the work to document progress on the project.
          Be flexible. You may have a clear vision of the experience you want for crew members—perhaps
that in addition to completing the work, they will come away with a greater respect for the natural
environments. Everything may turn out exactly as you had hoped, the greater likelihood is that your group
will develop its own ideas of what it wants, and will respond to trail work opportunities in unique and
surprising ways.

Timeless Advice on Leadership
Over 2,000 years ago, the Chinese philosopher Sun Tsu wrote that they lead best who seems to lead least.
Following that advise, good leaders can provide the means for people to do good work and, at the same
time, give them the feeling that ―we did it ourselves.‖

Creating a Safe Work Environment
A key responsibility of a crew leader is to provide people with a work environment that is safe for them
both physically and emotionally.

         Physical safety is a matter of specifics—Training crew members to use tools properly, to use their
bodies without injuring themselves, and to know how to cope with backcountry hazards. Leaders must
maintain awareness of their crew‘s activities and surroundings, and make judgment calls based on
enhancing the security of the group. Retreating from an approaching thunderstorm, hanging bear bags in
camp, and deciding not to attempt a task that is beyond a crew‘s abilities are obvious acts of leadership.
Equally important to group safety may be coping with crew members whose carelessness endangers others,
perhaps even to the point that they must be asked to leave the backcountry.
         Emotional safety is a more elusive concept for a trail crew, but in its effects upon the well being of
each person, it is every bit as vital as physical security. By their example and attitudes, leaders should do all
they can to develop an atmosphere of trust and conviviality between themselves and their crews, and
among group members. Group interactions should be relatively free of negativity, put-downs, or excessive
teasing. Leaders must also be aware of gender issues, especially when crews are younger. On the work site,
that may be a matter of helping everyone gain a mastery of tools, and giving crew members of both genders
equal roles in completing all aspect of a project. In a long-term camp, it may require frank discussion of the
impact upon group dynamics if cliques or couples are becoming exclusive in the ways they share their time.

The Last Ten Percent
Attention to fine details and the cleanup of a site makes a great difference in the ultimate appearance and
quality of the work project. Unfortunately, that final ten percent effort is often neglected. Crew leaders
should include time in their work schedule to allow for the last ten percent, and then motivate crews to take
pride in giving their work the polish it deserves.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?                Yes      No        Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?


Leadership in Leisure Services pg. 15-21

In addition to the three types of competencies/skills necessary for successful leadership, there are many
qualities or traits that people have identified as being important to leadership. (Conceptual skills include the
ability to analyze, anticipate, and see the big picture.) Generally, people believe that a leader is someone
who has many positive qualities. Several studies have been conducted which report lists of desirable
leadership qualities. Much of that information is reported under the following headings.

According to Cohen (1990), a leader is one who is creative. Creativity involves thinking broadly and a
willing ness to try new ideas. It also includes not being afraid to look silly. Creative people can usually
think in abstract terms and have an outlook on life that lets them see one thing from many different
perspectives. Creative people color outside of the lines (and are proud of it), challenge others to think in a
fluid fashion, and have a good sense of humor. Being creative is necessary whether one is leading an
activity, solving a facility-related problem, or planning programs.

Positive Mental Attitude
Highly sought after leaders are able to maintain a positive attitude in the midst of not-so-positive situations.
A positive mental attitude (PMA) allows a leader to always see the bright side of situations. The ability to
view a situation from the funny side is often the way that learning can occur. People with PMA‘s are
fascinating people. They always seem upbeat and look for the good in others and in situations. People
desire to be around others who have a positive attitude; leaders who can maintain this tend to be well
respected, and consequently, successful.

High Expectations
Effective and respected leaders are those with high expectations (Cohen, 1990). These leaders have high
expectations of themselves as well as others. They expect quality, are willing to work for quality, and
thereby achieve quality. High expectations carry over into all aspects of leadership—technical skills (e.g.,
thriving for a perfect safety record), human relations skills (e.g., expecting positive and upbeat people
skills), and conceptual skills (e.g., expecting to be able to find solutions to all dilemmas). The self-fulfilling
prophecy suggests that as people expect, they receive. This means that a leader who expects a great deal
and who has high standards commonly finds that followers meet these high expectations. At the same time,
a leader with low standards and expectation of others may find that followers rise only high as those

A Sense of Identity
An effective leader has a sense of identity; an understanding of who one is and who one is not (Hitt, 1993).
A sense of self allows one to be in many different situations and remain true to oneself. Identity is based on
a set of core values, the guiding beliefs in one‘s life, and is related to integrity. It is what allows a person to
fell a sense of wholeness and integration within oneself. A leader with a strong sense of self exudes self-
confidence and a sense of who she or he is no matter the situation. These leaders tend to be easy to follow
because they are consistent in their leadership efforts.

Has Integrity
Everyday people are faced with ethical choices. Respected and effective leaders have the integrity and
courage to be honest with themselves and others. Integrity means doing what is right rather than what is
easiest. It is the basis for trust between people. If a group does not trust the leader, the leader will be
ineffective in working with the group. Like a person with a strong sense of self, a leader with integrity has a
solid core of values and ethical principles upon which she or he bases decisions, actions, and thoughts.
These values are apparent to others and remain consistent across situations.

Accepts Responsibility
A successful leader willingly accepts responsibility for what occurs; she or he is accountable not only to the
others, but also to herself or himself. For effective leaders, responsibility comes from inside themselves
rather than outside (from others). Responsibility comes from the awareness that one has freedom to choose

and the knowledge that all freedoms have corresponding responsibilities. Successful and effective leaders
accept responsibility for their thoughts, attitudes, and actions and do not try to place that responsibility on
others or on a situation.

Has Courage
An effective leader has courage to do what she or he believes is right, to stand up for her or his convictions,
and to go against the grain when needed; she or he has the courage to take risks (Hitt, 1993). Courage
involves the willingness to make and admit mistakes so that as much as possible can be learned from the
situation. Courage, however, must be accompanied by consideration. Being considerate of others in the
face of courage is necessary to achieve a balance in leadership.

Is Authentic
Authenticity is defined as ―being for real‖ (Hitt, 1993). Being authentic addresses the need for a leader to
be herself or himself while maintaining a sense of responsibility. An authentic leader is one who is not
merely the job position she or he represents (e.g., building supervisor, aerobics instructor, naturalist), but
who allows herself or himself to be fully human while being a leader. Authentic and successful leaders
make mistakes, have good and bad days, and are perceived as ―down to earth‖ people.
          Other research has reported desirable leader qualities to include honesty, competence, vision,
inspiration, and reliability (Kouzes & Posner, 1987). Bass (1990) identified additional terms for the list of
leader qualities: a sense of friendliness, self-motivation, supportive of group tasks, control over one‘s own
emotions, dominance, great physical energy, a willingness to take risks, strong values, and maturity.

In discussing desired qualities of camp counselors (who are recreation leaders in an outdoor setting), Meier
and Mitchell (1993) provide a self-assessment checklist of leadership qualities against which an individual
could measure herself or himself to assess personal leadership potential. According to Meier and Mitchell
desired qualities of leaders include the following:
      Stamina
      Good health
      Pleasing appearance
      Tact
      Sense of humor
      Good communication skills
      Adaptability
      Emotional maturity
      Persistence
      Curiosity
      Good manners
      Cooperation
      Positive attitude
      Warm personality
      Initiative
      Can follow as well as lead

Many other authors have discussed a variety of leader qualities; most resemble the list above (Bass, 1990;
Chemers & Ayman, 1993;Foy, 1994; Hitt, 1993; Niepoth, 1983; Sessoms & Stevenson 1981; Shivers,
1980). It is important to recognize that while particular qualities are important, one must have many skills
and a knowledge base to be a truly effective and respected leader. In and of themselves, leadership qualities
will not result in effective leadership.

A solid core of values is one of the items identified be researchers and followers as being necessary for
effective leadership. Discussions about values often arouse controversy with some believing that is it not
right for any one person to assert her or his values on another while others believe this to be absolutely
necessary. One belief position asserts that all values are equally good; another belief paradigm judges
values by religious or philosophical tenets. It is common to question where (and by whom) values should
be taught—the home, church, school, playground, or other institution.

The fact that values are everywhere and none of us operate in a values vacuum (Edginton, Jordan, DeGraaf,
& Edginton, 1995). Everything we say and do reflects our values. The way we wear our hair, choice of
clothing, even the language we use reflects our values. Therefore, it is very important that leaders in leisure
services know and understand the values they promote covertly (subtly) as well as overtly (purposefully)
through their work and chosen leadership styles.

In addition to values related to right and wrong, there are other values that effective and well-respected
leaders exhibit in their work. These values tend to distinguish leaders from followers and cause certain
individuals to stand out. Used appropriately, the following values or qualities indicate a commitment to
positive leadership opportunities.

An Achievement Orientation
Achievement orientation is a value which indicates a sense if initiative or taking action. A leader who
exhibits an achievement orientation and focuses on achieving goals (i.e., societal, agency, or personal)
tends to be well respected. An achievement orientation can help a leader see a task through from beginning
to end (including cleanup and evaluation). It involves staying focused on the task and working with people
to insure that each individual‘s strengths are being utilized to achieve group goals.

An Other Orientation
In most leisure service situations, simply manifesting an achievement orientation is sufficient to be an
effective and capable leader. In addition to being goal-focused an effective leader exhibits the value of
being other oriented. This means that the needs of others are put ahead of the needs of the leader. For
instance, is a special program where T-shirts were made and there were not enough T-shirts for everyone,
the leader (not a participant) should be the first on to go without. Without compromising safety and
fairness, others‘ needs should come before the leaders‘ needs.

A Willingness to Take Risks
Often when people think about risk taking and they envision an element of danger, they wonder why a
capable leader would value risk-taking behaviors. As a value, risk-taking is important because it enables
and drives a leader to try new things; it keeps the leader from falling into a ―rut‖ and being unwilling to
change. It is critical, of coarse, that the risk taking be based on sound knowledge and good judgment. For
example, a leader exhibits risk-taking behaviors when he or she decides to keep the center open until
4:00a.m. so people working third shift jobs can utilize their facility. If this decision is based on facts, the
actual risk (of losing revenues due to low use) is minimized.

A Desire to Create Trustful Relationships
Trust is often perceived as the essence of leadership. Trust must be established between leaders and
followers early in the relationship in order for leadership to be most effective. A person who values trust
and believes in establishing trust with all participants will engender trust in others as well. Trust between
group members often results in the entire experience being highly enjoyable and group goals easy to

The fact that leaders lead by example and model behaviors is important to remember. Self-actualization is
the belief deep inside a person the she or he can do anything to which she or he puts her or his mind. By
living and modeling this type of value the leader helps others begin to believe in themselves as well. It is
through self-actualization that people learn it is acceptable to fail; therefore, self-actualization is an
important value of leaders in leisure services.

Self-esteem is evidenced by self-respect and tells a lot about how a person feels about herself or himself.
High self-esteem is experienced when a person likes and feels good about who she or he is. People with
high self-esteem tend to take care of themselves, and to think through consequences before making
decisions. Leaders who exhibit high self-esteem tend to be respectful, trusting, and have integrity; that is,
we can believe that they will do what they say they will.

