2 0 0 3 S T U D E N T G U I D E B O O K
FOR YOUR CAREER
REASONS TO BE
President and CEO
2 0 0 3 S T U D E N T G U I D E B O O K
Berlex Laboratories, Inc.
340 Changebridge Road
P.O. Box 1000
Montville, NJ 07045-1000
Berlex Laboratories is very proud to sponsor the "Careers in Pharmacy 2003 Student
Guide Book." Senator Jack Reed of Rhode Island, along with seven other lawmakers,
recently sponsored the "Pharmacy Education Aid Act of 2003" in response to the
current pharmacist shortage in the United States. The bill would provide many financial 4 PHARMACY: Rx for success
benefits such as loan repayment funds. It is a great time to become a pharmacist.
Our goal with this publication is to broaden your career horizons to include the many
8 PREPARING FOR YOUR CAREER p.4
facets of pharmacy. Our hope is that you will choose the very rewarding career of being
a pharmacist. IN PHARMACY
Berlex Laboratories is a pharmaceutical firm that focuses on innovative drug develop-
ment, including biotechnology. We employ pharmacists throughout our organization
and we interact with them daily in hospitals, pharmacies, nursing homes, and a variety
12 NAVIGATING THE
of other unique patient settings. Berlex Laboratories believes that pharmacists play a
critical role in health care. We support this publication to bring valuable information to
you, a potential future pharmacist, on the educational requirements, career options,
and opportunities available as a pharmacist.
14 EMPLOYMENT OUTLOOK:
Pharmacy is a very dynamic profession that we encourage to motivated high school
students interested in pursuing a career in health care. Students who enjoy math,
science, and communicating with people will find these skills valuable in the pharmacy
profession. Graduates of pharmacy schools have career options in retail pharmacy,
16 PHARMACY CHOICES:
Retail to research
hospital pharmacy, managed care pharmacy, pharmaceutical manufacturers, and still
options. There currently are over 7,000 open retail pharmacist positions in the United
States, and the need is projected to grow over the next decade. This puts you, the
future pharmacist, in the position to write your own ticket!
19 TOP 10 REASONS TO
BE A PHARMACIST
My hope is that you find this a valuable resource that provides you with useful infor-
mation. A career in pharmacy is a choice that will benefit you well into the twenty-
first century. 20 A DAY IN THE LIFE OF
A COMMUNITY PHARMACIST
Wishing you the best in your future career,
23 THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY
President and CEO
Berlex Laboratories, Inc.
P H A R M A C Y
drugs each year, created to help high cholesterol, cancer and arthritis.”
people combat diseases from
arthritis and cancer to allergies and More than 150 prescription medications are
heart disease. Biotechnology-related covered through this program, and 150,000
drugs, which work according to seniors have enrolled. By becoming a pharma-
newly discovered findings in the cist, you can work one-on-one with these and
human genome, are just starting other patients and fill an increasing need for
to hit the market and will address expert pharmacists.
ailments and even genetic condi-
tions for which drugs have not GREAT PAY
yet been available. Aside from all of the expanded services that
pharmacists are adding to their job descriptions
The field of pharmacogenomics and the help the career provides others, pharma-
is also about to explode—it’s the cy also puts you on a fast career track. Entry-
study of how patient’s genetic vari- level pay in the profession is high. “About
ations affect the way they react to $65,000 to $70,000 a year in urban areas,”
for various drugs and will affect the
way drugs are prescribed in the
future. The result is an increasing
added Duane Reade’s Lane.
The field not only is lucrative, but prestigious
success number of prescriptions that need
to be filled, endless research oppor-
tunities, a fast growing biotech
industry as well as new corporate
challenges that provide a variety
of career options for pharmacists.
and stable. Pay is often even higher than the
figures Lane gives. According to a 2001 survey
by Drug Topics magazine, the median annual
earnings of pharmacists (including overtime
and bonuses) in 2000 was $78,624 per year as
compared to $64,980 per year in 1999.
PHARMACIST AS HEALTH The Gallup Organization has consistently ranked
PROFESSIONAL pharmacists among the most trusted of profes-
Because of escalating medical costs sionals. By taking proactive control of your
Are you looking for a career that is interesting, pays pharmacy are not only virtually guaranteed jobs, but and a shortage of doctors, many states have loos- future with a career in pharmacy, a skill set that
well and benefits society? Pharmacy may be just the will be paid top dollar as drug stores, mass market ened the hold that doctors have had on patient will continue to be in-demand, you can chart a
prescription for a successful future. retailers, pharmaceutical research corporations, hos- care, allowing pharmacists to use their medication course for long-term success.
pitals and a number of other operations compete to expertise to monitor patient care and therapies.
Today might seem a bit early to plan your entire hire you. WHAT EXACTLY DOES A PHARMACIST DO?
career—but your days as a taxpaying citizen are Pharmacists are key contributors in a number Lots. It’s time to forget the notion that all phar-
close at hand. The more you think about what “There’s a crying need for pharmacists in all of programs that have been created to make macists do is count out pills. Dispensing drugs is
you’re going to do tomorrow, the better chance you roles,” stresses Dr. Barbara G. Wells, president of medicines accessible and affordable. certainly part of the job, but the career goes far
have of landing a job that you enjoy and providing the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy beyond simply working behind the counter. The
a lifestyle you desire. and dean of The University of Mississippi School One example is a new initiative between two settings vary—from an enlisted position on a
of Pharmacy. important industry organizations that are military base to a pharmacist at your local chain
You may have heard that the economy and the job working to make it easier for consumers to get pharmacy or independent pharmacy. Career
market are not in the best shape right now, and You may be wondering why the number of people the medications they need. Together Rx and options include:
the rumors are, unfortunately, true. However, there needed to work in the field of pharmacy is rising so Pharmacy Care Alliance are focusing on educat- • Community pharmacy
is a demand for and, in actuality, a shortage of dramatically. The substantial increase in demand is ing “low-income seniors about meaningful drug • Hospital/clinical pharmacy
pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. being driven by a number of factors. Health issues assistance programs offered by pharmaceutical • Long-term care facilities
are on the rise as the biggest population demograph- companies,” explains Craig L. Fuller, president • Academic
“There’s no question that the need for pharmacists ic—the baby boomer—is aging. Statistically, that and CEO of the National Association of Chain • Retail
is staggering,” says Chris Lane, vice president of means a spike in the number of people afflicted with Drug Stores, or NACDS. “By offering one-card • Independent pharmacy ownership
pharmacy operations at drug chain Duane Reade. age-related disorders, including high blood pressure, access to savings, this program makes it easier for • Pharmacy benefits manager
In fact, there will be an anticipated shortfall of high cholesterol and type 2 diabetes. 8 million to 11 million Medicare enrollees—who • Research
about 157,000 pharmacists by 2020, according to have no prescription drug coverage—to get medi- • Armed services
findings from the Pharmacy Manpower Project Inc. Trained experts are in demand as pharmaceutical cines used to treat some common afflictions of • Public health service
This means that those of you who choose a career in companies continue to come out with more new older Americans, such as diabetes, hypertension, • Mail order/Internet pharmacy
4 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 5
Pharmacy: Rx for Success
• Consultant pharmacy preparation guide, page 8, for details.)
