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Comprehending Nonfiction and Answering Open Response Questions by liwenting

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									    Helping Kids Succeed on Open
         Response Questions




Haverhill Middle School teachers
November 3, 2009
            Essential Questions

•   How can we help students slow down, focus
    on the text, and monitor their understanding
    while reading?
•   What are the elements of a high-scoring open
    response answer?
•   How can we help students include those
    elements so they can achieve high scores?
       The MCAS is a Reading Test.


  Your Classroom                      MCAS
• Includes texts from        •Includes texts from
different genres.            different genres.

• Teacher questions in class • Multiple choice questions
discussion determine         determine overall student
overall student              comprehension.
comprehension.
         “The Contender”


• Read “The Contender.” DO NOT read
  the test questions first.
• As you read, note strategies that you
  use to make sense of the text.
• Do the multiple choice questions.
• Do the Open Response question.
• Note any strategies or procedures
  you use to answer the questions
Reading Strategies You Used
Question-Answering Strategies You Used
Getting Ready to Read: PSST!!

    Purpose Setting Statement (PSST!)
   In italics at the very beginning of the text.
   Includes key words to identify genre and
    focus for the reading.
   Each text has different purpose and focus;
    reader’s strategies will vary with text.
   Students need to choose what best response and
    approach will be.
    Stop and Think Strategies

• Write a short SUMMARY.
   Summary of facts (“the lines”)
   Summary of inferences (“between
    the lines”)
• Ask a QUESTION.
• DRAW a picture.
       Modeling the Strategies



• Think-alouds
• Stress importance of “tracks in the
  snow”: making thinking visible
• Students use strategy notes to talk with
  each other, as a whole class and in
  small groups
• Students prepare and give think-alouds
   Multiple Choice = Reading Task

Students need to have justification from the
  text for their answers.

• THE TEST IS NOT
   A test of what they remember
   About what THEY would do or think
• STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO
   Locate a paragraph where their answer
    was found
   Describe in words their reasoning for their
    answer
            Open Response

• OR’s assess reading comprehension and
  content only (not writing skill)
• Students must answer the question asked
• Answers are found or implied in text
• Answers should be supported with details,
  evidence from text
• Conventions/organization are NOT scored
   Open Response = Reading Task


    Your Classroom              Open-Response
 Teacher asks questions in Open-response question
class discussion about     asks about larger ideas in
larger ideas in text.      text.
Students answer orally.    Students answer in
                           written form.
    Using Colors to Plan an OR Answer



•   Choose any two colors for students to associate with parts
    of a successful response.
                FROM YOUR HEAD (Answer and
                explanation/elaboration---Ideas)
                FROM THE TEXT (Evidence from
                the passage---Support)
•   We will be using red for Ideas and green for support
•   Model to students how to analyze their responses using
    these colors.
     How to Answer an ELA
    Open-response Question



Read the question carefully.
Explain your answer.
Add supporting details.
Double-check your work.
 Approaching the Open-Response


Read the question carefully.
Explain your answer.
Add supporting details.
Double-check your work.
  Colored OR Question for “The
          Contender”


Based on the excerpt, explain what
Donatelli means when he says,
“Everybody wants to be a champion.
That’s not enough.” Support your
answer with relevant and specific
details from the excerpt.
       Rereading with a Purpose

• Students have already read the article once, for
  overall understanding and made “tracks in the
  snow.”
• They have also reread certain paragraphs in order
  to answer their Multiple Choice questions, so they
  are familiar with the article content.
• Now they should reread or skim with a focus: find
  interesting facts and elaboration and/or support.
• They can star the facts and put “S” beside the
  support/elaboration.
            Helping Students Plan Answers

        ANSWER                         EVIDENCE                        SAY MORE
                                       “It says…”                  “This Shows that…”
Hard work                       “you get up at 5:30..”            To be a boxer--
                                “You run every day, rain or       Slave every single day
                                snow”                             do hard physical exercises
                                “Jump rope, stretching            over and over
                                exercises, sit-ups, push-ups      give up what you love-- sleep,
                                “No pies and cakes, no soda.”     junk food, late nights, free
                                ”(par. 31-33)                     time
                                “All this sacrifice… nine times   Keep going even if you may
Keep going, with no guarantee   out of ten.” Par 34               not make it to the top
of success                                                        Be mentally tough, ignore
                                                                  doubts.

Desire, heart                   “You have to start by wanting     Really want to box, for its own
                                to be a contender… heart will     sake, not to get fame and
                                take him.” (par. 48)              attention.
                                                                  love the competition, the
                                                                  feeling of doing your absolute
                                                                  best, challenging yourself
      Open-Response Rubric

• 4 = Clear, complete & accurate
    explanation; specific detail.
• 3 = Mostly clear complete & accurate
    explanation; general detail.
• 2 = Partial explanation; limited detail.
• 1 = Minimal explanation; little or no
    detail.
      Open-Response Rubric

• 4 = Clear, complete & accurate
    explanation; specific detail.
• 3 = Mostly clear complete & accurate
    explanation; general detail.
• 2 = Partial explanation; limited detail.
• 1 = Minimal explanation; little or no
    detail.
      Looking at Performance Standards


• Found in “anchor” papers
   Student work that demonstrates examples of work at
    score points 0 - 4
   Scoring is matching an answer to the question’s rubric
    and anchor papers

   *Marking up/coloring text is a teaching technique and
    is not a DESE program or strategy
Now Let’s Use the Colors to
  Analyze the Anchors
     Putting This Into Practice

•   Working with a partner at your table,
    read and score the responses in the
    Practice Set.
•   Record the score and reason on
    Scoring Chart.
•   Be ready to share. We will discuss each
    piece as a group at the end.
Which Strategies or Activities Do You Plan to
       Try Out in Your Classroom?
TIME FOR LUNCH!