Leaders are people who fill a variety of complex roles. They have all of the qualifications and limitations as
followers. They have good days and bad days. Some have leadership experience, and some do not. Those
who strive to be the most effective in leadership work to develop the skills, competencies, and
qualifications of leaders deemed by researchers as necessary to effective leadership. Leaders evolve over
time and are continually improving their skills.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes      No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Leadership and Leisure Services pg. 58-59 & 61-62

Choosing the Appropriate Leadership Style
As can be seen from reading this chapter there are many ways to view leadership. Some theories have much
in common with one another, while others are unique ways of looking at things. One thing is certain, there
are many styles of leadership that people use in their roles as leaders. In addition, there are many subtle
nuances to each of these styles. Most people feel more comfortable with one or two styles of leadership
than others. For instance, one person may feel very comfortable using a participative style where group
decisions are made through consensus. Another person may not fell comfortable with that much group
involvement and would prefer to exert a bit more leader control. Just how can a person tell which
leadership style is best?
          Most people who study leadership believe that choosing a particular leadership style depends upon
several factors including the leader, the group, and the situation (including the task). Leader maturity,
knowledge, and skills will have a strong impact on which styles of leadership are within a person‘s
repertoire. The maturity of the group, as well as group size, experience level, and other factors influence
which styles of leadership will be effective in what situations. The situation includes the task to be done
(activity), time constraints, the environment, equipment, temperature, and all the other external forces that
influence a group.
          With experience, a leader can tell which styles of leadership have potential to be effective and
which styles do not. Take a close look at Table 2A for ideas on how to determine appropriate leadership
styles to be most effective. Not all leadership styles are listed.

Table 2A A Comparison of Leadership Styles
 Style        Leader               Group              Situation
Exploitive           -strong                  -childlike                    -task oriented
Autocratic          -directive                -immature
                    -total control            -low confidence
                  -has no confidence       -low skills and knowledge
                    in participants

Benevolent           -skilled                  -low knowledge             -safety hazard /
Autocratic            -experienced                and skills                crisis
                      -mature                  -gives up control          -shared people/
                      -explains actions          to leader                 task orientation
                      -maintains control        -immature
                                                -needs much guidance

Consultive           -mature                      -mature                -no crisis or time
                     -high in skills               -moderate skill          constraint
                      and knowledge               and knowledge          -people oriented
                     -some trust in group        -trusts leader
                                                  -wants to learn
Participative        -mature                   -mature                 -consensus
                     -trusts group             -involved                 approach
                     -confident in own         -high skill and         -no time restraints
                      and group abilities        knowledge             -relaxed
                                                -cohesive              -comfortable
                                                -utilizes synergy      -people orientation

Laissez Faire       -mature                    -mature                   -process focus
                     -serves as a resource    -willing to work               within a task
                     -trust in group ability     through group
                      to work things out        dynamics
                     -leader gives up control -trusts leader
                                               -takes initiative

Coaching              -mature                   -lacks confidence        -people orientation
                       -high skills and          -needs assistance in    -just learning the
                        knowledge                 putting skills and      tasks
                       -group focused             knowledge to work

Leadership Style Definitions

Exploitive autocratic- on one extreme is a leadership style labeled exploitive autocratic where the message
from the leader is, ―You will do it.‖ The motivation for leadership comes from within the leader and the
results are designed to show the leader in the best possible light, even at the expense of others.

Benevolent autocratic- A paternalistic attitude is evidenced through leadership acts. Here the message from
the leader to participants might be, ―Do it. Please. Some follower variance is allowed from the leader‘s
directions, but participants know when the leader means business. Often, this style is used when a leader
believes people should do something for their own good. The style is still directive, but the motivation is in
the best interest of others rather than self.

Consultive- In this leadership style, the leader might ask for input, ―How would you like to do it?‖ Yet the
leader‘s decision is still final. Here, leaders allow group input and show some interest in group members,
but still retain the decision-making power. A consultive style of leadership implies some level of trust
between leader and group members. Participant knowledge and feelings are considered important and
leaders sincerely try to make people feel included.

Participative- In this leadership style, the leader not only seeks information from all participants, but
actually includes group members in the decision-making process. The message from the leader is, ―What
do you think we should do?‖ this style allows for full group involvement throughout the leadership and
decision-making processes.

Laissez faire- In French, lasses faire means to ―let it be,‖ to leave it alone. The message from the leader to
group members is ―I‘m not okay, your okay.‖ In this style of leadership the leader tends to shy away from
the group and decision-making responsibilities. Complete freedom is given to group members without any
participation from the leader. The leader provides information or materials when asked, but otherwise stays
out of the group process.

The Front Line
One of the biggest challenges leaders face is to select an appropriate leadership style or technique based on
the situation at hand. It may help if leaders become familiar with the various dimensions along which
leadership situations vary and consider the choices among them.

First it may be helpful to draw a continuum of leader styles or behaviors such as below:

Autocratic Consultive Laissez-faire Coaching Participative Democratic Consensus

Next, consider the leader and participant dimensions; the appropriate style would move along the
continuum from left to right based on the level of leader and participant:
     Maturity (from immature to mature)

        Skill level—in both content and process (from unskilled to highly skilled)
        Judgment (poor judgment to excellent judgment)
        Experience level—in both content and process (no experience to a lot of experience)
        Knowledge base—in both content and process (no knowledge to expert knowledge), and
        Emotional stability (has good control of emotions to no control of emotions).

The next step is to consider the environment in which the leadership situation takes place. Again, leader
style or approach would move along the continuum based on:
      Environment complexity (complex to simple)
      Structure and control of the environment (uncontrolled to highly controlled)
      Concern over hazards (many potential hazards to few or no potential hazards)
      Time constraints (from tight constraints to no time limits), and
      Familiarity with the environment (totally unfamiliar environs to very familiar environs).

Finally, a leader would want to consider the activity dimension. Leader style or approach moves along the
continuum from left to right based on how the activity varied:
     Rule or strategy complexity (highly complex to very simple)
     Level of importance (from activity is critical to group success to very low importance)
     Level of structure to activity (no structure to activity to much structure), and
     Degree of familiarity (totally new activity to a longtime favorite).

By considering one‘s own comfort level with various leadership styles and by attending to this checklist (of
sorts), leisure service leaders may be helped to decide upon the most appropriate level of leader
involvement in the leadership situation. Practice and much exposure to a variety of situations will also be
extremely helpful.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes      No       Comments:

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VOC Crew Leader Manual pg. 14-17

Establish a climate for communication. Begin creating this climate as the crew assembles, using an open
manner of greeting and talking to each person. Showing them that they are of value and importance starts
with eye contact and, however brief, undivided attention. The Crew Leader should not wear sunglasses
during this greeting. This opens the lines of two-way communication.

Listening skills keep these lines open. The crew needs to feel comfortable that they can ask questions,
comment, and share with the Crew Leader. Empathize with the members of the crew. Listen to the content
of their statements instead of how it was said. We ask our selves:

How do they feel; what are their concerns?
    Do I understand their point?
    Have I acknowledged their right to feel this way?

Good listening skills defuse misunderstandings and dissension. You can‘t be a good leader if you are so out
of touch with your crew that no one wants to follow you.

Planning and organizing will make effective use of the time and efforts of the crew. Volunteers have a
better experience when we don‘t waste their time.

         Planning involves taking time before the start of the project to analyze what will need to be done
         on project day. Planning includes breaking the work on the section into smaller ―doable‖ tasks,
         prioritizing and ordering the tasks and identifying the tools necessity to complete the section.

         Organization involves being prepared with everything needed from the planning stage. Making
         and using a written list will help ensure that nothing is forgotten.

Balance and Consistency
Balance and consistency give the crew a feeling of comfort and fairness.

         Balance means avoiding excesses with the work, with time, with the crew, and with yourself.
         Don‘t go overboard on any single aspect of what is being done. Standards and safety and quality
         will always be paramount. Building 100‘ of good trail is better than 500‘ of poor trail or 10‘ of
         beyond perfect trail.

         Consistency is important. A crew will lose its commitment and motivation if rules and
         expectations change, instructions are contradictory, or work must be redone.

Expectations and Goals
Expectations and goals give focus and guidelines for crew members to follow. There are three basic
             1) Establish the project as an elevated goal. If people value the goal, they will work for it.
             2) Identify the individual goals of the crew members. These goals, because the crew
                 members are motivated volunteers, probably support the project goals. If their personal
                 goals are not met, crew members can be disappointed even if the project goal is
                 accomplished. Accommodate personal goals whenever possible. This may require that
                 the volunteer be reassigned to another crew. (The most rewarding experience for a crew
                 is to achieve both project and personal goals.)
             3) Set clear expectations. People will live up to expectations when expectations are clearly
                 stated. This includes expectations for the project day and individual assignments.
                 Expectations should cover what the project should look like when it is completed as well
                 as the actions and behavior necessary to complete it.

Teaching—A Three-Step Process
    1) Introduction. Define the task at hand.
    2) Presentation. This is an explanation and demonstration of the skills necessary to complete the
        task. Gather the crew in a place that is comfortable. Show enthusiasm while stressing important
        points. Ask specific questions to insure that everyone is following what is said, such as, ―will you
        tell me what you‘re going to do so that I can be sure I explained myself clearly?‖
    3) Practice. We learn in different ways: seeing, hearing, doing. Instructions should use the different
        senses. Watch as your crew starts doing to see if your instruction was adequate. You may need to
        say or show more about why we proceed in a certain way. Permit the learner to learn by doing.
        Move to this step as soon as possible. The doing is the reason most of the people are there—the
        sooner they get to it the sooner they‘ll feel useful.

Constructive Criticism
It will be necessary to provide correct guidance to members of the crew. Here are some ground rules:
      Be direct- this is not a license to be unkind but an honest attempt to define the problem.
      Be specific- instead of, ―you‘re doing it wrong, try ―you‘re swinging the pulaski too high‖ or ―you
          will need more backslope because…‖
      Own your feelings- say ―I feel…‖
      Timing- try to deal with issues when they occur. Make every effort to praise in public, criticize in

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes      No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

Effective Communication
Many factors influence the communication process; they may be elements internal
to those communicating or external to the communication process. Internal factors that influence the
communication process include the need for shared meanings between the sender and receiver, sender and
receiver biases and prejudices, which might impact the communication process, individual readiness, and
the individual communication skills of those involved. External factors that might influence the
effectiveness of communication include the physical environment, timing issues, and noise. The physical
environment (e.g., room temperature, arrangement of furniture) can have an impact on participant readiness
to receive communication messages.
          Other factors that influence communication effectiveness are the varying emphasis placed on
either task accomplishment or moral within the group. If a group is very focused on task completion, for
instance, communication related to emotions, affect, and group feelings would not only be unwelcome, but
perhaps, distracting. In addition to group focus there are personal factors such as credibility and
trustworthiness that impact the communication process.
          Credibility and trustworthiness of both senders and receivers are necessary for effective
communication to occur. Credibility is addressed through issues such as task competence as well as
communication, character (i.e., issues of personal integrity), composure under stress, sociability and
likeableness and extroversion. The use of proper grammar, considering the emotional impact of what is
said, knowledge about the possible ambiguity of word and phrase choice, and understanding the needs of
the sender and receiver also contribute to one‘s perceived competence. Many of these issues fall under the
guise of professionalism.
          Effective communication involves an understanding of professionalism and sound knowledge of
and an ability to use basic communication skills in writing, oral communication, and non-verbal
communication. A sense of professionalism is communicated in the way one dresses, wears one‘s hair, and
carries one‘s self.