Pharmaceutical sales and marketing After earning a degree in pharmacy, successful gradu-
There are even more pharmacy specialty areas that
range from forensic pharmacy to a poison control. You know
Drug research and development
ates go on to take the NAPLEX, or North American
Pharmacist Licensure Examination, which is the board
To specialize in one of these types of practice, a resi-
dency typically is required, which is another popular you will make a
• Association management exam to become a registered pharmacist. Additional way that pharmacists can further their knowledge.
Local, state and federal government
tests vary by state—they involve specific state laws, or
some states, like California, have a separate pharmacy Pharmacy Residency: As noted, this is the best way
Some of the benefits of a career in pharmacy include
exam. Pharmacists can apply for certification in multi-
ple states and often do not need to retest to use their
for pharmacists to learn more about a specialized
area of interest. Residencies range from geriatrics,
working close to home and a job that’s never dull. license elsewhere if they want to move. community practice and pediatrics to critical care 1. You’re good at math and science. If these
A good pharmacist sometimes gets to play detective, and even forensics.
subjects are among your best, a career in
potentially saving customers’ lives. With Further education also is an option,
pharmacy may be the right choice for you.
patients going to multiple specialists including residencies, fellowships WHAT NEXT?
and, perhaps, multiple drug stores, and PhD programs. Pharmacists You can start planning today—in fact, if you know The better you are in these subjects, the eas-
a helpful pharmacist checks to can also go on to specialize you want a career in pharmacy before you enter col- ier it will be to get through the requisite
see what kind of medical in one of five areas and lege, you even potentially can skip a year or two of coursework to receive your degree.
problems a patient suffers become board-certified in school and get right down to the part where you
from and what other any of them. This can start making money. Typically, the Pharm.D degree
2. You enjoy working with people. You
medications a patient is lead to an increase in program requires at least two years of college fol-
already may know that a career in science
taking to avert poten- pay and makes the lowed by four years of pharmacy study. Most stu-
tially life-threatening job even more chal- dents enter pharmacy school with three or more appeals to you but don’t want to be iso-
complications from lenging to a doctor years of college. A few pharmacy schools require stu- lated in a lab. Pharmacists will tell you
drug interactions. of pharmacy who dents to have a college degree to be eligible for that the job is as socially oriented as it is
wants to specialize admission. Pharmacy schools moved away from the scientifically oriented.
HOW DO YOU in a particular area. B.S. in pharmacy to the Pharm.D degree because of
BECOME A the expanding complexity of the role of pharmacists
PHARMACIST? SPECIALTIES in today’s society. From there, it’s your choice as to
3. Multitasking is appealing. If you want a
You can get a taste of INCLUDE: what you want to do and where and how you want job that keeps you intellectually stimulated,
what it’s like to work as a Nuclear Pharmacy: to do it. pharmacy is for you. The field is evolving
pharmacist starting today. Nuclear pharmacists com- rapidly and involves numerous disciplines.
By working in a pharmacy pound radioactive pharma-
setting, you’ll get to see what ceuticals for diagnostic purpos-
FOR MORE INFORMATION:
To learn more about pursuing a career as a pharmacist, 4. You don’t want to be chained to a desk.
the day-to-day job is like. Many es—for example, compounding contact the following organizations: Increasingly, pharmacists are coming out
pharmacists in a variety of settings find radioactive products for diagnosing
Academy of Managed Care Pharmacy from behind the counter, and many don’t
their career paths this way. heart function. 800-827-2627 www.amcp.org
work behind the counter at all. There are
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy
“I got my start in the field years ago working in a Pharmaco Therapy: These pharmacists are responsi- high-paying jobs available as liaisons to drug
703-739-2330 www.aacp.org; www.pharmcas.org
pharmacy—it’s the best way to get a feel for the ble for ensuring the safe, economical and appropri- companies who work with sales reps and
career,” Lane says. ate use of drugs for patients. American College of Clinical Pharmacy
816-531-2177 www.accp.com allow you to travel the globe.
Most of these jobs pay more than the average part- Nutrition Support Pharmacy: These specialists feed American Pharmacists Association
time rate for an after-school job. and medicate patients who have special digestion
202-628-4410 www.aphanet.org 5. Flexible hours are appealing. You can
concerns and critical dosing requirements. American Society of Consultant Pharmacists make your own hours if you become a
If you think a hospital setting would be most 703-739-1300 www.ascp.com
pharmacist. Do you want to travel? You can
appealing, you can volunteer and get experience Oncological Pharmacy: Chemotherapy and related American Society of Health-System Pharmacists work a shift where you can take a week or
working as an assistant in a clinic. If you decide cancer treatments are extremely complex and vital. 301-657-3000 www.ashp.org
two off at a time as part of your regular
that a career in pharmacy is appealing, the road to Working with cancer patients and their doctors is a National Association of Chain Drug Stores
703-549-3001 www.nacds.org schedule. If you go into teaching, you’ll get
receiving your doctorate in pharmacy, or as it com- fascinating and rewarding career path.
monly is known, your Pharm.D, starts in college. the entire summer off—something you may
National Community Pharmacists Association
Depending on the school, you choose a pre-pharma- Psychiatric Pharmacy: This broad discipline moni- 703-683-8200 www.ncpanet.org miss after graduation.
cy program or a major that falls within the accept- tors complex mental conditions that increasingly are National Pharmaceutical Association
able range of a pre-pharmacy degree. (Please see treated with medicines. 800-944-6742 www.npha.net
6 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 7
P R E PA R I N G F O R Y O U R C A R E E R
So, you want to be a pharmacist?
