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Helping Kids Succeed on Open Response Questions Haverhill Middle School teachers November 3, 2009 Essential Questions • How can we help students slow down, focus on the text, and monitor their understanding while reading? • What are the elements of a high-scoring open response answer? • How can we help students include those elements so they can achieve high scores? The MCAS is a Reading Test. Your Classroom MCAS • Includes texts from •Includes texts from different genres. different genres. • Teacher questions in class • Multiple choice questions discussion determine determine overall student overall student comprehension. comprehension. “The Contender” • Read “The Contender.” DO NOT read the test questions first. • As you read, note strategies that you use to make sense of the text. • Do the multiple choice questions. • Do the Open Response question. • Note any strategies or procedures you use to answer the questions Reading Strategies You Used Question-Answering Strategies You Used Getting Ready to Read: PSST!! Purpose Setting Statement (PSST!) In italics at the very beginning of the text. Includes key words to identify genre and focus for the reading. Each text has different purpose and focus; reader’s strategies will vary with text. Students need to choose what best response and approach will be. Stop and Think Strategies • Write a short SUMMARY. Summary of facts (“the lines”) Summary of inferences (“between the lines”) • Ask a QUESTION. • DRAW a picture. Modeling the Strategies • Think-alouds • Stress importance of “tracks in the snow”: making thinking visible • Students use strategy notes to talk with each other, as a whole class and in small groups • Students prepare and give think-alouds Multiple Choice = Reading Task Students need to have justification from the text for their answers. • THE TEST IS NOT A test of what they remember About what THEY would do or think • STUDENTS SHOULD BE ABLE TO Locate a paragraph where their answer was found Describe in words their reasoning for their answer Open Response • OR’s assess reading comprehension and content only (not writing skill) • Students must answer the question asked • Answers are found or implied in text • Answers should be supported with details, evidence from text • Conventions/organization are NOT scored Open Response = Reading Task Your Classroom Open-Response Teacher asks questions in Open-response question class discussion about asks about larger ideas in larger ideas in text. text. Students answer orally. Students answer in written form. Using Colors to Plan an OR Answer • Choose any two colors for students to associate with parts of a successful response. FROM YOUR HEAD (Answer and explanation/elaboration---Ideas) FROM THE TEXT (Evidence from the passage---Support) • We will be using red for Ideas and green for support • Model to students how to analyze their responses using these colors. How to Answer an ELA Open-response Question Read the question carefully. Explain your answer. Add supporting details. Double-check your work. Approaching the Open-Response Read the question carefully. Explain your answer. Add supporting details. Double-check your work. Colored OR Question for “The Contender” Based on the excerpt, explain what Donatelli means when he says, “Everybody wants to be a champion. That’s not enough.” Support your answer with relevant and specific details from the excerpt. Rereading with a Purpose • Students have already read the article once, for overall understanding and made “tracks in the snow.” • They have also reread certain paragraphs in order to answer their Multiple Choice questions, so they are familiar with the article content. • Now they should reread or skim with a focus: find interesting facts and elaboration and/or support. • They can star the facts and put “S” beside the support/elaboration. Helping Students Plan Answers ANSWER EVIDENCE SAY MORE “It says…” “This Shows that…” Hard work “you get up at 5:30..” To be a boxer-- “You run every day, rain or Slave every single day snow” do hard physical exercises “Jump rope, stretching over and over exercises, sit-ups, push-ups give up what you love-- sleep, “No pies and cakes, no soda.” junk food, late nights, free ”(par. 31-33) time “All this sacrifice… nine times Keep going even if you may Keep going, with no guarantee out of ten.” Par 34 not make it to the top of success Be mentally tough, ignore doubts. Desire, heart “You have to start by wanting Really want to box, for its own to be a contender… heart will sake, not to get fame and take him.” (par. 48) attention. love the competition, the feeling of doing your absolute best, challenging yourself Open-Response Rubric • 4 = Clear, complete & accurate explanation; specific detail. • 3 = Mostly clear complete & accurate explanation; general detail. • 2 = Partial explanation; limited detail. • 1 = Minimal explanation; little or no detail. Open-Response Rubric • 4 = Clear, complete & accurate explanation; specific detail. • 3 = Mostly clear complete & accurate explanation; general detail. • 2 = Partial explanation; limited detail. • 1 = Minimal explanation; little