In addition to extruding professionalism, leisure service leaders convey messages through basic
communication skills which must be developed and continually improved upon throughout one‘s lifetime.
Leisure serve professionals tend to stress oral presentation skills (e.g., leading games, giving instructions)
and place less emphasis on other forms of communication. In addition to being accomplished speakers and
presenters, however, leisure service leaders must also be skilled in written communication.

Increasing Communication Effectiveness
Effective communication occurs when the intended message is the one that is received and the exchange if
information is accomplished efficiently. As can be seen from the model of communication presented
earlier, there are many places where effectiveness might be strengthened or compromised. To increase the
quality of the communication process leaders will want to subscribe to the following techniques.

Speak and Write at the Audience Level
Children require different communication patterns than do adults, and teens require an approach different
from children. Leaders should be well aware of when the communication is going to take place with people
who are culturally different from them; attempts should be made to reach the audience at its level of
readiness, and not where the leader thinks the group should be (or below its level). If one is communicating
with adults who know English as a second language, the choice of words and word arrangements should be
taken into account.

Communicate to Share Ideas
Many young leaders get caught up in communicating to ―puff‖ themselves up to make an impression on
those whom they are communicating. This type of impression management interferes with effective
communication because it is egocentric rather than being other oriented; the message is not content
focused, but rather self-centered. Being conscious of the function and reason for communication will aid in
maintaining clarity of purpose.

Consider Both Fact and Feeling Aspects of Communication
Too often words are chooses or information is delivered in a way that is offensive, shocking, or hurtful to
those relieving the messages. All communication has an emotional component to it and matching one‘s
words and message to the audience lends itself to effective communication. Leaders should also bear in
mind that potential audiences often extend beyond those who are immediately present. What is
communicated in one situation ―gets around‖ in short order.

If ever there was one thing to remember, it is that there can be a large difference between intent and
interpretation. Simply because the sender meant to send a particular message does not mean that was the
message received. What becomes important at the time, then, is the message as interpreted and perceived
by the receiver. This is particularity true when working with young children (ages 3 to 7 years) who are still
in the stage of literal understanding. Using a figure of speech would be inefficient in communicating an
intended message because youngsters interpret messages figuratively.

Good communicators are able to choose what to say from a variety of options—they understand the other
person‘s point of view, monitor their own behaviors to better understand how others perceive them, and
choose the appropriate way to converse (e.g., informal, formal, use of humor). Furthermore, leaders
understand the cultural context in which communication occurs. In addition to these traits of good
communicators, Johnson and Johnson (1991) presented the six Cs of effective communication. In
considering the suggestions listed below, leaders should note that with all communication efforts, these
style issues are culturally based. The following Cs identify effective communication:

        Clear (language and messages should be unambiguous);
        Concise Being succinct and concise minimizes misinterpretation);
        Correct (effective communication is correct communication);
        Complete (the communication cycle should be complete for a message to be fully understood);
        Courteous (being courteous and considerate of receivers and their needs enhances
         communication); and
        Convincing (to be effective, communication should be convincing in its logic and reasoning).

In any culture effective communicators are very aware that words have tremendous power. People take to
heart the words and tone the leader use. The use of ―I,‖ for instance, sets the stage to share personal
feelings; ―you‖ is a phrase that can project blame or pride, ―but‖ is a negating word that sinks to the heart
of listeners as in, ―you did well, but…‖ (but negates everything that came before it); ―yes,‖ a very positive
can-do word; ―no,‖ a word that should be used sparingly; ―should‖ and ―ought to‖ are two words that infer
a heavy responsibility, i.e., ―what happened if one should, but does not do…?‖ Leaders have tremendous
power and influence over their constituents through various ways of communication.
          No matter how much on knows about and practices effective communication, misinterpretations
and miscommunications are bound to occur. This is because so much of the communication cycle is out of
the control of one person. As with understanding that effective communication aids in successful
communication, so too does knowledge of miscommunication aid in avoiding common pitfalls—preparing
for miscommunication can minimize its negative effects.

To minimized miscommunication people must first come to understand five basic principles of
communication relationships: (1) we can never know the state of mind of others, (2) we depend on
ambiguous symbols to explain other‘s attitudes, (3) we use our own (defective) coding system to decipher
signals, (4) we may be biased in interpreting other‘s behaviors, and (5) we are not as accurate as we think
we are in interpreting others‘ messages (Gudykunst, 1991). Keeping in mind these principles, it is easy to
see how miscommunication might occur. In fact, we might wonder how we ever manage to communicate
          Miscommunication is a breakdown in the communication process; in can occur in several ways:
               The sender improperly encodes the message;
               The messages may be ambiguous;
               The channel may not be the best choice for the message;

                 The noise may be too intrusive;
                 The receiver may interpret the message; and
                 The feedback might be inadequate.

         The result of miscommunication, of course, is that the intended message is not the message
received. This results in actions on the part of the receiver that do not coincide with the intent of the sender.
Frustration, anger, inefficiency, and lack of task completion are a few of the results of such communication
         To get better at communicating, one must practice. This is true of oral, written, or nonverbal
language. In addition, being open to learning and feedback is critical for improvement to occur. Along with
repeating an important message three times, using demonstration and practice by receivers are desirable to
overcome potential barriers to communication.

Barriers to Communication
Communication is incredibly complex and while we engage in it constantly, most people do not
communicate well (Bolton, 1979). The good news is that communication skills are learned; poor
communication habits can be minimized and good communication skills can be enhanced. In spite of this,
barriers to communication exist in many places. In fact, people often interject barriers into the
communication process without realizing it.
          Whether one is a sender or receiver, ―people issues‖ may arise which act as barriers to
communication. The sender might put up barriers through engaging in one or more of the following
      Prejudging the receiver;
      Avoiding the real and immediate concerns of the receiver;
      Having disorganized thoughts;
      Having strong emotions;
      Trying to share too much information at one time;
      Using inappropriate language or nonverbal signs; and or
      Mismatching communication style with receiver

Receivers also put up barriers to effective communication. Receiver barriers include:
     Prejudging the seder;
     Poor listening skills;
     Defensiveness;
     Strong emotions;
     Incorrect assumptions;
     Different connotations for words and intonations; and or
     Mismatched communication styles with sender

Group problems also contribute to communication problems. Barriers to communication that arise out of
group problems include:
     A lack of cohesiveness;
     A lack of openness to opposing views;
     A lack of willingness to talk;
     Unacknowledged culture differences;
     Biases inherent within the group; and
     Ineffective leadership.

In order for verbal language to have any influence someone must be listening. As most people have learned
over time, to truly listen requires work—it does not simply happen. It is interesting to note that listening
takes up more waking hours than any other activity, yet 75% of oral communication is ignored (not listened
to) (Worchel & Simpson, 1993). This is an amazing statistic! Listening does take effort, and it is a
reciprocal and active process. This means that someone has to be listening in order for communication to
have an effect. Listening is a skill that everyone can learn and one which leisure services leaders should

work to develop. To fully utilize the communication process no aspect of it can be passive—ever step
requires active, conscious effort on the part of those involved. There are several types of active listening
(Cathcart & Samovar, 1992; Gibson & Hanna, 1992):

         Empathetic listening: This is a form of active listening which involves relationships and sharing
         feelings. Empathetic listening is an intimate process and involves an understanding of and the
         ability to reflect the feelings, needs, and intentions of others back to them. For instance, when
         listening to an irate customer an empathic listener might say (in a clam, well-modulated voice), ―I
         see you feel strongly about this.‖

         Comprehensive listening: Listening to understand the material presented; listening for facts, ideas
         and themes the speaker is trying to share is the goal of comprehensive listening. This is the
         common form of listening students use when learning in classes. It involves a ―holistic‖ type of

         Critical listening: This involves listening to evaluate ideas as they are expressed. Generally, it is
         used when trying to make judgments about persuasive messages of others. For example, when
         engaged in the fact-finding period in the problem solving process, leaders will use critical listening
         skills to ascertain pieces of truth from those involved in the conflict.

         Appreciative listening: Listeners who engage in listening for pleasure are appreciative listeners.
         Appreciative listening stimulates the mind and senses through listening to others. This is often the
         type of listening used by leaders when listening to elderly participants reflecting on their lives.

In order to understand the intended messages of any kind one needs to want to listen. This desire and
commitment to listen enables the receiver to pay attention to the context of what is being said and identify
and interpret the feelings of the speaker. Receivers can improve listening skills by practicing the three
primary skill clusters of listening: attending, following, and reflecting.

Attending Skills
Attending is the process of deciding which sounds are to be focused upon. It describes how listeners pay
attention to what is being said and how the message is being conveyed. In order to best attend to a speaker,
listeners often model an attending posture. An attending posture is one where the listener faces the speaker
squarely, has an open posture (no arms or legs crossed), leans towards the speaker, maintains eye contact,
and appears relaxed. At times, the listener‘s body may mirror the posture of the speaker. In essence,
attending is the nonverbal indication that a listener is paying attention and is well focused on the speaker.

Following Skills
Once a listener indicates attentiveness toward the speaker, following skills become important. Exhibiting
nonverbal door openers (e.g., eyebrows raised, an inviting look on face), making interpretive (for
clarification and acknowledgement), and using attentive silences and verbal prompts to continue talking are
all examples of these skills. Being attentive and following what is being said indicate active listening. The
third cluster of active listening consists of reflecting skills.

Reflecting Skills
Used to ensure understanding, reflecting skills include paraphrasing, reflecting meanings and feelings back
to the speaker, and summarizing what has been said. (Worchel & Simpson, 1993). Reflecting skills provide
an opportunity for the speaker to restate issues if needed, and to see that the listener truly comprehends the
message that is being sent. Listeners should be careful to avoid inappropriate responses. Inappropriate
responses include those which are irrelevant (ignores the speaker and message), tangential (an irrelevant
response more tactfully done—some acknowledgement of the speaker, then the subject changed),
incongruent (the response is in opposition to statement), and interruptions (breaking in before another
finishes) (Verderber & Verderber, 1992).
          As with verbal language, effective listening requires much practice. It can be difficult to learn at
first because many of us have picked up poor listening habits. Problems with listening may originate with
the receiver, the sender, or be found in any part of the communication cycle.

Factors Influencing the Ability to Listen Effectively
Listener problems include not listening (or poor listening skills), a lack of motivation to listen, and an
inability to make sense of the message. Speaker difficulties include speaking too quickly or slowly, being
unclear, and choosing an inappropriate time or place for communication. In addition, the message may be
poorly structured or have too much or too little detail, and be based on incorrect assumptions. Furthermore,
if the environment is too noisy or uncomfortable, listening will be negatively affected.