Start planning now.
The decision to pursue a career in pharmacy is an associate dean/associate pro-
excellent choice. Pharmacy offers attractive salaries, fessor at the Harrison School
a comfortable work environment, flexible hours and of Pharmacy at Auburn
diverse career options. Sounds great, right? But these University. Also, any business
luxuries don’t come without work—the education courses are key because phar-
process of a pharmacist is intense. In 1992, all the macists today also are expect-
colleges of pharmacy voted to make the doctorate of ed to comprehend business
pharmacy the only acceptable professional pharmacy applications—especially in
degree. A five-year Bachelor of Science degree is no retail environments.
longer offered. Obtaining a doctorate in pharmacy
requires at least two years of pre-pharmacy and four
years of pharmacy school. Because pharmacists are
such a crucial component of health care, obtaining
Years ago, pharmacists did
not receive business train-
ing. Today, it is an impor-
a pharmacy degree today is on par with attending tant component of the
medical school. education process. Pharmaceutical Chemistry
HIGH SCHOOL PREP Working outside of school is
While still in high school, you should meet with a advised. “A student might Pharmacognosy
guidance counselor to ensure that all the required shadow a pharmacist in their
courses are being taken. You might even want to area or volunteer in a health-
start your application process one year in advance. related field,” suggests
Visiting a college Web site provides a glimpse at McClain. Most local health
what is required for entry. High school courses that care associations are willing Pharmacy Practices
are must-haves include physics, chemistry and to have potential pharmacy students volunteer. Recent developments suggest that more stu-
biology. “Students should also have a good back- dents are taking a three- or four-year pre-phar-
ground in math,” says Valencia McClain, coordina- COLLEGE PREP macy program to enhance their performance Pathology
tor of student affairs at the University of Florida Prior to entering a professional school of pharmacy, in pharmacy school. “We are in the process of
College of Pharmacy. students are required to complete two to four years increasing pre-pharmacy to three years and get-
of pre-pharmacy course work at the college level. You ting a more science-based curriculum. We are
Adds Sue Bierman, Ph.D. and assistant professor at might want to consider focused studies in math and finding that students with three years are bet-
Butler University, “Take precalculus or calculus. Math science courses to sharpen your skills. “There are ter prepared for what they face in pharmacy Drug Safety
aptitude is a good indicator of success in pharmacy.” two phases of pharmacy programs,” says Bierman school,” says Jungnickel.
While sciences and math seem natural choices in of Butler University. “The first two years of study
coursework, college professors also suggest classes are in preparation for the professional phase of the Some schools require that students take the Business Management
that enhance verbal skills. “I think you need to pharmacy programs. Students will take university PCAT exam, which is the Pharmacy College
remember that pharmacy is a verbal profession, and required courses and pharmacy prerequisites.” Admission Test. This is similar to the MCAT
you should take courses that bolster verbal commu- During the sophomore year, she says, students exams taken by potential medical students.
nications,” advises Paul W. Jungnickel, who is the generally apply for entry to the professional phase. Most pharmacy colleges require a minimum
8 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 9
Preparing for your Career in Pharmacy U.S. Pharmacy Colleges
Albany College of Pharmacy University of Louisiana at Monroe, College of Pharmacy
grade point average during the first two years. The courses in niche areas, such as Spanish for health
University of Arizona, College of Pharmacy Northeastern University, College of Pharmacy
minimum acceptable undergraduate GPA is around care professionals.
the 3.0 mark—or B average. University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Pharmacy Nova Southeastern University, College of Pharmacy
Upon graduation, a license to practice pharmacy is Auburn University, School of Pharmacy Ohio Northern University, College of Pharmacy
Although not required, many admissions experts required in all states. To obtain a license, you need University of Buffalo, School of Pharmacy Ohio State University, College of Pharmacy
recommend attending pre-pharmacy at the college to serve an internship under a licensed pharmacist,
Butler University, College of Pharmacy University of Oklahoma, College of Pharmacy
where the pharmacy education is going to be graduate from an accredited college of pharmacy
University of California, San Francisco, School of Pharmacy Oregon State University, College of Pharmacy
completed. One admissions director suggested that and pass a state examination.
pre-pharmacy not be done at community or junior University of California, San Diego, School of Pharmacy University of the Pacific, School of Pharmacy
colleges, though it remains an option. As of fall 2002, there were 84 colleges and Campbell University, School of Pharmacy Palm Beach Atlantic College, School of Pharmacy
schools of pharmacy with accredited professional University of Cincinnati, College of Pharmacy Philadelphia College of Pharmacy
PHARMACY SCHOOL degree programs.
