scorm by yantingting


									Efficient Development
   through SCORM
      Paul F. Merrill
     Michael D. Bush
     Thor Anderson

   Enhancing the reusability of our instructional
       Courses
       Syllabi
       Lectures
       Presentations
       Handouts
       Java Applets
       Simulations
       Multimedia
   Graphics
   Pictures
   Charts
   Diagrams
   Animations
   Video Clips
   Audio Clips
Affluent Throw-away Society
"We're reminded a hundred
times a day to buy things, but
we're not reminded to take
care of them, repair them,
reuse them, or give them
   Michael Jacobson, Center for the Study of Commercialism
We need to find better ways to
reuse share, and recycle our
   instructional products

                  Or at least many
                  components thereof!
Examples of the Problem
Examples of the Problem
            Examples of Problem
                              procedure convert;
   Obsolete                   var
    Programming                 fTemp : integer;
                                 cTemp : real;
    Languages             

                              begin
       APL                    space;
       Applesoft Basic        write('Enter the Fahrenheit
                              temperature: ');
       Pascal
                               readln(fTemp);
       Logo                   cTemp := (5 / 9) * (fTemp - 32);
                               space;
                               writeln(' Celsius is ', round(cTemp) : 1);
                              end;
            Examples of Problem
   Obsolete Authoring
       Coursewriter
       IconAuthor
         Examples of the Problem
   Obsolete Versions
       Course of Action
       Authorware
     Examples of the Problem
   CBI course on APL
         Examples of the Problem
   Obsolete Hardware
       Apple IIe
       Amiga
       Videodisc
       SyQuest Removable
       NeXT Magneto-Optical
         Examples of the Problem
   Future obsolescence?
       Blackboard
       WebCT
       Jupiter
       Flash
       Visual Basic
       JavaScript
       iShell
      Sources of Obsolescence
   Business viability
   Proprietary binary formats
   Versions of interpreter
   ???
   Reusable
       Can be easily reused by a variety of tools
   Accessible
       Can be easily found (by a search engine) for reuse
        by learners or developers (Discoverability)
   Interoperable
       Can by used by a variety of platforms, hardware,
        browsers, tools, etc.
   Durable
       Can be reused with no or minimal modifications
        with new technology (hardware & software).
          Possible Applications
   Accessible electronic instructional product
    repository (Digital library)
   Independent instructional modules (SCO:
    Sharable Content Objects)
   Cataloging of instructional modules or SCOs and
    content assets (Use of metadata)
   Use of international standards for instructional
    products (SCORM).
   Separation of content, presentation and
    interaction (Development productivity)
Importance of Standards
Examples of Standards
Examples of Standards
          Other Examples
   ???
   Sharable Content Object Reference Model

   Advanced Distributed Learning (ADL)
    initiative (1995)

   Suite of technical standard specifications
    or guidelines to enable the sharing and
    reuse of course content
        What is SCORM?

A suite of standards or standard practices
that is a composite, made up of what are
    often adaptations or extensions to
   standards that originated from other
standards or specifications organizations.
            Where do these standards come from?

       Key Working Affiliations
IMS                            CANCORE

ADL Co-Lab                     JISC/CETIS

OKI/MIT                        DEST/IMS          Australia
OCLC                           Singapore

SIF                            Mexico




                                                  Thor Anderson, IMS
                        Where do standards come from?

Progression of ideas to standards
 Concepts               W3C

   User      oclc Spec            Programs         Standards   Accredited
   Needs        Consortia         Testbeds,          Bodies    Standards
               CEN/ISS            Markets

              Specifications,   New Products,
              Best Practice     Pilot Programs,
                                Testbeds                IMS
Sources of SCORM Standards

eXtensible Markup Language
   <HTML>
       <HEAD>
              <TITLE>List of Books</TITLE>
       </HEAD>
       <BODY>
              <H1>List of Books</H1>
              <HR><BR>
              <B>Title </B>Learning Perl
              <BR><B>Authors </B>Schwartz & Christiansen
              <BR><B>ISBN </B>1-861002-94-7
              <BR><B>Price </B>39.99 USD
              <BR><BR><BR>
              <B>Title </B>Programming Perl
              <BR><B>Authors </B>Wall, Christiansen & Schwartz
              <BR><B>ISBN </B>1-861002-97-1
              <BR><B>Price </B>39.99 USD
       </BODY>
   </HTML>
   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <listofbooks>
     <book>
        <title>Learning Perl</title>
        <authors>
          <author>Randal L. Schwartz</author>
          <author>Tom Christiansen</author>
        </authors>
        <isbn>1-861002-94-7</isbn>
        <price currency="USD">39.99</price>
     </book>
     <book>
        <title>Programming Perl</title>
        <authors>
          <author>Larry Wall</author>
          <author>Tom Christiansen</author>
          <author>Randal L. Schwartz</author>
        </authors>
        <isbn>1-861002-97-1</isbn>
        <price currency="USD">45.98</price>
     </book>
   </listofbooks>
          SCORM Standards
   Content Packaging

   Communication between course & Learning
    Management System (LMS)

   Course & student metadata
    SCORM Content Packaging
   Content files should be placed in a single
    directory with possible sub-directories

   The course, its content and navigation
    structure should be described with a special
    file in XML format located in the top-level
    directory named: “imsmanifest.xml.”
          SCORM Manifest File

   Course metadata

   Course sequencing or navigation

   SCO metadata

   Assets or resources metadata
           Sample Manifest Files

Generic Manifest File

VAD Manifest File
Runtime System API
The Future: Representing Content
   General: From media to learning
   Specific: Video Asset Description
   French CD
   French CD to XML
   Current Examples
QTI Examples
          Learning Objects?
   Media Objects
   Knowledge Objects
   Learning Objects
   Course Objects
Instructional Components


    OBJECTS             OBJECTS


                      From M. David Merrill
Components of a knowledge object
          NAME         DESCRIPTION


                         From M. David Merrill
                         And Dorling-Kindersley
        Examples of Reusability
   Display            Monitor vs. PDA

   Functionality      Instruction vs.
   ID2SCORM Conference Web site
   Learning Objects, Knowledge Objects and
    Mental Models, M. David Merrill
   Educational Technology article
   VAD development Web site
   CVP paper submitted to IEEE MultiMedia

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