Listening, speaking and sending messages occur among and between all types of people. Due to the diverse
nature if society, effective leaders understand that communicating with others may not be as clear-cut or
simple as we would like. We have a tendency to assume others are like ourselves in values, thoughts, and
attitudes. These assumptions are not always accurate, however, and can lead to ineffective communication.
Effective communicators strive to identify their own assumptions about others, and to learn more about the
values, beliefs, and attitudes of those different from themselves.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
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The Human Services Counseling Notebook pg. 187-188

A Model of Crisis Intervention
1. Define the problem. This requires understanding the problem from the client‘s perspective. It is of
utmost importance because this understanding forms the basis upon which prevention and treatment plans
are formulated. It is recommended that the counselor use active listening skills and reflection to achieve
this understanding. Many times, unless we hear and understand from the client‘s position, we never really
know what the concern is. Examples:
          Using open-ended questions, the counselor will receive answers that more fully detail the client‘s
          Counselor: Explain to me the situation as you see it.
          Counselor: Tell me about what is going on in your life.
          Ensure client safety. This involves ―minimizing the physical and psychological danger to self and
          others‖ (Gilliand & James, 1996). Safety is paramount throughout crisis intervention, and it should
          be at the forefront of the counselor‘s mind through every client/counselor encounter. Depending
          on the client‘s state of mind, the counselor will need to determine hoe directive to be. If a client
          wants to die by taking his own life, the intervention will be very directive and enlist the support of
          police, family, and others. It is important to understand that, when clients are in crisis, they have
          trouble with problem solving, and therefore need direction. Examples:
          Counselor (directive): I want you to stay here until I can get you some support.
          Counselor (non-directive): Who can help you with this problem?
          In some situations it will be readily apparent the client is at risk to be harmed, by self or another
          individual. The client‘s safety can be enhanced by seeing that she is removed from the situation
          and has someone with her who can assist her or act on her behalf.
          Provide support. This involves communicating to clients that the counselor is present for them and
          cares about them. The counselor must consistently provide unconditional positive regard fir the
          client as a human being. Example:
          The counselor‘s verbal and nonverbal communication is congruent. The counselor actively listens
          and is attentive.
2. Examine alternatives. This involves brainstorming in order to uncover a wide variety of resources and
choices available to the client. Example:
          Counselor: Let‘s go through all of the resources you have available.
          Counselor: Now we know the resources available, exactly what is it you want to happen?
          Counselor: With the resources you have available, what alternatives do you have to obtain the
          outcome you want?
3. Make plans. This will involve collaborating with the client to formulate a realistic, action-oriented
strategy that is attainable, given the client‘s current mental state and capabilities. Example:
          Client: The next time I am feeling frustrated, I will go for a walk. This will get me out doing
          something, so I don‘t sit around stewing about Ann. I do not want to think about hurting myself,
          and if I continue to feel frustrated, I will.
          Counselor: Sounds like a step in the right direction.
          Obtain commitment. This involves having the client commit to definite, positive actions and be
          responsible for undertaking them. Example:
          Restate the plan, ensuring that the client takes ownership of the plan. In some instances, the
          client‘s verbal agreement is sufficient; however, in situations like suicide intervention a written
          contract may have greater impact for the client.

Leadership in Leisure Services pg. 232-234

Many individuals are well skilled at conflict avoidance. When a difficulty arises individuals who are skilled
in avoidance techniques might engage in denial (―What problem? There is no problem!‖), shift topics
(―Problem? Say did you hear about the new facility being built down the road?‖), make noncommittal
comments (―Problem? It certainly does need to be addressed.‖), make irreverent remarks (―Problem? Ah,
they‘ll get over it!‖) or ignore the issue completely.
          An avoidance approach is an unassertive method of dealing with very real issues. It often indicates
a lack of respect for oneself and fear of dealing with the issue or the person involved. Often, this approach
is used when the leader is hesitant to hurt someone‘s feelings, when the leader is fearful that others will
cease liking him or her, and when one does not want to take time to address the concern. Avoidance usually
results in a lose-lose situation—no one comes out ahead and the difficulty remains.

Accommodation is another nonassertive approach. In this instance, however, rather than avoiding the issue,
the facilitator attempts to cooperate with (do a favor or yield to) others. Accommodation involves doing as
the other needs or requests; it is essentially obliging the other party. For instance, a leader might handle a
conflict over a shred facility by giving in to the most vocal and persistent participant rather than actually
addressing the issue at hand. Accommodation is often viewed as a win-lost relationship and may reflect a
lack of confidence in self.

Competitive reactions to difficulties may be seen in verbal aggression and confrontation between two or
more individuals; this is often characterized as a one-up relationship. In a competitive approach to conflict,
each party seeks to overpower and dominate the other. Often, personal criticism and attacks are utilized as
are hostile jokes or questions, and a denial of responsibility for the situation. Competitive reactions to
conflict may be observed in arguments by young children over who gets to play with which toy—there is a
great amount of grabbing, shoving and screaming by both parties involved. Teens and adults also engage in
competitive approaches to conflicts. A competitive approach to problem solving is perceived as a win-lose
relationship, and while it serves the needs of one, it is unhealthy for all disputants.

In compromise each side gives in or concedes some aspects of its position to the other. It is reflective of a
give and take philosophy where the goal is to obtain an equal exchange in the resolution or management of
the conflict. Often when they compromise, participants feel as though neither party has achieved a
satisfactory conclusion to the issue. An example might be a disagreement over which activity to play for
the last twenty minutes of a session. The parties might agree to play two games for ten minutes each,
which is not enough time for either participant to truly enjoy her or his favorite activity. This approach is
viewed as a lose-lose or weak win-win conflict management approach.

Collaboration is the most preferred difficulty management technique. It involves each individual attempting
to work towards meeting the goals of the other and doing so together. It is distinguished from compromise
in that in compromise each party gives up something to move ahead. In collaboration each party looks to
work together and combine resources in moving ahead. In collaboration, both parties work jointly and
accept responsibility for the final decision. It is a win-win position for all involved. An example of
collaborative problem solving might be in meeting to different needs—one group member has a need for
status, another a need for to complete the task. They might work together to accomplish the task and then
address the status issue through publicly naming those directly responsible for the task completion.

Selecting the Best Approach
According to Brightham (1988) interpersonal conflict may be handled by examining two dimensions—
level of assertiveness and level of cooperation. A position low in cooperation and low in assertiveness
would be a characteristic of the avoidance approach. An individual at these coordinates does not have to
take a strong position with regard to the conflict; constructive problem solving is usually not possible with
utilizing this technique. One who is high on assertion and low in cooperation usually exhibiting a
competitive approach to conflict management. Little discussion is evident, conflicts are not addressed, and
others are often bullied into agreement.

A leader demonstration a high cooperation and low assertion combination is likely manifesting conflict
management as accommodation. For this individual, group harmony is the ultimate goal, yet problem
solutions are often ineffective. A mark in the center if the grid showing a medium amount of both
cooperation and assertion typically results in compromise. Involved parties seek middle ground, and each
gives up some of what they want. In a high cooperation and high assertion position one is in the
collaboration mode. Here, individuals confront disagreement openly, people listen to on another,
disagreements are not perceived as personal, and effective management of the difficulty results.

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information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

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Leadership in Leisure Services pg. 235-236

To be effective in managing various types of difficulties, leaders need to understand that when in conflict
people will see things very differently then one another; perceptions of the problem situation differ and by
varying degrees. Perceptions are based on personal filters (i.e., how one sees the world), first impressions
of those involved, and past experiences. Leaders who are aware of their own feelings relative to the
situation (e.g., the other person, the environment, personal fatigue, and timing), who focus on the entire
situation, who seek to change positions and understand varying viewpoints, and are aware of their own
biases and prejudices related to the persons involved tend to be more effective than others in managing
difficulties (Crawley, 1994).
          A leader who is a constructive conflict manager has many traits: an ability to understand and deal
with difficult emotions; empathy and the ability to earn trust; openness and sensitivity to others; emotional
balance (i.e., understands own feelings and their impact on the situation); self-awareness and integrity; the
ability to take a nonjudgmental stance; the ability to think creatively and deal with complex factual
material; and an ethic of thoroughness and professionalism. Effective and well-respected leaders also
exhibit these traits.

Guidelines for Constructive Management of Difficulties
Learning to manage conflicts and solve problems is an ongoing process of new and improved skill
development, and it is often helpful to follow a set of general guidelines when learning new skills. It is also
important to remember that dealing with conflict management and problem solving can be a very emotional
and complex situation—for both the conflict manager and those directly involved in the issue. Managing
difficulties well requires creative thinking, self-awareness, a knowledge of managing techniques, and
strong communication skills. The following guidelines may help leaders in successful conflict
      Address the emotional issues first by acknowledging and validating each person‘s feelings (―You
          seen very angry right now‖);
      As a facilitator, be clear about what you see, how you judge, and how you react to people and
          situations (I have a tendancy to judge quickly so I should take a moment to gather my thoughts
          before making up my mind);
      Practice ―no fault‖ thinking (This situation is not the fault of any one person; it exists and must be
      As a facilitator, understand and take charge of your own feelings and behaviors (I am fatigued and
          might not see things as clearly as I should);
      Step bak and take a balanced view of the situation;
      Observe and analyze the conflict from three perspectives: mine, yours/theirs, and the ―fly on the
      Respond positively to what is done and what is said (―I appreciate your willingness to work
          through this‖);
      Remember that managing conflict is a process (what occurs during the management process is just
          as important as the end result);
      Keep process activities and satements in the first person; use ―I‖ statements (An ―I message‖ is a
          four part staement: ―I feel (name the emotion), when (this occurs), because (identify the effect on
          self), and I would like (this to happen).‖); and
      Beware of avaiod power plays and power issues between disputants.

Constructive management of problems and conflicts involves being self-aware as well as being willing to
consider all sides of an issue. Remember that within each person‘s perception a bit of truth is found. It is
also helpful to remember that perceptions are very real to each individual. Discounting individual
comments and insights as ―wrong‖ or ―stupid‖ may lead to a future unwillingness to adress conflict in a
proactive and straightforward fashion.


―Whatever you can do, or dream, begin it. Boldness has genius, power and magic in it.‖

Seeds for Thought:
If you had one dream to ―begin‖ what would it be? How do you find strength in your dream?
Do you agree with the statement, ―Boldness has genius, power and magic?‖ Why/Why not?
Describe the ―magic‖ in your crew. How does this ―magic‖ help to inspire the crew to accomplish difficult

―It is time for parents to teach young people early on that in diversity there is beauty and there is strength.
We all should know that diversity makes for a rich tapestry, and we must understand that all the threads of
the tapestry are equal in value no matter their color.‖
          - Maya Angelou

Seeds for Thought:
Create a drawing to represent this quote.
What does she mean by, ―in diversity there is beauty and . . . strength?‖
What are the important components of a ―rich tapestry?‖
How does this quote relate both to the environment and the human condition?
How has your corps experience helped you to further appreciate diversity?

―The end of all education should surely be service to others. We cannot seek achievement for ourselves and
forget about the progress and prosperity for our community. Our ambitions must be broad enough to
include the aspirations and needs of others for their sake and for our own.‖
         -Cesar Chavez

Seeds for Thought:
Why does Chavez believe in service?
How does your corps service help your community and its progress?
After your corps work, in what ways are you most inspired to serve your community?
Give examples of how your corps service has not only helped the community for which you are serving,
but also your self.

―Though we travel the world to find the beautiful, we must carry it with us or we find it not.‖
       -Ralph Waldo Emerson

Seeds for Thought:
Free write for 10 minutes about your ―inner beauty.‖ Was this a difficult assignment? Why or why not?
Share with your crew ways in which your corps experience has helped you to find your ―inner beauty.‖
How can you help fellow crew members to find their ―inner beauty?‖

Additional Seeds for Thought

Choose one quote and analyze its meaning. Spend the next 10 minutes free writing. Share your inspirations
with your crew.
Do you know any of the authors of these famous quotes? Share your knowledge with the crew.
Choose a quote and draw its meaning to you. Use symbolism to help express your ideas.
If you had to select one quote to represent your philosophy on life, which one would you choose? Explain.

I HAVE A DREAM: Martin Luther King, Jr., August 28,1963
I say to you today, my friends, even though we face the difficulties of today and
tomorrow, I still have a dream. It is a dream deeply rooted in the American Dream.