University of Colorado, School of Pharmacy University of Pittsburgh, School of Pharmacy
Once in pharmacy school, courses are more specific
to the specialty you choose. However, most schools University of Connecticut, School of Pharmacy University of Puerto Rico, College of Pharmacy
of pharmacy combine required courses with a broad Creighton University, Nebraska, School of Pharmacy Purdue University, School of Pharmacy
range of professional elective options. For Drake University, College of Pharmacy University of Rhode Island, College of Pharmacy
example, a pharmacy student might need
Duquesne University, School of Pharmacy Rutgers University, College of Pharmacy
154 core credits and 38 elective credits
Ferris State University, College of Pharmacy Samford University, School of Pharmacy
for a total of 192 credits to obtain a
doctorate of pharmacy. Florida A & M University, College of Pharmacy Shenandoah University, School of Pharmacy
University of Florida, College of Pharmacy South University, School of Pharmacy
A TYPICAL COURSE LIST University of Georgia, College of Pharmacy University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy
Hampton University, School of Pharmacy University of South Carolina, College of Pharmacy
chemistry University of Houston, College of Pharmacy Medical University of South Carolina, College of Pharmacy
• Pharmacognosy (deals Howard University, College of Pharmacy South Dakota State University, College of Pharmacy
with natural drugs) Idaho State University, College of Pharmacy Southwestern Oklahoma State University,
• Pharmacology School of Pharmacy
University of Illinois, College of Pharmacy
• Pharmacy practices St. John’s University, College of Pharmacy
• Pathology University of Iowa, College of Pharmacy
St. Louis College of Pharmacy
• Nutrition University of Kansas, School of Pharmacy
• Drug safety Temple University, School of Pharmacy
University of Kentucky, College of Pharmacy
• Business University of Tennessee, College of Pharmacy
LECOM, College of Pharmacy
management University of Texas, College of Pharmacy
Long Island University, College of Pharmacy
Texas Southern University, College of Pharmacy
Students also University of Maryland, School of Pharmacy
Texas Tech University, School of Pharmacy
can study issues Massachusetts College of Pharmacy
pertinent to their Mercer University, School of Pharmacy
University of Toledo, College of Pharmacy
desired career areas, University of Utah, College of Pharmacy
University of Michigan, College of Pharmacy
such as dynamics of Virginia Commonwealth University, School of Pharmacy
patient manage- Midwestern University, Chicago College of Pharmacy
Washington State University, College of Pharmacy
ment, issues in home Midwestern University, College of Pharmacy - Glendale
health care delivery or University of Washington, School of Pharmacy
University of Minnesota, College of Pharmacy
the biology of aging. Wayne State University, College of Pharmacy
University of Mississippi, School of Pharmacy
Western University of Health Sciences,
University of Missouri-Kansas City, School of Pharmacy
Students intending to College of Pharmacy
enter the retail world can University of Montana, School of Pharmacy
West Virginia University, School of Pharmacy
take courses in community University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Pharmacy
Wilkes University, School of Pharmacy
practice, which often include Nevada College of Pharmacy
internships at local drug stores. Wingate University, School of Pharmacy
University of New Mexico, College of Pharmacy
Some students might even pursue University of Wisconsin, School of Pharmacy
University of North Carolina, School of Pharmacy
University of Wyoming, School of Pharmacy
North Dakota State University, College of Pharmacy
Xavier University of Louisiana, College of Pharmacy
10 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 11
t h e
ence. Admissions directors say this makes a
Most retail chains such as Walgreens, Wal-Mart
and Eckerd offer summer internship programs
where students can get paid while learning the
business. Although you can’t fill prescriptions, pharmacy careers. Scholarship information is available by
you can perform pharmacy technicians’ duties calling pharmacy colleges or checking Web sites. Grants
such as checkouts or taking prescriptions from also are available for students. Pharmacy school can be
patients. There is a pharmacist shortage in expensive, but there are a number of financial aid
America today, and pharmacies need as much options available.
help as possible.
By the year 2004, a new admissions avenue will be
Large pharmaceutical companies and available. Half of all U.S. colleges of pharmacy are par-
hospitals also offer internships. Call ticipating together in a centralized application pool,
human resources departments for informa- known as the Pharmacy College Application Service
tion. Not only can internships help get (PharmCAS). Students can use the single PharmCAS
you into college, they also open doors application form to apply to several colleges.
for employment. “We look for experience PharmCAS will make it easier for you to navigate the
during the summer or even while at pharmacy admissions process. PharmCAS will also
school,”says Alan Levin, chairman of make it easier for schools to tap into the pool of
Happy Harry’s Drug in Newark, Del. “We applicants more effectively.
find these students make great employees.”
Online applications are becoming very popular. However,
because the world of cyberspace is not perfect, follow
step three: Select at least three col- up online applications with e-mails or phone calls to
leges of choice. How can you narrow them confirm receipt. To learn more about PharmCAS, go to
down? Sue Bierman, Ph.D. and assistant pro- www.pharmcas.org.
fessor at the College of Pharmacy and Health
Services at Butler University, recommends Almost half of all colleges now require that you take
looking at the Web sites of universities of the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT) as pre-
interest. “Review the pharmacy information, pharmacy student. A minimum grade point average also
as well as the university academic mission. is requested at most schools. Letters of recommendation
Does this fit your interest? Some colleges and essays are crucial to the application process as well.
specialize in training for one aspect of pharmacy over Good sources are local pharmacists, physicians, teachers
step one: Make sure you have taken or plan to www.aacp.org and www.pharmcas.org or the National another. Think hard about what field you want to enter or health care professionals who know you.
take all prerequisite math and science courses. A check of Association of Boards of Pharmacy at www.nabp.net. and match your application with college strengths.”
college Web sites or a visit to your guidance counselor The National Association of Chain Drug Stores at
can help determine what you need. You can request uni- www.nacds.org is another key resource. There also are step five: If possible, arrange for personal meet-
versity handbooks or obtain standards for applications on trade publications, such as Drug Store News, which deal step four: Start applying at least a year before ings with prospective school advisers or counselors.
Web sites. with pharmacy issues. entry. While it can be time-consuming and expensive to Practice for personal interviews with parents or friends.
complete multiple admissions, pharmacy is a competitive Pharmacy is a career where your personal appearance and
Admissions policies vary from school to school, so field and you need to have choices. “Apply early because verbal skills are important. Neatness and clarity count!
check each site carefully. Know as much as you can about step two: Find a way to get some experience. deadlines vary in terms of scholarship consideration,” How hard is it to get in? Although pharmacy schools
the school and its programs. The Internet has become Shadow your local pharmacist. You can volunteer at Bierman says. Most colleges have scholarships available have very high expectations, the fact is that there is a
an incredibly useful tool for learning about pharmacy a hospital or participate in community service. By for potential pharmacy students. Many industry leaders, swelling demand for pharmacists. A strong background
and pharmacy schools. Visit association sites, such as working with a pharmacist, you can truly understand such as James Harrison, who founded Harco Drug in and good grades should ensure your acceptance into a
the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy at what the job entails while getting valuable experi- Tuscaloosa, Ala., have made large endowments to further pre-pharmacy program. Good luck.
12 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 13
E M P LO Y M E N T O U T LO O K
Lane, vice president of pharmacy operations at ment in this booming area, check out local hospitals,
Duane Reade. community colleges and even the military for programs.
