The Golden Age of Dutch Art The Netherlands in the 17th Century

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					The Golden Age of Dutch Art:
   The Netherlands in the
        17th Century

       William Chenoweth
     AP European History P. 4
• Using two Dutch paintings and your historical
  knowledge of the period, discuss how the
  paintings reflect the economy and culture of
  the Netherlands in the 17th Century.
• Avercamp’s Winter Landscape With Iceskaters
  and Floris van Schooten’s Kitchen Interior with a
  Woman Scaling a Fish reflect the universal
  economic development and subsequent cultural
  flourishing of the Netherlands in the 17th Century.
   Background of the Netherlands
• The Seven Provinces rebelled against Philip II of Spain
   – Led to Eighty Years’ War
      • England Distracted Spain
• The Provinces united under the Union of Utrecht 1581
• Queen Elizabeth (Protestant) helped out
   – Feared invasion by Spain through the Low Countries
   – Wished to stabilize England’s wool trade-based economy
• Dutch Independence from Spain
   – Peace of Westphalia 1648
      • Ended Thirty Years’ War
• Dutch ideas and attitude shaped a modern
• United Provinces modeled the development
  of the modern constitutional state
• Self governing provinces
  – Made own laws and taxes
• State government dominated Federal
  – Considered a Republic Confederation
  – Weak union of strong provinces
• Corruption in the Catholic Church
   – > Protestantism
• Calvinism appealed to Middle Class through
   – Intellectual seriousness and labor emphasis
   – Financiers and Merchants
• The Spanish Inquisition under Philip II
   – Forced Calvinists and Protestants to leave or convert
• The Netherlands became a haven for Jews, Protestants,
  and French Hugenots
   – Increase in immigration and population
   – Banking helped economic growth  Cheap Credit Center
• Fishing industry fostered the Dutch economy and initiated other related industries
– Vineyards, grain, wheat, rye, diamonds, linens, etc…
– Holland was the Costco of Europe
• Dutch East India Company of 1602
– Cut into Portuguese trade in East Asia
• Dutch West India Company of 1621
– Traded with Latin America and Africa
• Canal networks made the Holland accessible
– Also sources of energy: windmills, water wheels
• Antwerp became the chief intermediary of world commerce and finance
– The Bourse (bazaars)
• Exploited East Asia and Latin America through trade
– Silk and spice imports to Europe
• Salaries were relatively high for all workers
• All social classes ate well
  – Amsterdam and Rotterdam’s mass granaries led to
     • Surpluses, low prices, and safety nets for bad harvests
  – Low bread prices allowed for more variety
     • Fish, cheese, butter, vegetables, meat, etc…
• The Middle Class Flourished
  – Less monarchial power due to republican gov.
  – More time for leisure
• Wealthy urban upper class collected art as
  symbols of power
• Became major subjects of trade because they
  were less bulky and easier to handle
• Art was not as technical as Renaissance Art
  – flaws of perspective from compilation in studios
  – Primary goal was to relay the ideas:
     • Fun on the ice = slippery slope of human condition
     • Woman in the kitchen = abundance of food
Hendrick Avercamp
Floris van Schooten
• War of the Spanish Succession
  – Prince William of Orange used English wealth in Dutch
    fight against Louis XIV
  – Drained Dutch labor, economy, and resources
  – The Peace of 1713 ended the war,
    but began Dutch decline
• Artists like Rembrandt changed course
  – Suffered financial and personal losses
  – Took a more psychological, spiritual approach
     • (back to the basics)
               Works Cited

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