I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the meaning of its
creed: ―We hold these truths to be self-evident; that all men are created equal.‖

I have a dream that one day, on the red hills of Georgia, sons of former slaves and the
cons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at the table of

I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state sweltering with the
heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an
oasis of freedom and justice.

I have a dream that one day that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they
will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character.

I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one day, down in Alabama, with its vicious racists, with its
governor having his lips dripping with the words of interposition and nullification,
one day right there in Alabama, little black boys and black grils will be able to join
hands with little white boys and white girls and walk together as sisters and brothers.

I have a dream today.

I have a dream that one day every valley shall be exalted, every hill and mountain
shall be made low, the rough places will be made plains, and the crooked places will
be made straight, and the glory of the Lord shall be revealed, and all flesh shall see it together.

This is our hope. This is the faith that I go back to the south with. With this faith we
will be able to hew out of the mountain of despair a stone of hope. With this faith
we will be able to transform the jangling discords of our nation into a beautiful
symphony of brotherhood. With this faith we will be able to work together, to pray
Together, to struggle together, to go to jail together, knowing that we will be free one Day.

Seeds for Thought
What have been the impacts of Martin Luther King, Jr.‘s dreams? Was Martin Luther King‘s dream that
far fetched?
Have race relations improved since the 1950‘s?
What can we do today to keep his ―dream‖ alive?
Do you think we have reached some of the points he describes in his speech? What are your dreams?

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More than half of all people in the United States oppose gay marriage, even though three fourths are
otherwise supportive of gay rights. This means that many of the same people who are even passionately in
favor of gay rights oppose gays on this one issue. One significant aspect of the controversy deals with the
great deal of discrepancy over what marriage itself is all about and what its purpose is. For this reason, the
discussion on marriage constitutes much of the arguments opposing gay marriage. Other arguments against
gay marriage include the following:

        Marriage is an institution between one man and one woman.
        Same sex couples are not the optimum environments in which to raise children.
        Gay relationships are immoral.
        Marriages are for procreation and ensuring the continuation of the species.
        Same-sex marriage would threaten the institution of marriage.
        Marriage is traditionally a heterosexual institution.
        Same-sex marriage is an untried social experiment.
        Same-sex marriage would start us down a "slippery slope" towards legalized incest, bestial
         marriage, polygamy and all kinds of other horrible consequences.
        Granting gays the right to marry is a "special" right.
        Sodomy should be illegal and was until very recently.
        Gay marriage would mean forcing businesses to provide benefits to same-sex couples on the same
         basis as opposite-sex couples.
        Gay marriage would force churches to marry gay couples when they have a moral objection to
         doing so.

The arguments in favor for gay marriage are simple: homosexuals should have the same rights to marriage
as any other person in the U.S.

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In the early 1970s, the leftist terrorist group, the Weather Underground, reportedly attempted to blackmail a
homosexual officer at USAMRIID into supplying organisms which would be used to contaminate
municipal water supplies in the U.S. The plot was discovered when the officer requested several items
"unrelated to his work." In Chicago, in 1972, members of the right-wing group Order of the Rising Sun,
who were dedicated to creating "a new master race" were found in possession of 30 to 40 kilograms of
typhoid bacteria cultures that were to be used to contaminate the water supplies of several mid-western
cities. In 1975, the Symbionese Liberation Army was found in possession of technical manuals on how to
produce bioweapons.

In 1978, a Bulgarian exile named Georgi Markov, living in London, was stabbed in the leg, with a device
disguised as an umbrella, which injected a tiny pellet containing ricin toxin, while he was waiting for a bus.
He died several days later. The communist Bulgarian government, it was later revealed, carried out this
assassination,, and the technology to commit the crime was supplied by the former Soviet Union.

In 1980, a Red Army Faction safe house was reportedly discovered in Paris which included a laboratory
containing quantities of botulinum toxin. In 1993, the U.S. House Armed Services Committee described the
discovery of another home laboratory, in 1989, in Paris, in which botulinum toxin was produced. This was
linked to a cell of the German Bader Mainhof organization.

The FBI arrested two brothers in Northeastern U.S. in 1983 for being in possession of an ounce of nearly
pure ricin. And, in 1995, two other men were the first convicted under the Biological Anti-Terrorism Act of
1989, for production of ricin. The two were members of a group called the Minnesota Patriots Council, and
had planned to poison federal agents by placing ricin on doorknobs.

The most famous, and successful use of bioterrorism on U.S. soil occurred during September 1984, when
followers of the Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh contaminated salad bars in The Dalles, Oregon with Salmonella
Typhimurium. The salad bar contamination caused over 750 cases of salmonellosis. It was later discovered
that the Rajneeshpuram cult wanted to influence the local county commissioners election, so as to form
their own township. The September bioterrorism act was a trial run for the planned November election
attack, which was later canceled, as the plan seemed to be ineffective. The cult members obtained the
Salmonella strain through the mail from the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC).

The Japanese doomsday cult, AumShinrikyo, while seeking to establish a theocratic state in Japan, released
sarin gas in Tokyo subway stations in 1995. They were later discovered to have developed and attempted to
use other chemical agents (VX gas and hydrogen cyanide) and biological agents (B. anthracis, Coxiella
burnetii, Ebola virus, and botulinum toxin) on at least ten other occasions. Their multiple attacks using
sarin gas killed at least 20 people and injured more than 1,000 others.

In May of 1995, Larry Wayne Harris was arrested for illegally obtaining the plague bacteria Yersinia pestis.
Using his previous employer‘s certification, Harris obtained the samples through the mail from the ATCC.
He was sentenced to eighteen months probation and 200 hours of community service. Harris was again
arrested in 1998 when he and another individual were found allegedly in possession of anthrax cultures,
which were later determined to be anthrax vaccine. Due to the ease of obtaining dangerous pathogens, the
CDC established rigorous guidelines for shipment of specific pathogens, which may be used as
bioterrorism agents.

The most recent incidents of bioterrorism began in 2001 with the discovery of white powder in envelopes.
The appearance of this ―powder‖ began a national scare. The white substance turned out to be anthrax and
the nation was put on alert for any suspicious unidentified substances.

Social Security's financing problems are long term and will not affect today's retirees and near-retirees, but
they are very large and serious. People are living longer, the first baby boomers are nearing retirement, and
the birth rate is low. The result is that the worker-to-beneficiary ratio has fallen from 16.5-to-1 in 1950 to
3.3-to-1 today. Within 40 years it will be 2-to-1. At this ratio there will not be enough workers to pay
scheduled benefits at current tax rates.

If Social Security is not changed, payroll taxes will have to be increased, the benefits of today's younger
workers will have to be cut, or massive transfers from general revenues will be required. Social Security's
Trustees state, "If no action were taken until the combined trust funds become exhausted in 2041, much
larger changes would be required. For example, payroll taxes could be raised to finance scheduled benefits
fully in every year starting in 2041. In this case, the payroll tax would be increased to 16.66 percent at the
point of trust fund exhaustion in 2041 and continue rising to 18.10 percent in 2079. Similarly, benefits
could be reduced to the level that is payable with scheduled tax rates in every year beginning in 2041.
Under this scenario, benefits would be reduced 26 percent at the point of trust fund exhaustion in 2041,
with reductions reaching 32 percent in 2079.‖

The four basic alternatives that are being discussed to help improve the outlook of Social Security --
singularly or in combination with each other -- are (1) increasing payroll taxes, (2) decreasing benefits, (3)
using general revenues or (4) pre-funding future benefits through either personal savings accounts or direct
investments of the trust funds.

The United States is not the only country having to deal with lack of funding for Social Security. Other
country‘s outlook is just the same if not worse than that of the United States. Many of these countries have
begun to pre-fund their social security plans. More than 30 countries, including Britain, Australia and
Sweden, have established versions of personal accounts.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
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Richard Smith
The No Child Left Behind Act represents President George Bush‘s framework for bipartisan education
reform that he described as "the cornerstone of my Administration." The No Child Left Behind Act was
passed in 2001 and incorporates the principles and strategies proposed by President Bush. These include
increased accountability for States, school districts, and schools; greater choice for parents and students,
particularly those attending low-performing schools; more flexibility for States and local educational
agencies (LEAs) in the use of Federal education dollars; and a stronger emphasis on reading, especially for
our youngest children.

Accountability is a good thing, but the problem with NCLB is how educational success and accountability
are measured. I believe that in educating our youth, everyone holds some degree of accountability:
teachers, administrators, parents, siblings, relatives, preachers, rabbis, coaches. Some people may hate her
(Justin, stop grinding your teeth), but Hillary Clinton hit it right on the head with her book ―It Takes a
Village.‖ But bottom line is each student should take responsibility for their education and be held
accountable for it. It is the job of each teacher to provide an environment and ample opportunities for each
student to reach and exceed their potential, and to instill in each student a lifetime love for learning. But
there are some students that you just can‘t reach or do not want to be reached. Is it fair for a teacher to have
to spend a disproportional amount of time trying to reach one or two kids at the expense of the other 28
kids in the class? I have 30 kids in each of my classes, and there is no way I can reach every student. The
way the system is set up, we teach to the middle and hope that those on the edges have their needs met in
ours and other situations.

My main objection to NCLB is the use of a standardized test as the sole measure of knowledge learned,
progress, and therefore, accountability. A multiple choice test does not necessarily measure intelligence or
advancement, more often it measures how well a student can take that particular test. There is too much
left open to the luck of blind guessing. I could ace one of these tests not because I am intelligent, but I
know HOW to take these tests and know many of the strategies that improve my chances of answering
correctly (A.K.A. GUESSING). Ask yourself why Colorado Bill Owens refused to release the results of
his CSAP tests, the tests he took while in office. Either he is not intelligent enough to earn a proficient
score (which makes him a hypocrite for demanding these tests), he is really bad at taking these kinds of
tests, or the test is such a ridiculous measurement of intelligence that sets passing levels at such a
ridiculously high standard that even he could not pass. But is Bill Owens a dummy? Of course not, but his
level of intelligence cannot be accurately measured in one test. Can anyone‘s? Again, of course not!
Intelligence and progress should be inferred from a variety of resources. It‘s a puzzle, and a standardized
test should be just one piece of that puzzle, and a very small one indeed. Basing accountability on one test
is unrealistic and gives an inaccurate, incomplete picture in the entire photo album that is an individual‘s
intellect and that is a teacher's skills and effectiveness.

Why else are these tests unreliable? Consider distracting influences. What if a student has a headache?
What if they are an extremely slow test taker? What if there is someone mowing the grass across the
street? What if they have spoken English for only two years? What if they are mild needs special ed
student? What if they have bad menstrual cramps? What if their father beat the crap out of them the night
before? What if their mother was passed out drunk and couldn‘t make them breakfast? What if they decide
the test is a waste of time and intentionally answers every problem incorrectly? What if their grandmother
died over the weekend? What if they have an unidentified information processing disorder or reading
disorder? What if they are a visual spatial learner rather than an auditory-sequential learner? The point is,
there are just too many external factors that can come into play that can negatively influence the scores, and
while there are some accommodations that help to balance the playing field (an extra 10 minutes, oral
reading of questions by the test proctor, etc.), there could never be enough accommodations to fairly even
the playing field. 98% of students, regardless of extraneous circumstances, takes the same test and are
graded on the same scale.