In general, the largest employers of druggists in 2000 The BLS states that this area will grow “much faster than
were discount department stores, grocery stores, drug average” into 2010, due to the same factors driving the
stores and hospitals. Of those, the median annual need to fill pharmacist positions. In addition, cost-cut-
salaries broke down as follows according to BLS: ting on the part of pharmacies and insurers is expected
to enhance the role and earning potential for techs, who
There’s no need for alchemy when follow—whether you decide to earn since the number of degrees being make a median salary of $9.93 an hour, with the top
it comes to conjuring up golden a doctorate of pharmacy, a certifica- granted annually is not anywhere 10% earning more than $14.56 per hour. Certified
Discount Department Stores……………$73,730
employment opportunities in phar- tion as a pharmacy technician or near matching the number of new technicians often earn more. Here’s a breakdown of
macy. Not only are there a wide start working in a pharmacy today. job openings that are being created Grocery Stores………………………………$72,440 technician hourly pay rates by area of practice:
variety of positions and job options Here’s the job prognosis: in the field. The demands on each
available, but the pay and benefits pharmacist are increasing as a result. Drug Stores…………………………………..$72,110
are top-notch. OUTLOOK: PHARMACISTS Prescriptions dispensed at U.S. Hospitals……………………………………..$68,760 Hospitals……………………………………...$11.44
As a Magic 8 Ball might note, the retailers rose from 1.9 billion to
“Pharmacy is critical to our busi- “outlook is good” when it comes to 2.8 billion yearly between 1992 Grocery Stores………………………………$10.57
ness,” said Tom Ryan, chairman of finding employment as a pharmacist. and 1999: 44%, according to
CVS, who started out as a pharma- Health Resources and Services Over the past few years, however, hospital salaries have
cist for the chain. “We have made It’s very good. In fact, it is projected Administration (HRSA) data. This been rising “to fill the extreme demand for pharmacists
pharmacy recruiting one of our as one of the fastest-growing profes- increased the number of prescrip- in this area of practice,” said Barbara Wells, dean at
main goals. A shortage of pharma- sions in the first decade of the mil- tions filled by each pharmacist by University of Mississippi and president of American OUTLOOK: PHARMACY AIDES
cists has a direct impact on our lennium. According to the Bureau of 32% during the same time period— Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. If you plan on seeking employment right out of high
business. It is a great career with Labor Statistics (BLS), employment from 17,400 annually in 1992 to school, or a part-time job preparing for a future job as a
plenty of potential.” for pharmacists will grow faster than 22,900 in 1999. Even with cash incentives, the pharmacist demand has pharmacist, the career of pharmacy aide might be a fit.
the average for all occupations reached epidemic proportions. In fact, Congress mandated This position involves helping licensed pharmacists in
There are three basic career paths in through 2010. The odds are in your This dramatic increase quite a report by the HRSA of the Department of Health and the day-to-day administrative duties of running a phar-
pharmacy that you can choose to favor if you become a pharmacist, clearly indicates the need for Human Services in 2000 to examine fully the shortfall macy. Responsibilities include handling money, stocking
more pharmacists. of pharmacists. This study, “The Pharmacy Workforce: shelves and a variety of related duties.
A Study of the Supply and Demand for Pharmacists,” was
Another factor that will benefit conducted by the National Center for Health Workforce Although the number of aide positions is not growing
those seeking careers in pharmacy Information and Analysis in HSRA’s Bureau of Health as fast as the number of pharmacist positions through
is the large number of baby-boomer Professions division. Findings indicated that U.S. drug 2010, it is projected to grow significantly for the same
pharmacists who will be retiring store pharmacist position vacancies rose from approxi- reasons as other careers in pharmacy. With less respon-
within the next 10 years, leaving mately 2,700 in February 1998 to nearly 7,000 openings sibility than pharmacy technicians, pay is slightly
even more slots open. by February 2000. lower, though certification as an aide can also mean
The career also pays quite well. OUTLOOK: PHARMACY TECHNICIANS
The top 10% earned more than As pharmacists branch out into other areas, the position About 80% of the 57,000 pharmacy aides employed in
$89,010 a year—many in the six of pharmacy technician grows in importance. The career 2000 worked in retail pharmacies, including supermarket
figures. This does not include the outlook also is excellent for technicians, whose primary and mass retail chains. Still, 13% were in hospitals.
incentives being offered by many job description includes counting out tablets and label- Other potential venues include mail-order pharmacies
organizations, such as relocation ing bottles. Techs also work as liaisons between patients and pharmaceutical wholesalers.
costs and cash sign-on bonuses as and pharmacists. Pharmacy technicians, depending on
high as $10,000 or $20,000. the state, can receive prescriptions in either paper format The overall median hourly salary was $8.52 in 2000,
or electronically. The classic image of a pharmacist according to the BLS, with top earners making more
Another valuable asset is the measuring out drugs is actually more in keeping with than $13.14 per hour.
flexible hours available, which are the duties of a technician—the pharmacist usually is
encouraging many women to go supervising medication mixing and dispensing, while Here are some typical salaries per hour as they vary
into the field. Deans at universities working closely with patients. by location:
across the country estimate that up
to 70% of some classes are women. In a hospital setting, technicians actually deliver
“It’s the perfect way to earn a high medication to patients and update each patient’s chart. Hospitals………………………………….…$11.17
salary while working part-time,
and I think that’s why many Because of the high level of responsibility and complexi- Grocery Stores………………………………$8.47
women are going this route, in ty of tasks that a technician executes, formal training
what was formerly a male-domi- and certification is favored. To work toward passing the
nated career track,” adds Chris National Pharmacy Technician Examination for employ-
14 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 15
P H A R M A C Y C H O I C E S
retail to research
Your career can take you from store to hospital HOME CARE/LONG-TERM CARE FACILITIES
PHARMACISTS: The function of a home care or
medications properly to avoid excessive hospital stays.
Often a pharmacist working in managed care creates
or even to the Food and Drug Administration! long-term care facilities pharmacist is similar to that drug therapies in conjunction with physicians.
of a hospital pharmacist. However, patients served
are not on-site in the hospital. This field offers the Pharmacy Benefits Managers, or PBMs, are charged
he image of the local drug store people’s lives. And, the aging popula- chance to work hand in hand with nurs- with working with employers to create
pharmacist in a white jacket tion ensures a growing demand for ing care agencies to provide total pharmacy benefit packages.
probably pops into your head candidates to work in the profession. care for patients in the home Pharmacists are needed to work
when you think of a career in pharma- In fact, the need for pharmacists is and also involves educating within PBMs to ensure the
cy. About 60% of all pharmacists do expected to grow faster than the aver- patients and caregivers on right pharmacy benefits
work in the community drug setting. age for all occupations through the the medications. are made available
However, pharmacists held about year 2010. So, if the local pharmacy to employees.