   See you at 12:30!
           “Brothers and Sisters:”
           Try Out the Strategies


• Read “Brothers and Sisters…” Don’t read
  the questions first!
• As you read, try out making “tracks in the
  snow:” summary, question, picture.
• Note what additional knowledge or
  strategies kids might need to make sense
  of the passage
• Do the multiple choice and record where
  in the text you found the answers
Thoughts on Strategies
Thoughts on Multiple Choice
          Fiction vs. Non-Fiction

            Fiction                         Non-Fiction
•   Narrative mode                  •    Narrative, persuasive,
                                        informational, descriptive,
                                        compare/contrast…

                                    •    Teach students to correctly
•    Teach students to identify         use headings, images,
    character, conflict, and plot       captions, and sidebars to
    elements to fully understand        understand the text.
    the text.
   Fiction vs. Non-Fiction OR Questions


       FICTION                   NON-FICTION
• Commonly asks for        • Commonly asks for
                             answers right in text.
  inference.
                           • Student must state
• Student must state         answer(s).
  inference(s)             • Student must elaborate or
• Student must support       explain answer(s) using
  inference(s) with          support from text and/or
                             own ideas grounded in
  evidence from text.        text.
• Student must explain
  how evidence
  supports inference(s).
       Past Grade 6 OR Questions

• Based on the selection, describe how the Japanese
  paper house was designed to be flexible and
  convenient for daily life. (08)
• Based on the article, explain how dogs are trained to
  be actors and how they are treated while working.
  (07)
• In Paragraph 1, the author states that if you have not
  heard about hypothermia, it is “something you should
  know about.” Using information from the article,
  explain the most likely reason the author makes this
  statement. (08)
     How to Answer an ELA
    Open-response Question



Read the question carefully.
Explain your answer.
Add supporting details.
Double-check your work.
      Using Colors to Analyze Student
                   Work


• Answer(s), often from the text (Red)

•   Details from the text that support or
    elaborate the answer(s) (Green)
 Approaching the Open-Response


Read the question carefully.
Explain your answer.
Add supporting details.
Double-check your work.
      Open-Response Rubric

• 4 = Clear, complete & accurate
    explanation; specific detail.
• 3 = Mostly clear complete & accurate
    explanation; general detail.
• 2 = Partial explanation; limited detail.
• 1 = Minimal explanation; little or no
    detail.
      Open-Response Rubric

• 4 = Clear, complete & accurate
    explanation; specific detail.
• 3 = Mostly clear complete & accurate
    explanation; general detail.
• 2 = Partial explanation; limited detail.
• 1 = Minimal explanation; little or no
    detail.
Colored OR Question for “Brothers and
             Sisters”



Based on the article, explain how
siblings can work together to get
along. Support your answer with
important information from the
article.
             Finish the Planning Chart

     ANSWER            EVIDENCE             SAY MORE
                       “It says…”       “This means/shows
                                              that…”
Make rules        p. 15 “Decide what   You have to be fair and
                  bugs you, then set   follow the rules, too
                  ground rules”        Ex: Keep out
Now Let’s Use the Colors to
  Analyze Student Work
       Active Reading is Not Just for MCAS!!


• Strategies supported by research (Reading Next 2004)
    Explicit teaching of strategies
        • Word attack, fluency, vocabulary
        • Comprehension - summary (synthesis), inference, etc
        • Consistent reinforcement throughout school
      Strategies embedded in subject-matter content
      Modeling by a proficient readers (“think alouds”)
      Opportunity for choice
      Use of multiple types of texts
      Collaboration
      Writing instruction and technology use
        Practicing Active Reading in Class


• Teachers plan and model active reading
  strategy
• Students practice and demonstrate skill in
  strategies in variety of materials
     In groups
     Orally
     Individually
     In writing
• Teachers scaffold down support
 The Progress from Dependence to
          Independence

Students take the MCAS test ALONE
YOUR CHALLENGE:
 How can you plan your year so that
 your students feel ready and
 confident by MCAS time---prepared
 for independence?
   A Useful Mnemonic for Planning

• TIC
    Teacher in center

• TAC
    Teacher as coach

• TOE
    Teacher on edge
        Tic-Tac-Toe in Action

• TIC
    Teacher models strategies in Think-Alouds
• TAC
    “Brain Game:” while reading as a whole class,
      teacher asks students to orally model strategies
• TOE
    Students prepare and give Think-Alouds in small
     groups
    Students discuss questions/ideas in small groups
    Students practice strategies in writing while
     reading on their own
Which Strategies or Activities Do You Plan to
       Try Out in Your Classroom?

								
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