Economics certainly plays into test results. Allow me to make a few broad generalizations. Most (but
certainly not all) middle and upper middle class families tend to be better educated and value education

more than lower income families. They have more books at home and parents spend more time reading
with their young children. They watch more educational TV programs. They take their kids to museums.
They can pay the extra fees for after-school academic programs. So most lower income children start
school at a distinct disadvantage compared to their middle and upper class peers, one that can take years to
overcome in the best circumstances (let‘s take a moment to thank Bush and other like-minded politicians
who want to cut funding for before and after school programs and Head Start). But since schools are
funded primarily through property taxes, the middle and upper class kids (who already have an early
advantage) go to newer, better-equipped, better-funded schools. When it comes test time, it does not matter
how good the teachers at a lower income school are, these kids are at a distinct disadvantage. RB has
chimed into this dialogue. He teaches at an inner city school, and he is a damn good teacher and person.
He has helped to bring his kids reading levels and interest in school way up, several grade levels in many
cases. Yet, because these kids still score in the lower ranges, and because progress within a school year is
not what is measured, his kids and the school are still deemed below the ―proficient‖ level. Bringing your
kids up three grade levels in one year is what I call teaching. Scoring well on a standardized multiple
choice is one piece of a puzzle, but it should NEVER be an end-all measure of educational goals and

I have taught in two education systems that use standardized test, both here in the U.S and in Japan. In
Japan, standardized tests are administered twice, and both have a major impact on students‘ lives. Both are
used under the auspices of measuring achievement and progess. The first is given in junior high school,
and the results are used to determine which high school each student will attend. The highest group goes to
the academic school where almost all students then continue to college. The next groups go to (in no
particular order), technology school, agriculture school, a ―home economics" school, and a school for kids
who have to go to school but couldn‘t care less. Most of these kids do not go to college even if they
wanted to. The second test is administered in high school and helps determine which college kids can go
to, should they choose. For both of these test, the influence of one of the above mentioned external
distractions can make or break a student‘s career and change their lives. Is this fair? Does this seem like
an effective way to measure intelligence?

Many times we hear that the Japanese students are blowing away their American peers on test scores. This
is due to the importance placed on these standardized tests because they give hard data to demonstrate
intelligence and progress. So, teachers are teaching to the test, to make sure that the students do well on the
test, not to give them the tools they need to solve complex real-life situations. Ask the average Japanese
student to analyze the data from a survey on favorite television programs and they‘ll nail down the answers
with ease. Ask a Japanese student what is their favorite television show, and they will turn beet red
and fluster about, literally ask their neighbors to tell them what their favorite show is. Some cannot even
come up with an answer! I am not exaggerating, I saw this happen on many occasions!!!

The point is that once teachers start teaching to a standardized test, other important skills and learning tools
are sacrificed. There are only so many hours in the day. But when you begin cutting electives, music, art,
health, cultures, and other non-traditional subject, you take away the kids development of global awareness
and problem solving skills in favor of rote memorization skills. Teachers do an exceptional job given the
parameters laid out for them as far as curriculum and scheduling, but it is damaging to effective instruction
when a teacher must focus on making sure their students pass the test or else their job is at stake.

Students should be held accountable not through success on one standardized test, but by demonstrating
knowledge, understanding, and effort through their work. I, as a teacher, would much rather spend the year
having students accumulate a portfolio of their best work in each subject, then spend the time normally set
aside for CSAPs sitting down with parent volunteers and other teachers to evaluate each student‘s portfolio.
This would give a much better picture of each student‘s performance, cost a hell of a lot less money, and
involve parents in the process. Bottom line: an effective measurement of student achievement AND an
effective measurement of teacher performance, motivation skills, and professional achievement.

Politicians should not be writing education policy. Educators should be writing education policy. NCLB
stinks of politics, and is not based on research-based best practices. In this case, as in most, the ends by no
way justify the means.

Public schools are not a business, they are a public service, and should not be run the same way as a
business. If Bush wants to run public schools as a business, is it really wise to be taking business advice
from someone whose budget practices and economic ethics rely on tax cuts during a war, running up
historic debt and passing it on to our children and unborn generations, and not including all real costs in
budget planning?

If the choice is politicians making education policy or educators making political policy, I‘ll choose the
latter. Better yet, politicians should enlist and heed the advice of well trained, experienced educators in
forming policy.

All parents already have the choices to send their kids to whatever school they want. One choice are
private schools, and in the public schools, its called optional enrollment.

And not swallowing hook, line, and sinker every party policy is another choice. Other options are out
there. Just because George Bush says this is the best way to go, well, look at his other assertions and their
truthfulness and you will understand the skepticism that abounds.

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?               Yes      No        Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

The "World Bank" is the name that has come to be used for the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA). Together these organizations
provide low-interest loans, interest-free credit, and grants to developing countries.

The World Bank Group‘s mission is to fight poverty and improve the living standards of people in the
developing world. It is a development Bank that provides loans, policy advice, technical assistance and
knowledge sharing services to low and middle income countries to reduce poverty.

Conceived during World War II at Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, the World Bank initially helped
rebuild Europe after the war. Its first loan of $250 million was to France in 1947 for post-war
reconstruction. Reconstruction has remained an important focus of the Bank's work, given the natural
disasters, humanitarian emergencies, and post conflict rehabilitation needs that affect developing and
transition economies.

Today's Bank, however, has sharpened its focus on poverty reduction as the overarching goal of all its
work. It once had a homogeneous staff of engineers and financial analysts, based solely in Washington,
D.C. Today, it has a multidisciplinary and diverse staff including economists, public policy experts,
sectoral experts, and social scientists. 40 percent of staff are now based in country offices.

During the 1980s, the Bank was pushed in many directions: early in the decade, the Bank was brought face
to face with macroeconomic and debt rescheduling issues; later in the decade, social and environmental
issues assumed center stage, and an increasingly vocal civil society accused the Bank of not observing its
own policies in some high profile projects.

Since then, the Bank Group has made much progress. All five institutions have been working separately
and in collaboration - to improve internal efficiency and external effectiveness. Clients report to be broadly
pleased with the changes they see in Bank Group service levels, commitment, deliveries, and quality.

More than ever before, the Bank is playing an important role in the global policy arena. It has effectively
engaged with partners and clients in complex emergencies from post-conflict work in Bosnia to post-crisis
assistance in East Asia to post-hurricane clean up in central America to post-earthquake support in Turkey
and in Kosovo and East Timor.

From the Bank's experience, what are the most effective ways to deliver aid to developing countries?
The Bank's Comprehensive Development Framework (CDF) outlines its approach to assisting developing
countries. Key points include:
      Encouraging countries to lead development projects so that they are a transparent collaboration
          built on trust, power-sharing and consultation.
      Taking a long-term approach to aid across the range of programs in a particular country.
      Measuring success by actual results rather than the amount of inputs.
      Encouraging the recipient country to take ownership of the reform process. Recognizing this, the
          Bank's development strategy has two pillars.
               o The first is to create a good investment climate to encourage entrepreneurship which in
                    turn can create jobs and increase the number of opportunities for poor people.
               o The second is to expand the opportunities for poor people to participate in decisions that
                    affect their lives and the lives of their families. Essential in this process are human and
                    legal rights which protect livelihoods and assets and enable poor people to invest in their
                    futures and be included in the society in which they live.
What common factors are associated with successful development?
In its decades of experience, the Bank has recognized several common factors associated with overall
progress in development.
      Economic growth: The countries that have reduced poverty are those that have grown the fastest.
          Successful development requires sustained periods of high per capita growth.

        Good Governance: An active state with good governance in both the public and private sectors,
         fosters an environment where contracts are enforced and markets can operate. It also ensures that
         basic infrastructure functions, there is adequate health, education and social protection and people
         can participate in decisions that affect their lives.
        A vital private sector: Small and medium-sized enterprises play an important role in generating
         employment opportunities for poor people.
        Ownership: Countries need to have ownership of the development agenda. This helps ensure
         there is widespread support for development programs.
        Empowerment: All people should have the ability to shape their own lives by being able to
         participate in the opportunities provided by economic growth and have their voices heard in
         relation to decisions that affect their lives. Access to essential services such as health and
         education should also be provided on an equitable basis.

Why is it important to empower women in developing countries and what is its effect on
Evidence shows that expanding opportunities for girls and women not only improves their position in
society, but that it also has a major impact on the overall effectiveness of development. Studies show that
the education of mothers improves the health of their children and lowers the fertility rate. Studies also
show that when women have more control over the family's income or productive assets, the family's
overall situation improves. Evidence shows that when women and men are relatively equal, economies tend
to grow faster, the poor move more quickly out of poverty, and the well-being of men, women and children
is enhanced.
In Brazil, income in the hands of mothers has four times the impact on children's height-for-age as income
in the hands of fathers; and
In Sub-Saharan Africa, a large proportion of women are farmers. If women could participate in agriculture
on an equal basis to men, total agricultural outputs could increase by up to 20 percent.

Seeds for Thought
Have you ever heard of the World Bank? What is your impression of their work?

How does the World Bank affect your life or the lives of those you care about most?

After using this section as a SEED Session, please comment on the strengths and weaknesses of this
information as a teaching tool, as a SEED Session, as a resource for further SEED Guidebooks:

Would you include this section in future SEED publications?              Yes      No       Comments:

Do you have any suggestions for future topics of exploration for SEED publications?

The United Nations was established on October 24, 1945 when 51 countries committed to preserving peace
through international cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every nation in the world belongs
to the U.N.: current membership totals 191 countries. The U.N. has four purposes: to maintain
international peace and security; to develop friendly relations among nations; to cooperate in solving
international problems and in promoting respect for human rights; and to be a center for harmonizing the
actions of nations.

It provides the means to help resolve international conflicts and formulate policies on matters affecting all
of us. A the U.N., all the Member states – large, small, rich, and poor, with differing political views and
social systems – have a voice and a vote in this process. The U.N. put together the Millennium
Declaration in 2000 which sets out measurable goals to be attained in seven key areas: peace, security and
disarmament; development and poverty eradication; protecting our common environment; human rights,
democracy and good governance; protecting the vulnerable; meeting the special needs of Africa; and
strengthening the United Nations.

*United Nations Habitat Program constructs new houses for tsunami victims

Monday, May 30, 2005, 12:56 GMT, ColomboPage News Desk, Sri Lanka.
          May 30, Colombo: Rebuilding tsunami-damaged houses under the United Nations Habitat
Program began recently in Galle and Kattankudy, funded by the Japanese government and implemented in
association with the Urban Development and Water Supply Ministry.
          After identifying nine places in the Galle district to construct houses, work commenced at three
locations and rebuilding in other places will commence shortly.
          In the district, 540 houses will be built in the first phase. In Kattankudy at six locations, new
houses will come up in place of 173 damaged houses. The number of houses will increase to 200 within the
next two weeks.
          The UN Habitat Program will also undertake similar reconstruction projects in Batticaloa,
Kilinochchi and Jaffna. The projects‘ objectives are to provide immediate assistance to local governments
to restart functions speedily and to assist communities in rebuilding their infrastructure and housing to
return to normal life as soon as possible. The program will assist communities to rebuild and repair their
essential community infrastructure, services and livelihoods as well.
          Under this program, the affected communities are encouraged to form their own Community
Development Councils (CDC) to manage the reconstruction program.
          These Councils will meet regularly and discuss needs and priorities. The physical work thus
identified will be carried out by the CDCs under community contracts with technical input from the staff of
the local authority and the UN Habitat Program.
          Community Development Councils will organise groups to help each other in the construction of
houses on the basis of self-help, as it has been a traditional practice in Sri Lanka. UN Habitat city officers
will assist the communities with necessary technical advice.
          The government of Japan has pledged a total sum of US$ 3 million for this rebuilding program
by UN Habitat.