217,000 jobs in 2000 (the latest year counter isn’t ideal for you, consider “What I like is that
with complete data), ranging from the these options: I have an ongoing ACADEMIC
local hospital to the federal government. relationship with PHARMACY:
HOSPITALS, CLINICAL PHARMACY patients, rather More than 3,000
No matter what venue you select, AND OTHER INSTITUTIONS: Years than just occa- full-time faculty
pharmacy offers financial rewards in a ago, hospital pharmacists were relegat- sional consulta- members work
job where you can positively impact ed to the basements of hospitals where tions,” notes in the nation’s
they merely filled prescrip- Dave Werner, a colleges and
tions. That’s not so today. pharmacist schools of phar-
Hospital pharmacists are actively work- macy. In addi-
important members of the ing in a long- tion to serving
hospital or nursing home care facility in as teachers and
health care team. And Fulton, N.Y. researches, these
with the aging of America, academics also
the demand for pharma- CONSULTANT serve as goodwill
cists to work in hospitals PHARMACIST: ambassadors to the
and extended care facili- Consultant pharmacists entire industry.
ties continues to swell. typically practice in long- “Teaching is a wonderful
Hospital pharmacy can be term care, often monitoring way to use all of your
very satisfying because the medication use in extended- knowledge to train future phar-
pharmacist works directly care facilities. The consultant phar- macists. It keeps you up to date.
with physicians, nurses macist, however, may or may not be the Each day is truly a different experi-
and patients. pharmacist in charge of actually dispensing ence,” says Paul W. Jungnickel, Ph.D., RPh,
the medication. an associate dean/professor at the Harrison School of
Hospital pharmacy is Pharmacy at Auburn University.
composed of a number of MANAGED CARE PHARMACY/PHARMACY BENEFITS
specialized areas, such as MANAGERS: Managed care is an expression you’ll hear PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES: The pharmaceutical
nuclear pharmacy, drug more and more as you get out into the world. Basically, sciences include drug discovery and design, drug deliv-
and poison information, managed care is designed to facilitate checks and bal- ery, clinical sciences, drug analysis, cost effectiveness of
and intravenous therapy. ances so that all members of the health care team are medicines and regulatory affairs. You could work on a
About 38,000 pharmacists delivering the best health care at the best costs. team—at a manufacturer or university, for example—to
work full- or part-time in uncover new medications or investigate what delivery
hospitals or nursing Pharmacy is a cornerstone of this process because phar- systems are most efficient. If you have a strong handle
homes today. macists are called upon to make sure patients are taking on economics, you could put your talent to work in
16 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 17
determining the economic savings from the use of pharmacists today are no longer just in drug stores-
one drug rather than another. grocery, discount and mail-order merchants all need
pharmacists to staff their growing businesses. And,
INDUSTRIAL PHARMACIST/PHARMACEUTICAL the retail pharmacy of today is different from what
SALES AND MARKETING: Most pharmaceutical your perception might be.
manufacturers have a variety of jobs for pharmacy
graduates ranging from overseeing drug production Today’s retail pharmacists are frequently called
to selling products to physicians and retailers.
Other positions on the manufacturing end of the
business include working in marketing, public rela-
tions and with government regulators. Many senior
upon to counsel patients, rather than just fill pre-
scriptions. Although filling the prescription called
in by the doctor is still the No. 1 function, phar-
macists also are instrumental in teaching patients
executives of leading pharmaceutical firms have about health care. Perhaps you’ve even seen physi-
pharmacy degrees. cal changes in your
local store where the
“This has been pharmacist is no
reasons to be
mail order and the
the perfect profession for me. behind glass, but
down at a special
Internet represent counter where you
pharmacy industries I raised three children and can consult with him
growing at warp speed. or her. No wonder
These sectors need remained employed with a job pharmacists are
pharmacists to oversee among the most trust-
filling, as well as to that made me feel I was doing ed professionals.
serve as liaisons with
patients. Many something important,” “This has been the
Internet sites also perfect profession
seek pharmacists says Mary Christian, for me,” says Mary
for content. pharmacist at an independent pharmacy in Warren, N.J. Christian, a pharma-
cist at an independent 1 you want a job There is a massive void of 6 respect There aren’t too many jobs where you
DRUG INFORMATION pharmacy in Warren, people who know the pharmaceutical business. are an instant authority on a subject, but getting
CENTERS: Many phar- N.J. “I raised three You can help fill it. The employment outlook is not a doctorate of pharmacy automatically makes
maceutical manufactur- children and remained that bright in numerous fields—most dot-coms you a central fixture in your community, from
ers, retailers, hospitals and universities offer hotlines employed with a job that made me feel I was doing went the way of the dinosaurs—but pharmacies are day one.
for patients, doctors and other health care providers. something important.” here to stay.
Pharmacists are needed to staff these call centers to 7 you like a challenge You’ll never be bored
ensure accurate information for both professional and INDEPENDENT OWNERSHIP: This is the ideal sit- 2 you like helping people As a pharmacist, behind the counter—there’s a constant flow of
personal use is dispensed. uation for a pharmacist who likes community you get to work directly with the community, new information to integrate, such as new med-
pharmacy, but wants to be his or her own boss. helping people deal with what is often their No. 1 ical technology, new drugs and new customers.