or no detail. Looking at Performance Standards • Found in “anchor” papers Student work that demonstrates examples of work at score points 0 - 4 Scoring is matching an answer to the question’s rubric and anchor papers *Marking up/coloring text is a teaching technique and is not a DESE program or strategy Now Let’s Use the Colors to Analyze the Anchors Putting This Into Practice • Working with a partner at your table, read and score the responses in the Practice Set. • Record the score and reason on Scoring Chart. • Be ready to share. We will discuss each piece as a group at the end. Which Strategies or Activities Do You Plan to Try Out in Your Classroom? TIME FOR LUNCH! See you at 12:30! “Brothers and Sisters:” Try Out the Strategies • Read “Brothers and Sisters…” Don’t read the questions first! • As you read, try out making “tracks in the snow:” summary, question, picture. • Note what additional knowledge or strategies kids might need to make sense of the passage • Do the multiple choice and record where in the text you found the answers Thoughts on Strategies Thoughts on Multiple Choice Fiction vs. Non-Fiction Fiction Non-Fiction • Narrative mode • Narrative, persuasive, informational, descriptive, compare/contrast… • Teach students to correctly • Teach students to identify use headings, images, character, conflict, and plot captions, and sidebars to elements to fully understand understand the text. the text. Fiction vs. Non-Fiction OR Questions FICTION NON-FICTION • Commonly asks for • Commonly asks for answers right in text. inference. • Student must state • Student must state answer(s). inference(s) • Student must elaborate or • Student must support explain answer(s) using inference(s) with support from text and/or own ideas grounded in evidence from text. text. • Student must explain how evidence supports inference(s). Past Grade 6 OR Questions • Based on the selection, describe how the Japanese paper house was designed to be flexible and convenient for daily life. (08) • Based on the article, explain how dogs are trained to be actors and how they are treated while working. (07) • In Paragraph 1, the author states that if you have not heard about hypothermia, it is “something you should know about.” Using information from the article, explain the most likely reason the author makes this statement. (08) How to Answer an ELA Open-response Question Read the question carefully. Explain your answer. Add supporting details. Double-check your work. Using Colors to Analyze Student Work • Answer(s), often from the text (Red) • Details from the text that support or elaborate the answer(s) (Green) Approaching the Open-Response Read the question carefully. Explain your answer. Add supporting details. Double-check your work. Open-Response Rubric • 4 = Clear, complete & accurate explanation; specific detail. • 3 = Mostly clear complete & accurate explanation; general detail. • 2 = Partial explanation; limited detail. • 1 = Minimal explanation; little or no detail. Open-Response Rubric • 4 = Clear, complete & accurate explanation; specific detail. • 3 = Mostly clear complete & accurate explanation; general detail. • 2 = Partial explanation; limited detail. • 1 = Minimal explanation; little or no detail. Colored OR Question for “Brothers and Sisters” Based on the article, explain how siblings can work together to get along. Support your answer with important information from the article. Finish the Planning Chart ANSWER EVIDENCE SAY MORE “It says…” “This means/shows that…” Make rules p. 15 “Decide what You have to be fair and bugs you, then set follow the rules, too ground rules” Ex: Keep out Now Let’s Use the Colors to Analyze Student Work Active Reading is Not Just for MCAS!! • Strategies supported by research (Reading Next 2004) Explicit teaching of strategies • Word attack, fluency, vocabulary • Comprehension - summary (synthesis), inference, etc • Consistent reinforcement throughout school Strategies embedded in subject-matter content Modeling by a proficient readers (“think alouds”) Opportunity for choice Use of multiple types of texts Collaboration Writing instruction and technology use Practicing Active Reading in Class • Teachers plan and model active reading strategy • Students practice and demonstrate skill in strategies in variety of materials In groups Orally Individually In writing • Teachers scaffold down support The Progress from Dependence to Independence Students take the MCAS test ALONE YOUR CHALLENGE: How can you plan your year so that your students feel ready and confident by MCAS time---prepared for independence? A Useful Mnemonic for Planning • TIC Teacher in center • TAC Teacher as coach • TOE Teacher on edge Tic-Tac-Toe in Action • TIC Teacher models strategies in Think-Alouds • TAC “Brain Game:” while reading as a whole class, teacher asks students to orally model strategies • TOE Students prepare and give Think-Alouds in small groups Students discuss questions/ideas in small groups Students practice strategies in writing while reading on their own Which Strategies or Activities Do You Plan to Try Out in Your Classroom?
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