Seeds for Thought

What qualities would you look for when electing representatives to the United Nations from our country?

Who on your crew would be a prime candidate for the US representative to the United Nations?

How does the work of the United Nations affect your life?


There should not be a controversy over anabolic steroid use in athletics -- non-
medical use of anabolic steroids is illegal and banned by most, if not all, major
sports organizations. Still, some athletes persist in taking them, believing that these
substances provide a competitive advantage. But beyond the issues of popularity or
legality is the fact that anabolic steroids can cause serious physical and
psychological side effects.

In light of these hazards, measures to curtail the use of anabolic steroids are
escalating. One of the nation's foremost authorities on steroid use, Dr. Gary
Wadler, is part of a concerted effort to educate the public about the dangers of
anabolic steroids. Dr. Wadler, a New York University School of Medicine
professor and lead author of the book Drugs and the Athlete, serves as a consultant
to the U.S. Department of Justice on anabolic-androgenic steroid use. He has also
won the International Olympic Committee President's Prize for his work in the
area of performance-enhancing drugs in competitive sports. He joined us to
address the issue of steroids and sports.

What are anabolic steroids?
Anabolic steroids -- or more precisely, anabolic-androgenic steroids -- are the
synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring male anabolic hormone
testosterone. Both anabolic and androgenic have origins from the Greek: anabolic,
meaning "to build," and androgenic, meaning "masculinizing." Testosterone's
natural androgenic effects trigger the maturing of the male reproductive system in
puberty, including the growth of body hair and the deepening of the voice. The
hormone's anabolic effect helps the body retain dietary protein, which aids in the
development of muscles. "Although there are many types of steroids with varying
degrees of anabolic and androgenic properties, it's the anabolic property of steroids
that lures athletes," says Dr. Wadler. "They take them to primarily increase muscle
mass and strength."

How are steroids taken?
Steroids can be taken orally or they can be injected. Those that are injected are
broken down into additional categories, those that are very long-lasting and those
that last a shorter time. In recent years, use has shifted to the latter category --
shorter-lasting, water-soluble injections. "The reason for that is that the side effects
associated for the oral form were discovered to be especially worrisome for the
liver,"says Dr. Wadler. "But the injectable steroids aren't free of side-effects either.
There is no free ride and there is a price to be paid with either form."

Who takes anabolic steroids and why?
It is not only the football player or weightlifter or sprinter who may be using
anabolic steroids. Nor is it only men. White- and blue-collar workers, females and,
most alarmingly, adolescents take steroids -- all linked by the desire to hopefully
look, perform and feel better, regardless of the dangers.
Anabolic steroids are designed to mimic the bodybuilding traits of testosterone.
Most healthy males produce less than 10 milligrams of testosterone a day. Females
also produce testosterone but in minute amounts. Some athletes however, may use
up to hundreds of milligrams a day, far exceeding the normally prescribed daily
dose for legitimate medical purposes. Anabolic steroids do not improve agility,
skill or cardiovascular capacity.

What are the health hazards of anabolic steroids?

"There can be a whole panoply of side effects, even with prescribed doses," says
Dr. Wadler. "Some are visible to the naked eye and some are internal. Some are
physical, others are psychological. With unsupervised steroid use, wanton
'megadosing' or stacking (using a combination of different steroids), the effects can
be irreversible or undetected until it's too late." Also, if anabolic steroids are
injected, transmitting or contracting HIV and Hepatitis B through shared needle
use is a very real concern.
Additionally, Dr. Wadler stresses that "unlike almost all other drugs, all steroid
based hormones have one unique characteristic -- their dangers may not be
manifest for months, years and even decades. Therefore, long after you gave them
up you may develop side effects."

Physical side effects
Men - Although anabolic steroids are derived from a male sex hormone, men who
take them may actually experience a "feminization" effect along with a decrease in
normal male sexual function. Some possible effects include:
      Reduced sperm count
      Impotence
      Development of breasts
      Shrinking of the testicles
      Difficulty or pain while urinating
Women - On the other hand, women often experience a "masculinization" effect
from anabolic steroids, including the following:
      Facial hair growth
      Deepened voice
      Breast reduction
      Menstrual cycle changes
With continued use of anabolic steroids, both sexes can experience the following
effects, which range from the merely unsightly to the life endangering. They
      Acne
      Bloated appearance
      Rapid weight gain
      Clotting disorders
      Liver damage
      Premature heart attacks and strokes
      Elevated cholesterol levels
      Weakened tendons
      Special dangers to adolescents

Anabolic steroids can halt growth prematurely in adolescents. "What happens is
that steroids close the growth centers in a kid's bones", says Dr. Wadler. "Once
these growth plates are closed, they cannot reopen so adolescents that take too
many steroids may end up shorter than they should have been."

Behavioral side effects
According to Dr. Wadler, anabolic steroids can cause severe mood swings.
"People's psychological states can run the gamut." says Wadler. "They can go from
bouts of depression or extreme irritability to feelings of invincibility and outright
aggression, commonly called "'roid rage. This is a dangerous state beyond mere

Are anabolic steroids addictive?
Recent evidence suggests that long-time steroid users and steroid abusers may
experience the classic characteristics of addiction including cravings, difficulty in

stopping steroid use and withdrawal symptoms. "Addiction is an extreme of
dependency, which may be a psychological, if not physical, phenomena," says Dr.
Wadler. "Regardless, there is no question that when regular steroid users stop
taking the drug they get withdrawal pains and if they start up again the pain goes
away. They have difficulties stopping use even though they know it's bad for


Do you feel your vote can‘t compete with big campaign contributions from special interests?
Do you want to take control of politics? It's time to change the way we finance elections.
The solution is called ―Clean Money, Fair Elections‖. With your help, we'll bring it to California.

Read this page to learn the basics about:
• The Problem: Too often politicians serve the needs of big money campaign contributors, instead of the
voters. Good candidates can‘t run without big money support.
• Clean Money is the Solution: Clean Money replaces private campaign contributions with public funding
so voters can once again take control of government.
• How Clean Money Works: Candidates demonstrating broad public support can choose to receive public
funding to run competitive campaigns if they forgo private money.
• Results in other States: Clean Money has been working in Arizona and Maine since the 2000 elections.
It has led to more qualified and diverse candidates, increased voter turnout, and increased attention to
voters‘ issues.
• How we’re Bringing Clean Money to California: With a grassroots campaign to educate Californians
and get it passed at the state level here in California.

The Problem with the Current System
What chance do honest candidates without money have to be elected in California? Not much. Not if they
don't want to accept money from special interests.
What chance do citizens have of voting for politicians who aren't wealthy or tied to special interests? Not
much, either.
Sadly, no matter how qualified candidates may be, if they don't have money themselves or accept it from
private interests, they don't really stand a fighting chance in California.
Not in a state in which $130 million was spent by Gov. Gray Davis, Bill Simon and the other contenders in
the 2002 governor's race, and over a million dollars a day was spent in the 2003 recall. Not in a state in
which lobbyists looking for budget favors ply legislators with piles of $1,000 checks at hundreds of
campaign fund-raisers.
Ours is now a government of big money special interests, not a government of the people. Is it any wonder
ordinary citizens feel their voices aren't heard? Is it any wonder our state and country are in such a mess?
Clean Money is the Solution
Arizona and Maine are different. Their citizens got fed up with politicians chasing after special-interests'
money and then voting in their favor. So they reclaimed their democracy.
Both states now have Clean Money Clean Elections systems in which qualified candidates may run for
office using public financing. That gives all candidates a fighting chance to win. It also gives citizens a
chance to vote for candidates who don't owe their campaign funds to big private interests.
How Clean Money Works
"Clean" candidates who qualify in Arizona and Maine receive enough public financing to run viable
campaigns. If privately funded candidates outspend them, they receive extra public funding to match, up to
a limit. They qualify by gathering a set number of individual $5 contributions and agreeing not to accept
any private money.

Results in Other States
It's a resounding success for both voters and candidates.
Voters had more choices at the polls, since more qualified candidates were able to run. More than 60
percent more candidates ran for statewide office than in 1998 in Arizona, the last non-presidential election
year without Clean Money. The number of minority candidates tripled.
Legislators are now able to listen to the needs of the voters, rather than the interests that gave them money.
Maine became the first state in the nation to pass a form of universal health care. Health care advocates and
the public had been pushing for it for years, but had always been stopped by lobbyists. But after 77 percent
of Maine‘s senate was elected ―clean‖ in 2002, that all changed.
Voters have showed their approval in several ways. First, realizing that their vote counts again, they
increased turnout at the polls by more than 10 percent.

Second, they elected ―clean‖ candidates to seven of nine statewide offices in Arizona -- including Janet
Napolitano, the first publicly financed governor ever elected.
Third, Arizona citizens approve of Clean Money more than ever, with an overwhelming 66 percent support
in a June 2002 poll.
Leah Landrum, a member of Arizona's House of Representatives, sums it up:
"Now the only interests I'm tied to are my constituents. And they feel a lot more connected to me. My
constituent calls have tripled."

How We’re Bringing Clean Money to California
Arizona and Maine show how it can be done. Both states passed Clean Money initiatives after a lot of
research, coalition building and grassroots organizing. Public education campaigns spoke directly with
citizens in countless forums and explained plainly how Clean Money would strengthen their voices. These
efforts laid the groundwork for their successes.
Now it's California's turn. Our goal is either pass Clean Money in the legislation or, if required, go directly
to the people and pass an initiative.
We, too, deserve a government that's more responsive to its citizens than to big-money special interests.
We, too, can restore our lost democracy by electing candidates to public office who owe their allegiance to
voters rather than to private interests.

Seeds for Thought

Do you feel that the Clean Money campaign could work in your state?

Do you feel disenfranchised by the current system of campaign finance?

What are some of the ways you can make your political voice heard?

The current workings of the Electoral College are the result of both design and experience. As it now
     Each State is allocated a number of Electors equal to the number of its U.S. Senators (always 2)
         plus the number of its U.S. Representatives (which may change each decade according to the size
         of each State's population as determined in the Census).
     The political parties (or independent candidates) in each State submit to the State's chief election
         official a list of individuals pledged to their candidate for president and equal in number to the
         State's electoral vote. Usually, the major political parties select these individuals either in their
         State party conventions or through appointment by their State party leaders while third parties and
         independent candidates merely designate theirs.
     Members of Congress and employees of the federal government are prohibited from serving as an
         Elector in order to maintain the balance between the legislative and executive branches of the
         federal government.
     After their caucuses and primaries, the major parties nominate their candidates for president and
         vice president in their national conventions
     traditionally held in the summer preceding the election. (Third parties and independent candidates
         follow different procedures according to the individual State laws). The names of the duly
         nominated candidates are then officially submitted to each State's chief election official so that
         they might appear on the general election ballot.
     On the Tuesday following the first Monday of November in years divisible by four, the people in
         each State cast their ballots for the party slate of Electors representing their choice for president
         and vice president (although as a matter of practice, general election ballots normally say "Electors
         for" each set of candidates rather than list the individual Electors on each slate).
     Whichever party slate wins the most popular votes in the State becomes that State's Electors-so
         that, in effect, whichever presidential ticket gets the most popular votes in a State wins all the
         Electors of that State. [The two exceptions to this are Maine and Nebraska where two Electors are
         chosen by statewide popular vote and the remainder by the popular vote within each
         Congressional district].
     On the Monday following the second Wednesday of December (as established in federal law) each
         State's Electors meet in their respective State capitals and cast their electoral votes-one for
         president and one for vice president.
     In order to prevent Electors from voting only for "favorite sons" of their home State, at least one
         of their votes must be for a person from outside their State (though this is seldom a problem since
         the parties have consistently nominated presidential and vice presidential candidates from different
     The electoral votes are then sealed and transmitted from each State to the President of the Senate
         who, on the following January 6, opens and reads them before both houses of the Congress.
     The candidate for president with the most electoral votes, provided that it is an absolute majority
         (one over half of the total), is declared president. Similarly, the vice presidential candidate with the
         absolute majority of electoral votes is declared vice president.
     In the event no one obtains an absolute majority of electoral votes for president, the U.S. House of
         Representatives (as the chamber closest to the people) selects the president from among the top
         three contenders with each State casting only one vote and an absolute majority of the States being
         required to elect. Similarly, if no one obtains an absolute majority for vice president, then the U.S.
         Senate makes the selection from among the top two contenders for that office.
     At noon on January 20, the duly elected president and vice president are sworn into office.