ASSOCIATION MANAGEMENT: There are numerous Rather than look to chain management for direc- priority—health.
associations, national and local, with pharmacists tion, independent pharmacies are able to stock a 8 variety Today’s pharmacists do a lot more than
needs. The National Association of Chain Drug Stores, range of prescription and OTC goods that are cus- 3 a good salary There is a strong cash incen- count pills. New laws being passed across the
for example, employs several pharmacists who help tomized for a particular region or town. tive thanks to high demand. Starting salaries are United States enable pharmacists to perform
work on regulatory issues. “My pharmacy degree is “Pharmacists that own a community pharmacy about $75,000 and go up into the six-figure check-ups on patients’ blood pressure, diabetes
monumental in my role in working on very impor- enjoy the flexibility to develop their pharmacy range. Some companies even offer signing bonus- and other increasingly common illnesses.
tant issues to pharmacy, such as pharmacy benefits practice to meet the needs of the patients they es like BMWs!
cards,” explains Kurt Proctor, who is the president serve,” notes Tom Murry, Pharm.D and Director of 9 you want a life Ask some older career
of the National Association of Chain Drug Stores Student Affairs, National Community Pharmacists 4 flexible hours Night owl or morning person, types how they feel about the daily commute
Foundation, which is focused on advancing the Association. “Also, the average salary of an inde- there’s a pharmaceutical shift for you. Often, phar- and there are sure to be groans. Pharmacies
pharmacy practice nationwide. pendent pharmacy owner is $150,000 plus profits,” macies are open 24 hours a day. You have the free- tend to be located in town centers, so you can
he adds, according to his organization. dom to work a flexible shift—9-to-5 or whatever live close to your workplace—even within
COMMUNITY RETAIL PHARMACY: Retail is an suits you best. walking distance.
appealing career for many pharmacy graduates. OTHER FIELDS: Pharmacists also are needed in a
Attractive starting salaries and making your own host of federal, state and professional positions. For 5 location, location, location You won’t 10 making a difference Pharmacists make a
hours are part of the lure. The retail industry has been example, the United States Public Health Service, the have that option if you need to work on Wall positive impact on their communities and can
impacted negatively by a scarcity of pharmacists, and Food and Drug Administration and all branches of Street. You can take your pharmaceutical skills save lives by ensuring that patients get the right
many retailers have made the recruiting of pharma- the armed services need pharmacists. There also are anywhere in the country—or the world. Bilingual? medications in the right combinations. It’s a
cists one of their most important initiatives. Retail positions available in the Veterans Administration. Even better. reward uncommon in most careers.
18 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 19
A D AY I N T H E L I F E
of a community pharmacist
So, now you information on living a healthi-
know how you er lifestyle. I will call a doctor if
can become a I feel there is a potential prob-
pharmacist and lem with a medication a patient
the technical has been prescribed. It’s not just
aspects of the about looking at drug interac-
career—but tion complications, but taking a
what’s it big-picture approach to overall
really like? health. For example, will one
cholesterol medication work bet-
Amir Masood, ter with a particular high blood
Amir Masood, Pharm.D is the pressure remedy that the patient
clinical pharmacy manager, clinical pharma- is already taking?
CUB Pharmacy cy manager at
CUB Pharmacy in Chicago, a company operated Patient contact is incredibly
by Supervalu Inc., which operates hundreds of important, and the role of a
pharmacies across the United States under various pharmacist involves more and
banners. Masood is also director/preceptor of more of this as the field evolves.
the CUB-MWU Community Pharmacy Residency
Program and works directly with associates as
they complete residencies in community pharma- Q: After the consultative this customer’s blood pressure, noticed her symptoms various conditions and help patients learn to
cy to further their educations. Here’s a look at screenings, how does your day develop? and had her go to the emergency room immediately— manage illnesses.
what he typically does during a day. since her primary care physician was out of town—she
A: I focus on my dispensing role. I usually have might not be here today. Q: It’s obvious that being a pharmacist involves a
a few pharmacy technicians on hand to fill pre- lot more than filling prescriptions. Do you feel that
Q: How does your workday begin? scriptions, and my job is to ensure that every- the false perception that the job is monotonous
thing runs smoothly and precisely. I also make Q: You supervise a number of employees: What kind still remains?
A: I like to get in early to meet with patients sure orders get filled quickly and accurately. of interaction do you have with them?
signed up for consultations. This one-on-one A: In between day clinics and managing staffers, there is
interaction with people is one of my favorite parts A: Usually when I grab some lunch I take time to make an amazing range of activities. Being a pharmacist goes
of the job. We also get walk-ins. Many of these Q: What kind of situations do you encounter on conversation with the staff, as well as with the students way beyond, as the old expression goes, “Lick, stick and
patients have cholesterol and diabetes issues. a daily basis? serving as interns and residents learning about commu- pour.” A modern pharmacist isn’t stuck in the
nity pharmacy. It’s nice to be able to talk about matters corner counting pills—that’s not why we receive six or
Each patient gets about 15 minutes during which A: I see some amazing things, and it’s great to that interest my co-workers and myself equally and try seven years of schooling. We take a team approach with
their blood is drawn and the results are analyzed. feel like I accomplish some good in the communi- to offer help as they follow a pharmacy career path. doctors in managing patients. Medical doctors are
We do screenings for an expanding array of con- ty. Just last week, an elderly woman came in and pressed to see as many patients as possible to make up
ditions, from osteoporosis to hypertension. said, “Honey, can you take a look at my eye?” She for lost revenue because of changes in the health
had a red dot in it that had appeared 12 to 14 Q: How much time do you actually spend behind insurance industry. Pharmacists can take the time to
hours earlier. I asked her what medication she was the counter? do simple, but potentially life-saving, preventative and
Q: How closely do you work with patients taking, and she had run out of her high blood maintenance screenings to make sure that patients are
regarding health problems and maintenance? pressure medicine, and hadn’t refilled it promptly. A: I would say about 30% of my time is spent dis- being properly medicated.
I asked her how she felt—did she have numbness pensing, and 70% is spent in a clinical capacity, out
A: Sometimes someone will come in who is a on one side? Blurred vision? I suggested this cus- with patients and training the pharmacy resident. We
ticking time bomb because of their cholesterol tomer call her doctor right away because her have health fairs at various sites as well as within the Q: Is a pharmacist responsible for store operations, as
level, and they had no idea because they hadn’t responses and elevated blood pressure indicated pharmacy to provide screening services and health well as working with patients?
been to the doctor. The pharmacy is much more she might be having a mini stroke—which could benefits. The higher volume the pharmacy, the more
accessible and affordable for many people. potentially cause blindness or even death. It turns services it can provide on-site, but many pharmacists A: A pharmacy is a business, and there are a number of
Increasingly, people are coming to us for regular out that she was having a stroke. Had I not taken venture out to other sites to help spread awareness of logistical matters to keep track of. It’s essential to keep a
20 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 21
T H E
Focus on Pharmacists
A doctorate in pharmacy opens the door to a virtually to patients who can only receive nutrition via IV—it is
endless corridor of careers. Retail practice may be the first extremely challenging, and interesting.” Viola’s team of
thing that comes to mind for many, but looking at the eight pharmacists is involved in diverse areas including
industry as a whole, it represents only a fraction of the proper dosing and drug interactions. The hospital
diversity of the business. Here, working pharmacists dis- environment also calls for a complex dispensing
cuss other job opportunities. system, including automated systems for controlled
output of narcotics.
