# scorm by yantingting

VIEWS: 8 PAGES: 42

• pg 1
```									Efficient Development
through SCORM
Standards
Paul F. Merrill
Michael D. Bush
Thor Anderson

http://id2scorm.byu.edu/scorm.ppt
Purpose
   Enhancing the reusability of our instructional
products
   Courses
   Syllabi
   Lectures
   Presentations
   Handouts
   Java Applets
   Simulations
   Multimedia
Multimedia
   Graphics
   Pictures
   Charts
   Diagrams
   Animations
   Video Clips
   Audio Clips
Affluent Throw-away Society
"We're reminded a hundred
times a day to buy things, but
we're not reminded to take
care of them, repair them,
reuse them, or give them
away."
Michael Jacobson, Center for the Study of Commercialism
We need to find better ways to
reuse share, and recycle our
instructional products

Or at least many
components thereof!
Examples of the Problem
Examples of the Problem
Examples of Problem
    procedure convert;
   Obsolete                   var
Programming                 fTemp : integer;
cTemp : real;
Languages             

    begin
   APL                    space;
   Applesoft Basic        write('Enter the Fahrenheit
temperature: ');
   Pascal
   Logo                   cTemp := (5 / 9) * (fTemp - 32);
     space;
     writeln(' Celsius is ', round(cTemp) : 1);
    end;
Examples of Problem
   Obsolete Authoring
Systems
   Coursewriter
   IconAuthor
Examples of the Problem
   Obsolete Versions
   Course of Action
   Authorware
Examples of the Problem
   CBI course on APL
Examples of the Problem
   Obsolete Hardware
   Apple IIe
   Amiga
   Videodisc
   SyQuest Removable
Cartridges
   NeXT Magneto-Optical
Discs
Examples of the Problem
   Future obsolescence?
   Blackboard
   WebCT
   Jupiter
   Flash
   Visual Basic
   JavaScript
   iShell
Sources of Obsolescence
   Proprietary binary formats
   Versions of interpreter
   ???
Goals
   Reusable
   Can be easily reused by a variety of tools
   Accessible
   Can be easily found (by a search engine) for reuse
by learners or developers (Discoverability)
   Interoperable
   Can by used by a variety of platforms, hardware,
browsers, tools, etc.
   Durable
   Can be reused with no or minimal modifications
with new technology (hardware & software).
Possible Applications
   Accessible electronic instructional product
repository (Digital library)
   Independent instructional modules (SCO:
Sharable Content Objects)
   Cataloging of instructional modules or SCOs and
   Use of international standards for instructional
products (SCORM).
   Separation of content, presentation and
interaction (Development productivity)
Importance of Standards
Examples of Standards
Examples of Standards
Other Examples
   ???
SCORM
   Sharable Content Object Reference Model

initiative (1995)

   Suite of technical standard specifications
or guidelines to enable the sharing and
reuse of course content
What is SCORM?

A suite of standards or standard practices
that is a composite, made up of what are
standards that originated from other
standards or specifications organizations.
Where do these standards come from?

Key Working Affiliations
IMS                            CANCORE

OKI/MIT                        DEST/IMS          Australia
OCLC                           Singapore

SIF                            Mexico

MERLOT

IEEE/LTSC

EDUCAUSE/NLII

NCAM
Thor Anderson, IMS
Where do standards come from?

Progression of ideas to standards
R&D
Concepts               W3C
SIF

User      oclc Spec            Programs         Standards   Accredited
Needs        Consortia         Testbeds,          Bodies    Standards
CEN/ISS            Markets
Technical
Trends
COLIS

Specifications,   New Products,
Best Practice     Pilot Programs,
Testbeds                IMS
Sources of SCORM Standards
XML

eXtensible Markup Language
   <HTML>
              <TITLE>List of Books</TITLE>
       <BODY>
              <H1>List of Books</H1>
              <HR><BR>
              <B>Title </B>Learning Perl
              <BR><B>Authors </B>Schwartz & Christiansen
              <BR><B>ISBN </B>1-861002-94-7
              <BR><B>Price </B>39.99 USD
              <BR><BR><BR>
              <B>Title </B>Programming Perl
              <BR><B>Authors </B>Wall, Christiansen & Schwartz
              <BR><B>ISBN </B>1-861002-97-1
              <BR><B>Price </B>39.99 USD
       </BODY>
   </HTML>
   <?xml version="1.0"?>
   <listofbooks>
     <book>
        <title>Learning Perl</title>
        <authors>
          <author>Randal L. Schwartz</author>
          <author>Tom Christiansen</author>
        </authors>
        <isbn>1-861002-94-7</isbn>
        <price currency="USD">39.99</price>
     </book>
     <book>
        <title>Programming Perl</title>
        <authors>
          <author>Larry Wall</author>
          <author>Tom Christiansen</author>
          <author>Randal L. Schwartz</author>
        </authors>
        <isbn>1-861002-97-1</isbn>
        <price currency="USD">45.98</price>
     </book>
   </listofbooks>
SCORM Standards
   Content Packaging

   Communication between course & Learning
Management System (LMS)

SCORM Content Packaging
Standard
   Content files should be placed in a single
directory with possible sub-directories

   The course, its content and navigation
structure should be described with a special
file in XML format located in the top-level
directory named: “imsmanifest.xml.”
SCORM Manifest File

structure

Sample Manifest Files

Generic Manifest File

Runtime System API
The Future: Representing Content
   General: From media to learning
   Specific: Video Asset Description
Demonstrations
   French CD
   French CD to XML
   Current Examples
QTI Examples
Learning Objects?
   Media Objects
   Knowledge Objects
   Learning Objects
   Course Objects
Instructional Components

LEARNING OBJECTS

KNOWLEDGE           STRATEGY
OBJECTS             OBJECTS

MEDIA OBJECTS

From M. David Merrill
Components of a knowledge object
NAME         DESCRIPTION

PORTRAYAL

From M. David Merrill
And Dorling-Kindersley
Examples of Reusability
   Display            Monitor vs. PDA

   Functionality      Instruction vs.
Assessment
Resources
   ID2SCORM Conference Web site
   Learning Objects, Knowledge Objects and
Mental Models, M. David Merrill
   Educational Technology article