     Occasionally questions arise about what would happen if the pesidential or vice presidential candidate
died at some point in this process.For answers to these, as well as to a number of other "what if" questions,
readers are advised to consult a small volume entitled After the People Vote: Steps in Choosing the
President edited by Walter Berns and published in 1983 by the American Enterprise Institute. Similarly,
further details on the history and current functioning of the Electoral College are available in the second
edition of Congressional Quarterly's Guide to U.S. Elections, a real goldmine of information, maps, and

North Korea: A Rogue State Outside the NPT Fold
Ralph C. Hassig and Kongdan Oh

   Problems with North Korea over nuclear proliferation are nothing new, say Ralph
   Hassig and Kongdan Oh. The regime started building nuclear reactors in the 1960s
   and did not join the 1970 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty until 1985. It announced
   in the early 1990s that it was withdrawing from the treaty, but suspended its
   withdrawal one day before it became effective. Then came the period under the
   Agreed Framework, which collapsed in 2002.
   Ms. Oh is a research staff member at the Institute for Defense Analyses in Alexandria,
   Virginia, and a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution. Hassig is a
   Washington-based consultant on North Korean affairs. He has co-authored a book on
   North Korea and written numerous articles with Ms. Oh, his wife and research
   partner. Their website may be accessed at
   The government of the
   Democratic Peoples
   Republic of Korea
   (DPRK)—or North
   Korea—has never been
   in full compliance with
   the Nuclear Non-
   Proliferation Treaty
   (NPT), to which it
   acceded in 1985. The
   signing of a safeguards
   agreement that would
   permit International
   Atomic Energy Agency
   (IAEA) inspections of
   its nuclear program was
   postponed until 1992. Photo above: This 1996 file photo shows spent nuclear fuel
   When the overdue           rods in a cooling pond at facilities in Yongbyon, North
   inspections suggested Korea. The photo was released in 2003 by the South Korean
   that the North Koreans news agency, Yonhap. (AP Wide World Photos/Yonhap)
   were hiding nuclear material, the DPRK became the first country to announce its
   withdrawal from the NPT. Thanks to persuasion from the United States, in 1993 that
   withdrawal was "suspended" one day before it became effective. But under the
   Agreed Framework that North Korea negotiated with the United States in 1994, the
   IAEA was prevented from conducting the inspections it had requested. When the
   Agreed Framework finally collapsed in late 2002, North Korea pulled out of the NPT
   and the IAEA and boasted that it had begun building a nuclear deterrent.

   North Korea's nuclear program began in the mid-1950s, when a group of North
   Korean nuclear scientists received training in the Soviet Union. In the mid-1960s
   North Korea built two small nuclear research reactors with Soviet assistance and
   technology. Another nuclear reactor, generating five megawatts of electricity, was
   completed in 1986. [Editor's note: According to the U.S. Energy Information
   Administration, such a plant could generate enough electricity to service about 4,000
   U.S. households for a full year, if operated at full power continuously.] Although this
   reactor was too small to be connected to an electrical power grid, its spent fuel began
   to be reprocessed into weapons-grade plutonium—a clear violation of North Korea's
   NPT obligations. In 1984, construction began on a 50-megawatt reactor, and in 1991,
   on a 200-megawatt reactor, neither of which was ever completed. In the 1980s, the
   Soviets agreed to construct a light-water reactor (LWR) capable of generating 1,760
   megawatts of electricity on the condition that the North Koreans join the NPT. Work
   stopped at an early stage when the North Koreans fell behind in their payments.

Under the 1994 Agreed Framework with the United States, North Korea's 5-megawatt
reactor as well as its fuel reprocessing plant and associated facilities at Yongbyon
were shut down, and construction on the 50-megawatt and 200-megawatt reactors
was halted. The IAEA monitored the shutdown but was not permitted to conduct a
complete investigation of North Korea's nuclear program until two 1,000 megawatt
light-water reactors, to be built by a new consortium called the Korean Peninsula
Development Organization, were well on their way to completion. The reactors
would be constructed by the South Koreans, based on U.S. designs, and financed
largely by South Korea and Japan. Light-water reactors are more "proliferation-
resistant" than North Korea's gas-graphite reactors because the former require
enriched uranium for fuel and, under normal operating conditions, the spent fuel
produced by light-water reactors could not be reprocessed into weapons-grade
plutonium with North Korea's present technology.

Called to Account
For a variety of reasons, construction on the two reactors, originally expected to be
completed by 2003, fell far behind schedule. In the meantime, U.S. intelligence came
to believe that the North Koreans were developing a clandestine uranium-enrichment
program; such a program would be contrary to the North-South Denuclearization
Declaration and therefore would violate the Agreed Framework. Called to account in
an October 2002 meeting between the two governments, a North Korean official
admitted the existence of the uranium program, but later denied the admission. The
following month, the United States announced it was halting shipments of the half-
million tons of heavy fuel oil it had been providing annually to North Korea as
compensation for "lost" energy generating capacity. In December 2002, the North
Koreans expelled IAEA inspectors and removed IAEA seals and cameras from
Yongbyon. In January 2003, the North Koreans announced that they had lifted their
earlier "suspension" of their withdrawal from the NPT and asserted that their
withdrawal was therefore effective the next day. They re-started their 5-megawatt
reactor and later claimed that they had completed reprocessing the reactor's 8,000
spent fuel rods that had been under IAEA seal. Construction of the two light-water
reactors, still at the foundation stage, was suspended in November 2003.
From fuel reprocessed before the Agreed Framework took effect in 1994, the North
Koreans are thought to have accumulated at least 6-to-10 kilograms of plutonium,
sufficient for one or two small nuclear bombs. Another half-dozen nuclear devices
could be constructed from the estimated 20-35 kilograms of plutonium reprocessed
from the 8,000 spent fuel rods. In a few years, when fuel can be unloaded from the re-
started 5-megawatt reactor and reprocessed into plutonium, sufficient plutonium for
one additional nuclear device a year could become available. If the 50-megawatt
reactor is ever completed, it could—eventually—produce enough plutonium for 5-to-
10 weapons a year, and of course the 200-megawatt reactor could produce even more.
The output of North Korea's alleged uranium enrichment program is purely
speculative because the scope of that program is unknown. Yet another possible
source of nuclear material or ready-made weapons would be purchases from other
countries or through a clandestine proliferation network.

The first U.S.-DPRK talks of substance convened in 1993 and continued on a stop-
and-go basis into 1994, culminating in the signing of the Agreed Framework. Six
four-party meetings (U.S., DPRK, South Korea, and China) were held between 1997
and 1999 to discuss North Korea's demand that the Korean War armistice be replaced
by a peace treaty, but the talks eventually collapsed.
In April 2003, in the face of a U.S. refusal to meet bilaterally with North Korea,
China played the host and arranged a three-party meeting, which expanded into a six-
party forum (adding South Korea, Japan and Russia) for three six-party meetings
beginning in August 2003.

                                        In the six-party meetings, North Korea has
                                        offered to freeze its nuclear weapons program
                                        as soon as the United States resumes its fuel
                                        oil deliveries, lifts its economic embargo, and
                                        removes the DPRK from Washington's list of
                                        terrorist-sponsoring states. Learning from its
                                        experience with the Agreed Framework, the
                                        United States has insisted that only when
                                        North Korea verifiably freezes its nuclear
                                        program can the U.S. begin negotiating an
                                        economic aid package and a multilateral non-
                                        aggression pact.
                                        North Korea's neighbors—China, Russia,
                                        Japan, and South Korea—have on many
                                        occasions declared that they will not tolerate a
                                        North Korean nuclear weapons program. The
                                        United States has voiced its unalterable
                                        opposition as well. Yet no one has been able
The art of making threats. Showing      to stop North Korea from accumulating more
missiles demolishing the U.S. Capitol nuclear material, and presumably building
building, the poster above was          nuclear weapons. The Agreed Framework,
mounted on a shoe-factory wall in the negotiated by the Clinton administration,
North Korean city of Sinuiju. The text slowed but did not stop North Korea's nuclear
vows to "crush" the United States "if program. The Bush administration has
someone starts an invasion war." (AP avoided one-on-one talks because it considers
Wide World Photos) The poster below North Korea's proliferation to be a regional
is titled "The Targets are Clear" and rather than bilateral issue, but the United
depicts North Korean missiles closing States has agreed to meet with North Korea in
in on a plane bearing the markings      a multilateral setting. Washington's initial
"Washington, Seoul, Tokyo." (AP         expectation was that the other members of the
Wide World Photos/Korea News            six-party talks would join the United States in
Service)                                pressuring North Korea to halt its nuclear
                                        program. What has happened in our view,
                                        however, is that Russia, China, and South
                                        Korea have shown a degree of sympathy for
                                        North Korea's claim that it is a target of U.S.
                                        aggression in the Bush administration's war
                                        on terrorism. These countries have called on
                                        the United States to compromise with North
                                        Korea, although no one has clearly laid out
                                        what that compromise would look like.
                                        North Korea has offered to abandon its
                                        nuclear weapons program and accept an
                                        unspecified type of verification regime when
                                        the United States replaces its hostile policy
                                        toward the Kim Jong-il regime with
                                        acceptance, non-interference, and even
                                        support. But because U.S. policy is based not
                                        only on North Korea's nuclear proliferation
                                        but also on its past behavior, its forward-
                                        deployed conventional weapons, and its
                                        abysmal human rights policies, there seems to
be little prospect that any American administration would grant Kim Jong-il the
respect and support he feels he deserves.
Most North Korea observers in the United States can agree that the North Koreans
would stop producing more plutonium in return for a smorgasbord of rewards, but

they doubt that "CVID" — a complete, verifiable, and irreversible dismantling of
North Korea's entire nuclear program — could ever be accomplished as long as the
Kim regime remains in power. So in practical terms, the issue becomes whether the
U.S. will settle for another agreement that partially contains North Korea's nuclear
program, or whether the proliferation will be allowed to continue—at least until
China, North Korea's primary benefactor, becomes sufficiently alarmed to end its
economic aid and diplomatic support for Kim's regime.

Seeds for Thought

How should the US handle North Korea and its nuclear armament policies?

In the future, how should the United States and other developed nations address
issues of nuclear armament and nuclear power?

Do you agree with the views expressed in this article? Why or why not?


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