“I like the aspect of frequent direct patient care,” notes ACADEMIC
Alice Lee-Martin, regional clinical pharmacy program
administrator at Kaiser Permanente of the Mid-Central
States. “We work directly with patients on managing
various conditions—asthma, end-stage renal disease
(kidney failure), hypertension—through a variety of clin-
ics.” Lee-Martin’s company also offers pain management
“Teaching is an extremely rewarding way to help try and
shape the future of pharmacy,” says Robert “Buzz” Kerr,
professor at the University of Maryland and President-
Elect of AACP. “It is exciting to have an up-close view of
how the field is changing through its upcoming employ-
ees—from the dramatic increase in the number of
changes and new counting and filling prescriptions.
clinics, and services involving patients affected by HIV. women in the field, to the interest in an amazingly
pharmacy launches, Many retailers, in fact, are starting
She notes that insurance and health care systems are diverse range of practices.” Not only do professors get
also are communicated to purchase filling machines that
allotting more and more responsibilities to managed care to work with students planning everything from a joint
facilities for routine disease maintenance plans. M.B.A. and pharmacy degree to a career at a mom-and-
via computer. process prescriptions at one central
pop, small-town pharmacy, but they get to work behind location and then distribute the filled
the scenes, as well. In hospitals, bar codes bottles to retail stores. This scenario
HOSPITAL PRACTICE are used to dispense medication, might suggest pharmacists aren’t
The day-to-day in a hospital setting can be an intense, Just as technology has changed
identify patients and reorder medica- needed. However, experts say the
rewarding experience. It allows a pharmacist to interact RESEARCH our everyday world—imagine tions. Personal digital assistants also opposite is true. Pharmacists are
with critically ill patients, working closely with medical The research conducted by pharmaceutical companies
doctors to determine ideal medication and nutrition saves lives every day. Opportunities exist in biotechnolo- your life without the World Wide are now used commonly by pharma- needed for quality control of the
solutions. “We have about 250 beds, with an average gy, pharmacogenomics and other innovative fields that cists for product information and automated process.
Web—it also has impacted phar-
stay of four days, so the patients you are treating are come together to produce cutting-edge pharmaceutical other data.
constantly shifting,” says Julio Viola, director of clinical products. Research caters to all aspects of the eternal macy in all settings. • INVENTORY CONTROL:
pharmacy at Sound Shore Medical Center, Bronx, consumer demand for a “miracle in a bottle,” and thanks Other digital innovations include: Although a pharmacist’s main goal
N.Y. “We work with everything from dosing to the scientists in research and development, “You need to have decent knowledge is to serve patients, most have
an infant 1/100th the size of an adult they come closer every year. of personal computers, which, fortu- • E-PRESCRIPTIONS: Ever look at some business responsibilities, such
nately most kids have today,” says your physician’s handwriting? Errors as ordering pharmaceuticals. The
Paul W. Jungnickel, an associate in reading prescriptions are a huge, use of hand-held ordering devices
dean/professor at the Harrison potentially life-threatening problem. and computerized inventory sys-
close eye on inventory. This Q: What do you see as key School of Pharmacy at Auburn Technology has come to the rescue. tems has made this process easier
helps make sure that personal benefits of being a University. “If you have basic skills, New systems allow physicians to and more efficient.
patients’ needs are met doctor of pharmacy? you can learn the specific programs.” key in prescriptions to devices, such
and that the pharmacy is as personal data assistants or pagers, • RESEARCH: The use of computers
as profitable as possible. A: The flexibility of my Less than 10 years ago, pharmacists that transmit the prescription to study drug composition or to learn
Using computer programs hours is a definite plus. had to check prescription compatibil- directly to the pharmacist. more about diseases is having a pro-
and our own staff observa- Pharmacists typically work an ity manually to ensure one drug found impact on the science of phar-
tions, we get a feel for how eight-hour day, but some pre- would not cause death or sickness Currently, about 30% of a pharma- macy. And technology is allowing
fast certain medications fer to swing 10- or 12-hour when mixed with another. Labels cist’s time is spent receiving and clar- pharmacists to do more than ever.
need to be restocked. Has shifts with more time off in were typed manually—a long and ifying prescriptions on the phone. Says Jungnickel, “One of the things
everyone suddenly started tak- between. Some pharmacists work arduous process. Computer systems Electronic prescribing can reduce that is amazing to me is how many
ing a new allergy medication? Is seven-days-on, seven-days-off schedules. have had a dramatic impact on day- that time so pharmacists have more positions now are filled with a
there a patient with a chronic need to-day operations. One of the biggest time to consult with patients. At the pharmacist who knows technology
for a rarer medication, for an ailment like I’m lucky to feel that I accomplish a lot— changes is that retail pharmacists are same time, it can slice the number of instead of the post being manned
epilepsy, being ordered for on a regular basis? It besides filling thousands of prescriptions successful- able to use computers to check for errors. In one test, electronic pre- by an M.D.”
could be a disaster if they ran out of meds. Are we ly. As you can see, being a pharmacist involves being drug interactions. The advanced scribing cut mistakes by 55%.
in-stock in the right levels on the most popular a little bit of everything—part psychologist, part computer systems implemented at As you can see, technology is rapidly
and the most hard-to-find medications? It’s also medic, part businessman, part scientist. One thing is retail today also confirm that • CENTRAL FILL: With the growth expanding the career options avail-
time to touch base with the pharmacy manager certain—I am never bored, and I couldn’t be happier patients have up-to-date insurance. of mail-order and Internet pharmacy able in the pharmaceutical field. New
coming in for the next shift, to make sure we’re on that I chose to make a career in pharmacy part of This saves millions of dollars and has come the need to fill each bottle systems are tools that make working
the same page in terms of store operations and any my life. It’s nice to do something that I enjoy for a hours of time. New information, of pills at warp speed. Today, there in a pharmacy more effective—and
pressing patient needs. living that helps people in the process. such as product recalls, pricing are machines capable of quickly exciting—than ever.
22 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 Careers in Pharmacy • 2003 23